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accept its. Perhaps he uses her because amongst the Latins words for lands and countries were feminine. Hell is, however, fem. in Anglo-Saxon.
10. 140. Comp. Homer's Iliad, v. 61; Virgils Æneid, viii. 245; Ovid's Met. q. 560 ; Pope's Rape of the Lock, cant. v.
142. See the Story of Astræa..
143. Orb’d in a rainbow, i.e. of course semi-orbed. See Paradise Lost, vii. 247; Rev. X. I. This is the reading of the 1673 edition. That of 1645 reads :
“The enamelled arras of the rainbow wearing." 144. set. So Coriolanus, I. ü. 27:
“ If they set down before us, for the remove
Bring up your army.”
146. (What does stearing mean here ?]
148. her. The Anglo-Saxon heofon is feminine.
153. redeem our loss = recover what we have lost, as in Ruth iv. 6; or perhaps, less well, = ransom us lost ones. Comp. “their sight " above. Redeem has a personal object in Paradise Lost, iii. 281, &c. ; in iii. 214, it means “ to pay the penalty of.”
155. ychain'd. So yclept in L'Allegro. So in Chaucer-yblessed, ybete, yburied, ybrent, ycoupled, yfalle, yfonden, ygeten, yglewed, yhalved, yheered (= haired), yshove, ysette, &c. &c. ; in Spenser-yclad, yfraught, ybore, ymolt, &c. This y is a corruption of the part. ge, which still survives in German. Another form of this corruption is i, as in ifallen, ihorsed (Roman of Partenay), iarmed, ibene (= been), icorve (= carved), idight (= prepared), ifed, imaked (William of Palerne, ed. Skeat), &c. &c. Another, according to some scholars, is a, as in ago, (Spenser has the forms ygo, ygoe); but the prefix in that word is perhaps a corruption of of. In the very oldest stages of our language the prefix ge was not confined to the part.; e.g. in William of Palerne yknowe occurs as an inf. “yshnlled” in Spenser's Colin Clouť's come Home again, 62, is the pret. But latterly it was so confined. Milton therefore shows an imperfect knowledge of the older language when he writes y-pointing in his Epitaph on Shakspere. 156. wakefull. Here active. See 1 Thess. iv. 16.
thunder. See Max Müller's Lectures on the Science of Language, First Series. Allowing all that is said there, the root ton may be itself onomatopoeic.
158. See Exod. xix. et seq.
Agast. So Will. of Pal. (re-ed. Skeat), 1777–8:
“And he hem told tightly whiche tvo white beres
Hadde gon in the gardyn and him agast maked."
In the Faerie Queene the word occurs as a preterite:
“ He met a dwarf that seemed terrifyde
With some late perill which he hardly past,
Or other accident which him agast.” The participial form agasted is found. The main part of the word is the Anglo-Saxon gast; comp. German Geist, Old English gost, as in Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, 521, 520, 500 (ed.
Skeat). There occur the forms agased and agazed, evidently the results of a false derivation. (See Wedgwood.) See i Henry VI. I. i. 126, and Chester Plays (apud Halliwell) :
“The [= they) were so sore agased.” And Bishop Percy's Folio MS. iii. 154 (ed. Hales and Furnivall):
“ Whereatt this dreadfull conquerour Theratt was sore agazed."
An adjective gastful occurs in the Shep. Cal., and elsewhere.
11. 161. terrour. This spelling is better than our modern way, as more significant of the channel through which the word came to us. So honour below. 162, the center. So Com. 382. Hamlet, II. ii. 159:
“ If circumstances lead me I will find
Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed
Within the centre." So Troilus and Cressida, III. ii. 186.
In “the surface” and “the centre ” the necessity of using either “his" or "its" is avoided. Comp. Fardle of Facions, 1555 : “A certaine sede which groweth there of the owne accorde.” (Apud Marsh.)
