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and Indra* repeatedly attempted to console and silence it, but in vain. On which the god, being incensed, again divided each of the seven portions into seven, and thus formed the swift-moving deities called Maruts (winds). They derived this appellation from the words with which Indra † had addressed them (má rodih, “weep not'); and they became forty-nine subordinate divinities, the associates of the wielder of the thunderbolt. 1:

| This legend occurs in all those Puráňas in which the account of Kaśyapa's family is related.

* Śakra, in the Sanskrit.
† The original has Maghavat.

Since the publication of his Vishnu-puráňa, Professor Wilson has dwelt at length on the Maruts, repeating, besides, from Hindu authorities, the various etymologies of the word that have been proposed.

“The text of the Veda, in one remarkable passage in the first book, recognizes a difference of degree in the relative dignity of the gods, and even in their age; enunciating veneration to the great gods, to the lesser, to the young, and to the old. Among the lesser gods, an important share of adoration is enjoyed by a group avowedly subordinate to Indra,-involving an obvious allegory,—the Maruts, or Winds, who are naturally associated with the firmament. We have, indeed, a god of the wind, in Váyu; but little is said of him, and that chiefly in association with Indra, with whom he is identified by scholiasts on the Veda. The Maruts, on the contrary, are frequently addressed as the attendants and allies of Indra, confederated with him in the battle with Vřitra, and aiding and encouraging his exertions. They are called the sons of Přiśni, or the earth, and also Rudras, or sons of Rudra: the meaning of which affiliations is not very clear, although, no doubt, it is allegorical. They are also associated, on some occasions, with Agni; an obvious metaphor, expressing the action of wind upon fire. It is also intimated that they were, originally, mortal, and became immortal in consequence of worshipping Agni, which is also easy of explanation. Their share in the production of rain, and their fierce and impetuous nature, are figurative representations of physical phenomena. The scholiast endeavours to connect the history of their origin with that narrated in the Puranas, but without success; and the latter, absurd as it is, seems to have no better foundation than one proposed etymology of the name, -'Do not () weep (rodik)', - which is merely fanciful, although it is not much worse than other explanations of the name which commentators have suggested.” Translation of the Rig-veda, Vol. I., Introduction, pp. XXXII and XXXIII.

“The scholiast here proposes various etymologies of the name Marut, some of which are borrowed from Yaska, Nir., 11, 13. They sound (ruvanti, from ru), having attained mid-heaven (mitam); or, They sound without measure (amitam); or, They shine (from ruch) in the clouds made (mitam) by themselves; or, They hasten (dravanti) in the sky. All the minor divinities that people the mid-air are said, in the Vedas, to be styled Maruts, as in the text: 'All females whose station is the middle heaven, the all-pervading masculine Váyu, and all the troops (of demigods), are Maruts'. Sáyana also cites the Pauráńik tradition of the birth of the forty-nine Maruts, in seven troops, as the sons of Kaśyapa.” Ibid., Vol. I., p. 225, note.

“The paternity of Rudra, with respect to the Maruts, is thus accounted for by the scholiast: “After their birth from Diti, under the circumstances told in the Puranas, they were beheld in deep affliction by Siva and Párvati, as they were passing sportively along. The latter said to the former: If you love me, transform these lumps of flesh into boys. Mahesa accordingly made them boys of like form, like age, and similarly accoutred, and gave them to Párvati, as her sons; whence they are called the sons of Rudra.' The Niti-manjari adds other legends; one, that Párvati, hearing the lamentations of Diti, entreated Śiva to give the shapeless births forms; telling them not to weep (rodik): another, that he actually begot them, in the form of a bull, on Prithivi, the earth, as a cow. . These stories are, evidently, fictions of a much later era than that of the Vedas; being borrowed, if not fabricated, from the Tantras, and may be set aside, without hesitation, as utterly failing to explain the meaning of those passagas in the Vedas which call the Maruts the sons of Rudra.” Ibid., Vol. I., p. 302, fourth note.

“According to another text, there are seven troops of the Maruts, each consisting of seven, making up the usual number of forty-nine; suggesting, most probably, rather than suggested by, the absurd legend given in the Puráńas.” Ibid., Vol. III., p. 328, second note.

According 48 of Rudra....ose passagas hesitation, sabricated,

Note referred to at p. 75, supra. The following account of the Apsarases is taken from Goldstücker's Sanskrit Dictionary, pp. 222 and 223:

