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of the numerous shades of meaning of which some adjectives are susceptible, according as they are placed before or after the substantive.

APRE follows the noun: un chemin apre, un esprit âpre. But we say, un âpre combat, an obstinate fight.

Bas, speaking of the tone of voice, of diction or style, of a groveling mind, and of mean actions, follows the noun: parler à voix basse ; avoir la vue basse ; un style bas ; un esprit bas ; des actions basses. But it may precede the noun, to express low, lower, or inferior, with a refer. ence to the situation of places, of the birth of persons, or the value of things: basse naissance; à bas prix.

Bon.—Un bon homme, a weak foolish man; un homme bon, a good

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BRAVE.—Un brave homme, a good honest man; un homme brave, a brave man.

CERTAIN.—Une certaine nouvelle, some, or some sort of, news; une nouvelle certaine, an undoubted piece of news.

CHAUD generally follows the noun. We say, however, pleurer à chaudes larmes ; une chaude alarme ; déjà les zephyrs de leurs chaudes haleines, etc. Tomber de fièvre en chaud mal, to jump out of the fryingpan into the fire.

CHER, referring to love or affection, precedes the substantive; but follows when used in reference to price; as, mon cher cousin ; des marchandises chères. Yet we say, cela me vient d'une main, d'une personne, chère (qui m'est, understood). Un cher ami, une chère amie, a sweetheart; un ami cher, une amie chère, a dear friend.

CLAIR follows the noun: however, we say, in poetry, un clair ruisseau, une claire fontaine.

COMMUN follows the noun, except when it means unanimous, mutual; as in, d'un commun accord, d'une commune voix. Une voix commune means an ordinary or indifferent voice.

CONSTANT generally follows the noun: however, it often precedes it, to express unshaken, everlasting, unrelenting; as in, une constante rolonté ; une ferme et constante résolution ; une constante prospérité, etc.

COURT generally follows the noun, unless it points to a short dura. tion of time; as in, la vie est de courte durée ; une courte harangue ; une courte mémoire, etc.

CRUEL, in a figurative sense, is to precede the noun; in a proper sense, it may indifferently come before or after the noun: une femme cruelle, a cruel woman; une cruelle femme, a tiresome woman.

DERNIER, whether meaning utmost, lowest, or last, is placed before its noun, c'est la dernière année que je reste ici ; except when the noun

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is any of the months or days of the week, or when it proves to be muit semaine, mois, année, règne, siècle ; as in, la nuit dernière, mardi der. nier, &c.

DIFFÉRENT, meaning sundry, comes before the substantive. Ex.: différens articles. It comes after, when it denotes a difference of na. ture or sort: des caractères différens.

DOUBLE precedes the noun; as, un double-louis, une double porte ; except in the sense of treacherous, deceitful; as in, un cæur double. We also say, de l'encre double, en raison double, un corps de logis double ; and, in speaking of things done in duplicates, un bail double, &c.

Doux is generally placed before the noun, to express gentle, mild, tranquil, or pleasing, agreeable, delightful, melodious, fragrant, Aattering, obliging: un doux entretien, a pleasing intercourse. Yet we place it after vie, mort, esprit, humeur or naturel, air or temps, pluie, billet, homme, voix, raillerie, style, vue, lime, voiture, and any nouns denoting animals: une vie douce, un caractère doux. We also say, eau douce, fresh water (not brackish); vin doux, new-made wine, &c.

Droit follows the noun, except with ligne, chemin, raison.

Dur follows the noun, to express tough or rough to the touch or taste, firm or hard to break: un bois dur, not smooth, harsh; la tête dure, not learning easily; l'oreille dure, not hearing easily; le cæur dur, insensible, hard-hearted, avaricious, rough in disposition, severe: but in any other figurative sense, dur may precede the noun; as in, c'est une dure cessité.

ENTIER can precede the noun only when we point to moral things, and then it may express full, total, complete, perfect; as in, avoir une entière confiance en Dieu. But we say, un homme entier, a self-willed man; un jour entier.

ÉTROIT precedes the noun only when it comes in figuratively : une étroite alliance, close alliance (union, amitié), &c.; but we say, un chemin étroit, un habit étroit.

