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sition, and some of his productions 66 stand unrivalled 67 amongst those of his countrymen to 68 the present day. Yet such 69 has been the admiration paid to by the Italians to a few favourite authors 71, that they have almost closed72 their eyes to 73 the various excellencies with 74 which his works abound.75 From the time of his death no general collection was made of his writings for upwards of76 sixty years, and after their first publication 77 by Aldus in 1554, upwards of 78 two centuries elapsed 79 without a edition.80 Neglected in Italy, they seem to have been unknown to the rest of81 Europe. A French historian 82, Varillas, in whose narrative Lorenzo makes 83 a conspicu

figure85, assures his readers, that the writings of this great man, as well in verse as in prose, are irrevocably 86 lost; and that he would no longer be known as an author, were it not from 87 the commendations 88 bestowed upon 89 him by his friends, and the attention 90 paid 91 to him by Paulus Jovius, who has assigned 92 a place 93 to his memory 94 in his eulogies on 95 the modern writers of Italy.

But we are 96 not to consider Lorenzo de' Medici merely in the character of an author, and a patron 97 of learning. As a statesman, he was without doubt the most extraordinary person 98 of his own or perhaps of any99 time. Though a private citizen 100 and a merchant of Florence, he not only obtained the decided 101 control 102 of that state, at 103 a period 104 when it abounded with 105

men of



75 To

81 übrig.


66 Leistung. 67 unvergleichlich. 68 bis zum heutigen Tage. 69 so groß. 70 zollen. 71 Lieblingsschriftsteller. 72 schließen. 73 vor. reich sein. 76 for upwards of wohl, and put lang after years. VerÖffentlichung. 78 ungefähr. 79 vergehen.

80 Uusgabe. 82 Geschichtschreiber. 83 spielen. 84 bedeutend. 85 Rolle, f. unwiederbringid. say, it be then through.

86 Unpreisung. Gunsten erheben. 20 Aufmerksamkeit. 91 schenken. 92 anweisen. 4 Andenken. 95 Lobrede zu Ehren.

97 Beschůßer. 98 Mann.

irgend ein.

100 Privatmann. 101 entschieden. 03 zu.

an Fülle besigen.



zu seinen


93 Plaß, m.

96 müssen.


102 Leitung.


104 Zeit, f.


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the greatest talents and acuteness 106, but raised himself to the rank 107 of sole arbiter 108 of Italy, and operated 109 with considerable effect 110 upon the politics 111 of Europe. Without attempting to subjugate 112 his native place113, he laid the foundation 114 of the future greatness of his family. His son and his nephew were, at a short interval 115, successively 116 raised to the pontifical 117 dignity 118; and in the succeeding 119 centuries, his descendants 120 became connected 121 by marriage 122 with the first European sovereigns. The protection 123 afforded 124 by him to all the polite 125

gave them a permanent 127 foundation 128 in Italy In the establishment 129 of public libraries, schools, and seminaries of learning 130, he was equally 131 munificent 132, indefatigable 133, and successful 134 ; and these objects 135 were all accomplished 136 by a man who died at 137 the early age of forty-four years.— Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de Medici.

arts 126

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The great4 degree of freedom, enjoyed by the citizens of Florence, had the most favourable effects on their character, and gave them a decided? superiority 8 over the inhabitants of the rest of Italy. The popular nature of the government 10,





123 Schuß,m. 125 dồn.

126 Kunst.

Scharfsinn. Rang, m. Schiedsrichter. 109 wirken. 110 Erfolg. ill Staatsleben. 112 unterjochen.

113 Geburtsort, m.

114 Grundlage. 115 Zwischenraum, m. 6 nach einander. 117 påpftlich

118 Würde. 119 folgend. 120 Nadkomme, m. 121 verbinden. 122

22 Heirath. 124 say, which he afforded angedeihen lassen. 127 dauernd. 28 Stellung. 129 Erridtung.

gelehrte Anstalt. 132 freigebig. 133 unermüdlich.

134 glücklich. 135 Ding, n. zu Stande bringen. 137 in.

"Einfluß. ?auf. 3 Florentiner. 4 hoch. 5 say, which the citizens enjoyed; to enjoy genießen, with Gen. 6 günstig wirken auf. ?ent(dieden. Sueberlegenheit. 'vor. 10 volkemåßige Regierungsweise.



131 gleich.






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not subjected to the will of an individual as in many of the surrounding states, not restricted 12 like that of Venice 13 to 14 a particular class, was a constant incitement 15 to exertion. Nor 16 was it on the great body 17 of the people only that the good effects of this system 18 were apparent19; even those who claimed 20 the privileges21 of ancestry 22 felt the advantages of a rivalship 23, which prevented their sinking 24 into indolence25, and called upon 26 them to support by their own talents the rank and influence which they had derived 27 from 28 those of their ancestors.29 Where the business 30 of government is confined 31 to a few, the faculties 32 of the many 33 become torpid 34 for35 want of 36 exercise ; but in Florence, every citizen was conversant with 37, and might hope, at least, to partake in 38 the government: and hence was derived 39 that spirit of industry which, in the pursuit 40 of 41 wealth, and the extension 42 of commerce 43, was, amidst all their intestine broils 44, so conspicuous 45 and so successful.46 The fatigues 47 of public life, and the cares 48 of mercantile 49 avocations 50, alleviated 51 at time 52 by the study of literature or the speculations 53 of 54 philosophy. A rational 55 and dignified 56 employment engaged 57 those moments of leisure 58 not



14 auf.


umgrånzend. 12 beschrånken.