163. session. Though in appearance so different, “assize" and "session"are etymologically connected. Comp. royal, regal ; French, serment, sacrement; acheter, accepter; naïf, native; chose, cause; etroit, strict, &c. &c. We have also the word “sitting" in a cognate sense with session.
164. spread his throne. If we compare the Latin, lectum sternere, then the original notion would be the same as in our phrase "to spread a table ;" that is, it would be to deck the throne with fit coverings : hence, to prepare, to set his thronę. We may compare Faerie Queene, I. xii. 13:
“And all the floore was underneath their feet
Bespredd with costly scarlott of great name,
Comp. “his (Chaos'] dark pavilion spread” (Paradise Lost, ii. 960).
168. Th' old Dragon. See Rev. xii. 9.
not half so far. A very common phrase in Shakspere. It has now become vulgar, so that a modern writer would hardly use it in a grave passage. Comp. “nor nothing near," in Spenser's Prothal.; “something like,': Il Penseroso, 173.
171. wroth. Wrath in 1645 Ed. The form“ wroth" is the substantive in Shakspere's Merchant of Venice, II. ix. 78:
“ I'keep my oath
Patiently to bear my wroth.” 172. Swindges = swings about, agitates violently. Comp. Faerie Queene, I. xi. 23:
“ His hideous tayle then hurled he about." Comp. also 1b. 26:
“The scorching flame sore swinged all his face.” i Our verb swing is cognate with the German schwingen, &c. Swinge in the sense of to beat,
to strike (" an act that is done with a swinging movement"-Wedgwood), occurs frequently in Old English (as in Measure for Measure, V. i. 130), and still survives in the North English
dialects. It is associated by Cotgrave with “beat, lamme, bethwacke.” See Havelok (re-ed. Skeat), and the Mariage of Witt and Wisdome, 1579 (apud Halliwell) :
“O the passion of God! so I shalbe swinged;
So my bones shalbe bang'd!
Come away and be hang'd."
11. 172. horrour. So “sorrow” in Lycid. 166; and “vires” and “potentia,” Virg. Æn. i. 664.
foulded = consisting of folds, spiral. So mirrored in Adonais. 173. Comp. Paradise Regained, i. 454-64. That the oracles ceased at and from the birth of Christ was a very general belief; but it was baseless. “Tacitus, Philostratus, Lucian, Strabo, Juvenal, Suetonius, Martial, Statius, Pliny the Younger, &c. &c., have incidentally mentioned oracular responses as existing in their own days.” “Macrobius, in the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius, speaks of the 'Sortes Antiana' in words which distinctly prove that they were consulted as oracles in his time.” (See Occult Sciences, a volume of the Encycl. Metrop.).
174. See the scene described in the beginning of the sixth book of the Æneid.
φελλοί δ' ώς άγουσι δίκτυον,
τον εκ βυθού κλωστήρα σώζοντες λίνου. Theoc. vi. 18: kai tov úto youuuās kevei didov. So, as Paley notes, the Greeks said, “ The men out of the city fled,” meaning, “ The men who were in the city fled out of it." See Jelf's Greek Gr. $ 647.
178. hollow shreik, i.e. unsubstantial, unreal, ghost-like, evanescent shriek ; the shriek of one who is so. Comp.“ hollow fiend,” Twelfth Night, III. iv, 101 ; “He will look as hollow as a ghost,” King John, III. iv. 84 ; and the phrase "hollow laugh." Or the word may refer to “the dull sound of hollow things ” (Wedgwood). Kilian, in his Etymol. Teut. Ling. glosses holle stemme as“ vox fusca, non clara,”-a husky (as we should say), not clear voice. Comp. “his hollow whistling in the leaves ” of “the southern wind,” i Henry IV. V. i. 5. The former sense seems preferable.