Exact generally follows the noun (un homme exact, un compte exact), except in the sense of diligent, accurate; as in, une exacte recherche, &c.

FÂCHEUX follows the noun, to express sad or dismal: un accident fâcheux ; but it precedes it, to express peevish, troublesome (yet we say, un fâcheux personnage), as also to express difficult, painful, rugged : une fâcheuse nouvelle.

Faux generally follows the noun, to denote what is wrong, not just, not well-grounded, not according to nature, innocent: une pensée fausse, un coloris faux, un dessin faux, un effet faux. Observe that we say, une chose fausse, un diamant faux, une pierre fausse ; une guinée fausse, &c.; but we say, une fausse nouvelle, un faux jour.

FERME generally follows the noun: however, when used figuratively,

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to express undaunted, constant, unalterable, &c. it often comes before : we may say, une ferme résolution, or une résolution ferme.

FIER generally follows the noun, to express proud, haughty, noble: however we say, un fier rival. Fier, in the sense of cruel or barbarous, and in that of valiant or fierce, generally precedes the noun : un fier tyran, ses fiers bataillons. Fier also precedes the noun in the sense of violent or enormous : je lui ai donné un fier coup de poing : as likewise in that of arrant:' c'est un fier coquin. This last acceptation is used only in familiar discourse.

FAIBLE generally precedes the noun, to express figuratively, faint, slight, poor, defective, not well supported by argument, not considerable of its kind; but faible may generally follow the noun, to express, in a proper sense, feeble, infirm. We may say, un faible argument, de faibles raisons, &c. but it is safer to place faible after the substantive.

FORT.Une étoffe forte, strong stuff (literal): un vent fort, a high wind; de forts argumens, powerful arguments (figuratively); de fortes sommes, large sums; une forte santé, a strong constitution; un vin fort, strong wine.

Fou precedes the noun, except to express mad, in a proper sense, or hare-brained.

FRAIS generally follows the noun, and is often used, instead of an adverb, before a participle past, which does not prevent it from agreeing with the noun : un vent frais, des herbes fraîches cueillies. However, we say, de fraîche date, de fraîche mémoire, though we say, une date fraiche, &c.

FRANC precedes the noun in the figurative sense of arrant, downright, mere: un franc pédant, une franche coquette. It follows the noun to express free from charges, taxes, &c.: une lettre franche, une ville franche. We say, un homme franc, an honest downright man; un ceur franc, a sincere, candid, loyal heart; deux jours francs, two days complete, two full days.

FROID, used figuratively, may precede the noun; as in, une froide mine : yet we say, de sang froid, unmoved, in cold blood; style froid, an insipid style. Un froid orateur, means an orator who does not move the heart.

FURIEUX.—Un furieux animal, means a huge creature; un animal furieux, a fierce creature; un furieux homme, a man of uncommon size; un homme furieux, a man in a raging passion.

GALANT, in the sense of honest, brave, polite, sociable, is to precede hornme, &c. : when galant refers to gallantry, complaisant to the ladies, done with taste, fit for, pleasing, it is to follow the noun. Hence, there is a great difference between un galant home and un homme galant. Une femme galante, means a woman who has intrigues, &c. Galant, after any noun but homme and femme, means genteel, pleasing, lively, and gallant.

GENTIL, meaning brisk, lively, entertaining, follows the noun: Un enfant gentil. In the sense of pretty, agreeable, amiable, fine, delicate, gracious, pleasing, it generally precedes the noun ; as, un gentil enfant.

GLORIEUX, in the sense of vain, self-conceited, follows the noun : in the sense of glorious, noble, it may either precede or follow the noun. Un homme glorieux, a self-conceited man; les glorieux travaux, glorious works.

GRAND.-Un grand homme, a great man; un homme grand,a tall man.

Gras generally follows the noun. When used figuratively, it may precede it in the plural: de gras pâturages, rich pastures; dormir la grasse matinée, to sleep late.

Gros precedes the noun, except to express pregnant: une grosse femme, a stout woman; une femme grosse, a pregnant woman.

