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not subjected to the will of an individual as in many of the surrounding\l states, not restricted 12 like that of Venice 13 to 14 a particular class, was a constant incitement 15 to exertion. Nor 16 was it on the great body 17 of the people only that the good effects of this system 18 were apparent19; even those who claimed 20 the privileges 21 of ancestry22 felt the advantages of a rivalship 23, which prevented their sinking 24 into indolence25, and called upon 26 them to support by their own talents the rank and influence which they had derived 27 from 28 those of their ancestors.29 Where the business 30 of government is confined 31 to a few, the faculties 32 of the many 33 become torpid 34 for35 want of 36 exercise ; but in Florence, every citizen was conversant with 37, and might hope, at least, to partake in 38 the government: and hence was derived 39 that spirit of industry which, in the pursuit 40 of 4l wealth, and the extension 42 of commerce 43, was, amidst all their intestine broils 44, so conspicuous 45 and so successful.46 The fatigues 47 of public life, and the

of mercantile 49 avocations 50, were alleviated 51 at time 52 by the study of literature or the speculations 53 of 54 philosophy. A rational 55 and dignified 56 employment engaged 57 those moments of leisure 58 not

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umgrånzend. 124
12 beschrånken. 13 Venedig.

15 Sporn, m. auch nicht, and leave out was it and that, and put were between aud) and nicht. 17 Masse, f. 18 Staatssystem, n. 9 sidjtbar. 20 Unspruch machen auf. 21 Vorrecht. 22 Uhnenreihe, f., with Indef. Art.

23 Wetteifer, m. 24 versinken. 25 Trägheit. 26 auffordern. 27 gewinnen. 28 durch. 29 Voråltern. 30 Geschäft, n., take pl. 31 eins Thrånken auf. 32 Fähigkeit.

say, the great multitude Menge. 34 verdumpfen to become torpid. aus. an. say, had knowledge of the government (Regierungswesen), and might – to partake (I heil nehmen) in it. 39 kommen. 40 Streben.

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41 nach. 42 Uusbreitung. 43 Handel, m.

44 innere Zwistigkeiten. 45 in die Augen springend. 46 erfolgreich. 47 Beschwerde. 48 Mühseligkeit. 49 kaufmånnisch. 50 Gefdåft 51 mildern. 52 zu Zeiten. 53 Versenkung, sing.

55 vernünfiig. 56 würdevoll. 57 ausfüllen. 58 Muße, f.

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necessarily devoted to more important concerns, and the mind was relaxed 60 without being debilitated 61, and amused 62 without being depraved.63 The superiority which the Florentines thus acquired, was universally acknowledged; and they became the historians, the poets, the orators, and the preceptors of Europe. ---Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici.

XXIX. ON DR. Johnson's Lives' OF THE Poets.

The life of Pope? by Dr. Johnson has been considered as one of the best of that series 4 which, unfortunately for the

memory of our national poets and the character of our national poetry, he was induced' to undertake. Throughout the whole of those lives there appears an assumption 10 of superiority 11 in the biographer 12 over the subjects 13 of his labours 14, which diminishes 15 the idea 16 of their talents17, and leaves 18 an unfavourable impression 19 on their moral character. It could only be 20 from 21 the representation 22 of Johnson, that so amiable a Cowper 23 could thus close24 his remarks on 25 reading the lives of the British poets. After all 26, it is a melancholy 27 observation 28, which it is impossible not to make 29, after having run through 30 this series of poetic lives, that where there were such shining talents, there should be so little

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sich erholen. 61 sich abschwächen. unterhalten. verderben.

Leben, which has no plural, and when it is as much as description of life, the plural is taken from lebensbeschreibung. say, Pope's life. 4 Reihe. 5 Volfsdichter. 6 Volkspoesie. 7 bewegen. 6 durch, and put hindurch after the Acc.

say, all these. 10 Anmaßung. "Ueberlegenheit. 12 Lebensbeschreiber. 13 Gegenftand, sing. 14 take the sing. 15 verringern. 16 Begriff. 17 Talent, n. 18 zurücklassen. 19 Mahl, n.

say, come.

durch. 2 Darstellung. 23 add beschließen. say, after he had read. 30 am Ende, and insert doch after it. 27 traurig. 28 Gedanke. 29 say, arrive at. 30 durchlaufen.

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virtue. These luminaries 31 of our country seem to have been kindled 32 into a brighter 33 blaze 34 than others, only that their spots 35 might be more noticed 36; so much can nature do for our intellectual 37 part 38, and so little for our moral.—Roscoe's Life of Pope.

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XXX. STUDY OF ANCIENT LITERATURE IN ITALY.

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The extremel avidity2 for3 the works of the ancient writers which distinguished the early part of the fifteenth century, announced the near approach 6 of more enlightened times. Whatever were the causes that determined men of wealth and learning to exert themselves so strenuously' in this pursuit 10, certain it is that their interference was of the highest importance to the interests 12 of posterity; and that if it had been much longer delayed 13, the loss would have been in a great 14 degree irreparable 15, such of the manuscripts as then existed 16 of the ancient Greek and Roman authors, being mouldered 17 in obscure 18 corners a prey to oblivion and neglect.20 It was therefore a circumstance productive of 21 the happiest consequences 22, that the pursuits23 of the opulent 24 were at this time directed 25 rather towards the recovery 26 of the works of the ancients, than to the encouragement27 of contemporary 28 merit 29; a fact that may serve in some degree 30 to

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31 Sternlicht, n. (pl.—er). 32 entflammen.