Delphos. Milton prefers this form to the more usual Delphi. See Paradise Regained, i. 458. Shakspere, too, uses Delphos. (See Winter's Tale.) It was the mediæval form.
steep of Delphos. Comp. “Delphian cliff," Paradise Lost, i. 517. Gray has adopted this phrase, as so many others of Milton's. See his Progress of Poesy, l. 66. Delphi Jay at the foot of the southern uplands of Parnassus, which end "in a precipitous cliff, 2,000 feet high, rising to a double peak, named the Phædriades, from their 'glittering' appearance as they faced the rays of the sun." (See Smith's Ancient Geography.)
“ The oracle was consulted by Julian, but was finally suppressed by Theodosius." (Dr. Smith's Dict. Geog.)
179. nightly = nocturnal. Comp. Il Penseroso, 84; Arcad. 48, &c. So generally in Shakspere. In modern English the word generally means “night by night,” as in Cowper's Lines on the Receipt of my Mother's Picture, &c. 180. pale-ey'd. Comp. Romeo and Juliet, III. v. 19, 20 :
“ I'll say yon grey is not the morning's eye,
'Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthia's brow." Shakspere uses "pale-faced," " pale-visaged.” Or, better, eye may be used in its precise sense. Comp. Henry V. IV. ii. 47, where Grandpré, in his description of the English "jades,“ speaks of
“ The gum down-roping from their pale-dead eyes."
11. 180. (How would you explain the from?]
See Spenser's Shep Cal. for May, note, where a quotation is made from Lavaterus' treatise, de Lemuribus, then newly translated into English (Warton). Lavaterus derived the story there quoted from him from Plutarch's "booke of the ceasing of Oracles.”
183. For the language comp. Matt. ii. 18.
186. parting. Comp. “part ng day” and “parting soul” in. Gray's Elegy. In Old English, part occurs very commonly in the sense of our depart.
Genius. See Il Penseroso, 154.
sent = dismissed. 187. flowre-inwov'n tresses torn. This is a favourite arrangement of words with Milton. See " beckoning shadows dire,” “every alley green, "-" thick and gloomy shadows damp,” &c. &c. 188. twilight. Comp. "twilight groves ” (Il Penseroso, 133).
the nimphs. See Il Penseroso, 137-8.
189. The words in consecrated earth refer to the Lemures; on the holy hearth, 'to the Lars.
consecrated = made “sacer." See Horace's Sat. I viï. 13; Orelli quotes in his note the inscription “ Dis Manibus locus consecratus,” &c.
191. Lemures frequently denotes spectres, goblins ; but in Ovid-who, as has been already said, was a favourite writer with Milton--it is used. convertibly with Manes. See Class. Dict.
192. (How would you parse round here ?]
194. quaint = nice, exact, &c. Much Ado about Nothing, III. iv. 22: “But for a fine, quaint, graceful, and excellent fashion, yours is worth ten on't."
195. See Virg. Georg. i. 480.
196. forgoes. The "for" here = the “for" of forbear, forbid, forget, forgive, forsake, forswear. Comp. German ver.
Comp. Virg. Æneid, ii. 351. 197. With the catalogue of deities which here follows comp. Paradise Lost, i. 376–521.
Peor. See Numb. xxv. 18, xxxi. 16; Josh. xxii. 17. It was one of the titles of Baal, “the supreme male divinity of the Phænician and Canaanitish nations, as Ashtoreth was their supreme female divinity” (see Smith's Smaller Bibl. Dict.)that is, it expressed one of the modifications of Baal's deity. Comp. Baal-berith (Judges viii. 33), Baal-zebub (2 Kings i. 2). But in Paradise Lost, i. 412, Peor is said to be the “other name " of Chemos.
Baälim. That is, Baal in all his various modifications. See preceding note. Comp. the various titles that were given to Jupiter by the Latins, to Zeus by the Greeks.
198. temples dim. He uses “ dim” here in a less favourable sense than in Il Penseroso, 160. See Paradise Lost, i. 457-66, and Samson Agonistes, passim.