Haut generally precedes the noun, except in, la chambre haute, the upper room, or the House of Peers; une messe haute, c'est un homme haut, &c.

HEUREUX, in speaking of condition, life, &c. and to express happy, content, generally follows the noun: être dans un état heureust; mener une vie heureuse. In all other circumstances it may either precede or follow the noun, provided it is not homme, femme, or gens : une heureuse rencontre, a lucky meeting.

HONNÊTE.—When honnête is used to express decent, polite, genteel, suitable to one's condition or birth, it generally follows the noun : when it means virtuous, honest, irreproachable, it generally precedes the noun. Un honnête homme, an honest man; un homme honnête, a well-bred


HUMBLE generally precedes the noun: mon humble prière. However we say, un homme humble, une femme humble, les âmes humbles, votre serviteur très-humble.

JOYEUX generally follows the noun: yet we say, mener une joyeuse vie, une joyeuse nouvelle, le joyeux événement.

JUSTE generally follows the noun, except when the noun denotes punishment or reward, and in the following expressions : la juste mesure, la juste proportion ; un juste poids, la juste grosseur, un juste tireur, un juste arquebusier, or the like; à juste prix ; juste ciel ! juste Dieu !

LÂCHE, meaning slack, loose, faint, weak, languishing, sluggish, is to follow the noun; but in the figurative sense of unworthy, mean, base, shameful, it may come before or after the noun; and in the sense of cowardly, dastardly, it generally precedes the noun: une corde lâche, un ouvrier láche, un style lâche.

LARGE follows the noun; except in, une large épée, a sword with a wide blade.

LÉGER indifferently precedes or follows the noun, when used figura


tively, to express slight, trifling, superficial; but it generally follows the noun to express light, free, easy, inconstant, or easy to be endured (in speaking of yoke or pain).

LIBRE.—We say, libre arbitre,' free will; avoir un libre accès auprès de quelqu'un, donner un libre cours à, &c.; but, in all other cases, libre generally follows the noun: une nation libre. It may also be in the sense of loose, impudent, imprudent, indiscreet: des discours libres.

LONG generally precedes the noun, to express lasting, not soon ceasing, or to imply duration of time, and even to express tediousness; but when it merely denotes the length of a thing, and is opposed to wide, it should follow the noun: un long discours, une table longue.

LOURD generally precedes the noun, to express (figuratively) difficult, hard, great; as, une lourde besogne, une lourde faute. It generally follows the noun in its literal sense, and when meaning not nimble, slow, dull, stupid; as, un objet lourd, un esprit lourd.

MAIGRE, to express lean or not fat, generally follows the noun; but it precedes it to express (figuratively) unpleasant, poor, scanty, pitiful: Un repas maigre means an entertainment at which no meat is to be eaten; and, un maigre repas, a poor, pitiful, scanty entertainment.

MÂLE, manly, powerful, seldom precedes the noun, des vertus mâles, except in poetry.

MALHEUREUX generally precedes the noun, to denote its being inad. equate; as in, un malheureux écrivain, a pitiful writer; il est réduit à une malheureuse chambre; il n'a qu'un malheureux valet, he has but one footman. Malheureux rather follows than precedes the noun, to express unhappy, unfortunate, wretched : un homme malheureux, an unhappy man; une famille malheureuse, an unfortunate family.

MAL-HONNÊTE.-Un mal-honnête homme means a dishonest man; and un homme mal-honnête,

Malin generally follows the noun: however, we say, une maligne joie, une maligne influence.

MÊME is used between the article and the noun to express the same;'

le même homme, the same man: after the noun to signify the very;' as, l'homme même, the very man: before the article and the noun to express 'even;' as, et même l'homme, and even the man.

MENU, used figuratively, to express trifling, small, lower, may generally precede the noun: le menu peuple, de la menue monnoie, de l'argent pour des menius plaisirs, pocket or pin money; but menu, in its proper sense of small or slender, generally follows the noun: des jambes menues.

MERVEILLEUX indifferently precedes or follows the noun: however, vous êtes un merveilleux homme may be said ironically, to express you are a strange man :' as to, vous êtes un homme merveilleux, it means 'you are a wonderful man,



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