34 Gluth, f. 35 Fled, m.

6 say, strike the eye ins Uuge fallen. geistig. and take plural.

" höchst. ? Begierde. 3 nach. ^ auszeichnen. 5 verkündigen. 6 Dåm= merung, lit. dawn. Taufgeklärt. 8 bestimmen. 9 eifrig. 10 Streben. " Dazwisdhenkunft. 12 Wohl, sing. 13 perschieben. 14 hoch. 15 unerseßlich. 16 vorhanden sein. 17 to be mouldered vermodern. 18 finster. 19 Winkel, m.

20 Vernachlåssigung. erzeugend. 2 Folge. 23 Bestrebung. 24 Wohlhabend. 25 richten. 26 Wiedererlangung.

21 Ermunterung. gleichzeitig. 20 Verdienst, n. 30 einiger Maßen.

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account for 31 the dearth 32 of original 33 literary 34 productions 35 during this interval. Induced 36 by the rewards that invariably 37 attended a successful inquiry 38, those men who possessed any considerable share 39 of 40 learning, devoted themselves to this occupation, and to such a degree of enthusiasm 41 was it carried 42, that the discovery of an ancient manuscript was regarded almost equivalent 43 to 44 the conquest of a kingdom.— Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici.

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XXXI. CHARACTER OF THE EARL OF STRAFFORD.

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Thomas Wentworth, successively created? Lord Wentworth and Earl3 of Strafford, a man of great abilities“, eloquence, and courage, but of a cruel and imperious 5 nature, was the counsellor 6 most trusted in political and military affairs. He had been one of the most distinguished members of the opposition", and felt towards those whom he had deserted 10 that peculiar 11 malignity 12 which has, in all ages 13, been characteristic14 of apostates." fectly understood the feelings, the resources, and the policy 16 of the party to which he had lately belonged, and had formed 17 a vast 18 and deeply meditated 19 scheme 20 which very nearly confounded 2d even the able 22 tactics 23 of the statesmen by whom the House of Commons 24 had

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31 erklären. 32 Urmuth, an. 33 freigeschaffen. 34 literarisch. 35 Leistung. 36 bewegen. 37 unwandelbar. 38 Forschung

39 Schag, m. " Begeisterung. 42 treiben. von gleichem Werthe achten. 44 mit.

' hinter einander. ? machen zu. 3 Graf (Gen.—en). Fåhigkeit. s herrschsůchtig. Rathgeber. ? vertrauen auf, and say, in whom they must trusted. Mitglied, n. 9 Gegenpartei, f. 10 abfallen von. Il eigenthůmlich.

12 Groll, m.

say, at all times. 14 bezeichnend für. 15 abtrünniger Mensch. 16 Bestreben. 17 entwerfen. 18 weit umfassend. 19 erdenken. 20 Plan, m. 21 in Veridirrung bringen.

klug. 23 Vers fahren. * Gemein, to be used as a Substantive.

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been directed.25 To this scheme, in his confidential 26 correspondence, he gave the expressive 28 name of " Thorough."29 His object 30 was to do in England all, and more than all, that Richelieu was doing in France ; to make Charles a monarch as absolute 31 as any on the continent32; to put 33 the estates 34 and the personal liberty of the whole people at the disposal 35 of the crown; to deprive the courts of law 36 of all independent 37 authority S8, even in ordinary 39 questions 40 of civil right 41 between man and man, and to punish with merciless 42 rigour 43 all who murmured 44 at the acts 45 of the government, or who applied 46 even in the most decent 47 and regular manner, to any tribunal 48 for 49 relief 50 against those acts.Macaulay's History of England.

XXXII. CHRISTIAN, King OE DENMARK AND SWEDEN,

IN ITALY

In the year 1474, under1 the magistracy of Donato Acciajuoli, a singular visitor? arrived at Florence. This was Christian, king of Denmark and Sweden, who was journeying to Rome, for the purpose 3, it was alleged“, of discharging 5 a vow.6 He is described by the Florentine historians as7 of grave8 aspect9, with a long and white beard, and although considered as a barbarian, they admit10 that the qualities of his mind did not derogate from 11 the

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35 leiten. 30 Ziel, n.

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20 vertraut. 27 Briefwechsel, m. ausdrucksvoll. 9 durch.

unumschrånkt. 32 festes land. 33 stellen. 34 Gut. 35 zur Verfügung. 36 Gerichtshof, m. 37 unabhängig.

38 Gewalt. gewöhnlich. 40 Sache. Privatrecht. 42 42 unbarmherzig.

43 Strenge. murren über.

45 Handlung. 46 sich berufen auf. 47 bescheiden. 48 Gribunal, n. say, in order to obtain relief. 50 Hülfe.

unter der Magistratur. ? Gaft. 3 in der Absicht. 4 porgeben. 5 lösen. Gelübde, n. 7 say, as a man. 8 würdig ernst. • Miene, f. 10 zugeben. "Ubbruch thun, with Dat.

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