199. Dagon was the national god of the Philistines. See Dictionary of the Bible; a'so i Sam. v.
200. Mooned Ashtaroth. See Dictionary of the Bible. It would seem more correct to identify this goddess with the planet Venus rather than the Moon. She was the Assyrian Ishtar, Greek and Roman Astarte. Certainly her worship was eventually identified with that of Venus.
201. both. Comp. the position of this word in Twelfth Night, V. i. 256 :
“If nothing lets to make us happy both,
But this my masculine-usurp'd attire,” &c.
Selden says she was called "regina cæli," and "mater deum” (De Diis Syriis). 203. Hammon. See Class. Dict. s. v. Ammon. He was "originally an Æthiopian or Lybian, afterwards an Egyptian, deity." His primitive function seems to have been to protect the flocks. He was variously represented as a ram, as a man with a ram's head, as a man with a ram's horns. The great seats of his worship were Meroë, Thebes, Ammonium. 12. 203. shrinks. See Lycid. 133.
204. Thamuz = Tarnmuz; properly “the Tammuz." See Ezek. viii. 14; Paradise Lost, i. 446-57. Tammuz has been identified with Adonis : “The worship of Adonis, which in later times was spread over nearly all the countries round the Mediterranean, was, as the story itself sufficiently indicates, of Asiatic or, more especially, of Phænician origin. Thence it was transferred to Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and even to Italy, though of course with various modifications.” See Class. Dict. The death of Adonis, and Aphrodite's grief over it, are frequently mentioned by the poets, both ancient and modern. Bion wrote a dirge on the subject. Ovid tells the story in the tenth book of his Metam. &c. &c. Shelley, weeping over the untimely fate of a young poet, killed, as he believed, by the stroke of a ruffian writer, thought of Adonis, and called his in memoriam poem Adonais. See Introd. to Adonais.
Tyrian maids. In Paradise Lost, 1.c. “Syrian damsels.” 205. Moloch = Molech. See Bible Dict. Moloch is represented as flying from his worshippers in the very midst of one of the services in his honour. “In Sandys' Travels, p. 186, ed. 1615, fol. a popular book in Milton's time, is a description of the sacrifices and image of Moloch, exactly corresponding with this passage and Paradise Lost, i. 392-6.” (Warton.) 206. In shadows dred. Comp. Paradise Lost, i. 403-5:
“ And made his grove
207. “According to Jewish tradition, the image of Molech was of brass, hollow within, and was situated without Jerusalem.”
burning is here what would be in Greek a present participle passive--so in such phrases as “the house is burning,” “ I saw it burning.” Etymologically, the word is not a participle at all, though it looks like an imperfect participle. It is, in fact, an old verbal substantive, the preposition which once governed it having dropped out. In our older English writers, as still in the various dialects of the country, this preposition is frequently found. See 1 Pet. iii. 20, “while the ark was a preparing,” &c. &c. This a is a corruption of on. See Chaucer :
* On hontyng be they riden.”
(Comp. alive = on live, &c.) For the -ing, a very common A. S. substantival termination was -ung or-ing, as huntung, wonung, halgung, leorning, bærning, &c. &c. The -ung was subsequently corrupted into -ing. The-ing is often added to words that are themselves of NormanFrench or Latin origin ; e.g. preparing, &c. The identity of termination with that of our imperfect participle (itself a corruption from -ande or -ende), added to the loss of the preposition, and consequent danger of confusion, has led to the introduction of a cumbrous phrase, consisting of being” followed by the perfect participle, as “the house was being built.” But in many writers, and in many particular usages, the old form of expression still lingers.
all may be parsed as an adverb qualifying the adjectival phrase of blackest hu. See Prothal. 613.
208. Comp. Paradise Lost, i. 394.
209. grisly is cognate with the German grässlich = frightful. The word is used by Chaucer, often by Spenser, &c. See Paradise Lost, i. 670 ; ii. 704 : "the grisly terrour,” where either the original force of the word is unknown or forgotten, or the phrase is tautological. In iv. 821, occurs again “the grisly King.”
211. brutish here of form and shape rather than, or as well as, of kind and nature.