13 Venedig.

15 Sporn, m. 16 auch nicht, and leave out was it and that, and put were between auch and nicht. 17 Masse, f. 18 Staatssystem, n. 19 sidjtbar. 20 Anspruch machen auf. 21 Vorrecht. 22 Uhnenreihe, f., with Indef. Art. 23 Wetteifer, m. 24 versinken. 25 Trågheit. 26 auffordern. 27 gewinnen. 28 durch. 29 Woråltern. 30 Geschäft, n., take pl. 31 einTchrånken auf.

32 Fåhigkeit.

say, the great multitude Menge. 34 verdumpfen to become torpid. 35 aus. 36 an. 37 say, had knowledge of the government (Regierungswesen), and might - to partake (I heil nehmen) in it.

39 kommen. 40 Streben. 41 nach. 42 Uuss breitung. 43 Handel, m. 44 innere Zwistigkeiten.

45 in die Augen springend. 46 erfolgreich. 47 Beschwerde. 48 Mühseligkeit. 49 kaufmännisch. Geldhaft 51 mildern. 52 ? zu Zeiten. 53 Versenkung, sing. 54 in. 55 vernünfiig. 56 würdevoll. 57 ausfüllen. 58 Muße, f.

38 an.


necessarily devoted to more important concerns, and the mind was relaxed 60 without being debilitated 61, and amused 62 without being depraved.63 The superiority which the Florentines thus acquired, was universally acknowledged; and they became the historians, the poets, the orators, and the preceptors of Europe. ---Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici.

XXIX. ON DR. Johnson's Lives? OF THE Poets.


The life of Pope? by Dr. Johnson has been considered as one of the best of that series 4 which, unfortunately for the memory of our national poets 5 and the character of our national poetry, he was induced to undertake. Throughout the whole of those lives there appears an assumption 10 of superiority 'l in the biographer 12 over the subjects 13 of his labours 14, which diminishes 15 the idea 16 of their talents17, and leaves 18 an unfavourable impression 19 on their moral character. It could only be 20 from 21 the representation 22 of Johnson, that so amiable a man as Cowper23 could thus close 24 his remarks on 25 reading the lives of the British poets. After all 26, it is a melancholy 27 observation 28, which it is impossible not to make 29, after having run through 30 this series of poetic lives, that where there were such shining talents, there should be so little


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3 in.





sich erholen. sich abschwächen. unterhalten. verderben.

" Leben, which has no plural, and when it is as much as description of life, the plural is taken from Lebensbeschreibung. 3 say, Pope's life.

4 Reihe. 5 Volksdichter. 6 Volkspoesie. bewegen. 6 durch, and put hindurch after the Acc.

say, all these. 10 Unmaßung. "Ueberlegenheit. 12 Lebensbeschreiber. Gegenstand, sing. 14 take the sing. 15 verringern. 16 Begriff. 17 Talent, n. 18 zurücklassen. 19 Mahl, n. say, come.

22 Darstellung.

3 add beschließen. say, after he had read. am Ende, and insert doch after it. 27 traurig. 28 Gedanke. 29 say, arrive at. 30 durchlaufen.




21 durch.



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virtue. These luminaries 31 of our country seem to have 5een kinded 2 into a brighter 33 blaze 34 than others, only Elut their spots 35 might be more noticed 36; so much can nature do for our intellectual i part 38, and so little for our moral. - Roscoe's Life of Pope.

IX. STUDY OF ANCIENT LITERATURE IN ITALY. The extremel avidity for the works of the ancient writers which distinguished the early part of the fifteenth century, announced the near approach of more enlightened7 times. Whatever were the causes that determined men of wealth and learning to exert themselves so strenuously, in this pursuit 10, certain it is that their interferencell was of the highest importance to the interests 19 of posterity; and that if it had been much longer delayed 13, the loss would have been in a great It degree irreparable 15, such of the manuscripts as then existed 16 of the ancient Greek and Roman authors, being mouldered 17 in obscure 18 corners 19 a prey to oblivion and neglect.20 It was therefore a circumstance productive of the happiest consequences 43, that the pursuits 23 of the opulent24 were at this time directed 25 rather towards the recovery 26 of the works of the ancients, than to the encouragement27 of contemporary 24 merit 29; a fact that may serve in some degree 30 to

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31 Sternlicht, n. (pl.-er). 32 entflammen. 33 hell. 34 Gluth, f. 35 Fle&, m.

say, strike the eye ins Uuge fallen. 37 geistig. 38 Kraft, and take plural.

höchst. ? Begierde. 3 nact. aus zeichnen. Sperkündigen. Dåmmerung, lit. dawn. ?aufgebiårt. 8 bestimmen. eifrig. 10 Streben. "Dazwischenkunft. 12 Wohl, sing. 13 perschieben. " hoch. 15 unerfeßlich. 16 porhanden sein. 17 to be mouldered vermodern. 18 finfter. 19 Wintel, m. 20 Vernachlässigung. erzeugend. 22 Folge. 23 Bestrebung. 24 Wohlhabend. 25 richien. 2 Biedererlangung. 27 Ermunterung. 2* gleichzeitig. 29 Verdienst, n. 30 einiger Maßen.


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