“The Sáma-veda makes no mention of them; the Rig-veda names, as such, Urvasi, (the Anukram. of the Rig-v., two Apsarasas Šikhandini, as authoresses of a hymn); in the Vájasan.-s. of the Yajur-veda there occur five pairs of Apsarases,- Punjikasthala and Kratusthala, Menaká and Sahajanyá, Pramlochantí and Anumlochanti, Viśwáchi and Ghritachi, Urvasi and Púrvachitti; in the Satapatha-br., Sakuntala and Urvasi; in the Atharva-veda, Ugrampaśya, Ugrajit, and Ráshtrabhřit. In the Adiparvan of the Mahábhárata , several of these divinities are enumerated under two heads, the first comprising Anúcháná (v. l. Anúná, another Ms., Anriñá), Anavadya, Gunamukhyá (v. l. Priyamukhya), Guńávará (v. l. Gańávara), Adriká (v. l. Attika), Somá (v. l. Sáchi), Miśrakesi, Alambusha, Marichi, Suchiká (v. I. Ishuká), Vidyutparńá, Tilottamá (v. l. Tula and Anagha), Ambika, Lakshańá, Kshemá, Deví, Rambhá, Manorama [v. I. Manobará: or devi “divine' and manoramá (or manohará) 'beautiful' are, perhaps, epithets of Rambhá], Asitá, Subáhú, Supriya, Vapus (v. l. Suvapus), Puńdaríká, Sugandha, Surasa (v. I. Surathá), Pramáthini, Kámya, and Sáradwati; the second comprising the following eleven: Menaká, Sahajanya, Karniká (v. I. Parắini), Punjikasthala, Ritusthala (v. I. Kratusthala), Ghřitáchi, Viśwáchi, Púrvachitti (v. I. Viprachitti), Umlochá, Pramlochá (v. I. Pramlá), and Urvasi. (Hemachandra mentions two Apsarases, Saudamini and Chitra. Other names, too, will occur in the following,)


“As regards their origin, the Rámáyana makes them arise from the Ocean, when it was churned, by the gods, for obtaining the Amrita; Manu represents them as one of the creations of the seven Manus, themselves created by the seven Prajapatis, Marichi, Atri, &c.; in the later mythology, they are daughters of Kaśyapa by Muni (e. g., according to the Vishnu and Bhágav.-pur.), or by Vách (according to the Padma-p.), or some by Muni, some by Prádhá; while a third class is created by the mere will of Kaśyapa. Thus, according to the Harivaṁsa, the daughters of K. and Prádhá are Anavadya, Anúká, Anúná (v. I. Aruńá), Arunapriya, Anugá, Subhaga, (two names seem omitted); of K. and Muni, Alambusha, Miśrakeši, Puńdaríká, Tilottamá, Surúpá, Lakshmańá, Kshemá, Rambhá, Manorama (or “the beautiful Rambhá'), Asitá, Subáhú, Suvritta, Sumukhi, Supriya, Sugandhá, Surasa (v. l. Surama), Pramáthini, Kámya (v.l. Káśya), and Śáradwati. Those created by the will of the Prajapati, and called the Vaidik Apsarases, are Menaká, Sahajanya, Paríini (v. I. Paróiká), Punjikasthalá, Ghíitasthala, Ghřitáchi, Viśwáchí, Urvasi, Anumlochá, Pramlocha, and Manovati. The two śikhańdinis of the Anukr. of the Rig-v. are also daughters of K.). Another and more elaborate list is that of the Váyu-puráňa. [It is omitted in two E. I. H. MSS. of this P., and very incorrect in four other MSS. that I consulted, belonging, severally, to the E. I. H., the R. A. S., and the R. S. In some instances, as Miś rakeśí instead of Mitrakeši, Punjikasthala for Punjakastana, Kratusthalá for Vritastaná, &c., the correction appeared safe; in others, it was preferable to give the doubtful reading.) This Puráňa mentions, in the first place, thirty-four Apsarases, called the Gandharva-Apsarases, or wives of the Gandharvas, and daughters of Kaśyapa by Muni (but the MSS. in question give only twenty-nine, or, if Devi and Manorama are proper names, thirty-one, names): Antachárá, Daśavadya (?), Priyaśishya, Surottama, Miśrakesi, Sachi, Pińäiní (v. l. Parắini), Alambushá, Márichi, Suchika, Vidyudwarńá, Tilottamá, Adrika, Lakshaná (?), Devi, Rambha, Manorama (or, the divine, beautiful Rambha), Suchará, Subáhú, Súrnitá (?, Súníita?), Supratishthita, Puńðaríká, Akshagandhá (v. I. Sugandha), Sudantá, Surasa, Hemá, Sáradwati, Suvřitta, Kamaláchayá, Subhujá, Hansapádá; these are called the laukiki or worldly Apsarases; then six daughters of Gandharvas: Suyasá, Gándharvi, Vidyávati, Aswavati, Sumukhi, Varananá; and four daughters of Suyaśá, also called Apsarases: Lauheyi, Bharata, Křiśángi (v. l. Krishnangi), and Viśálá; then eight daughters of Kaśyapa, by Arishťá : Anavadya, Anavasá, Atyantamadanapriya, Surúpa, Subhaga, Bhási, Manovati, and Sukesi; then the daivati or divine Apsarases: Vedaká (sic, but v. I. Menaka), Sahajanya, Párnini, Punjikasthalá, Kratusthala, Ghřitáchi, Viśwáchi, Púrvachitti, Pramlochá, Anumlochanti, to whom are added Urvasi, born from the thigh of Náráyana, and Menaká, the daughter of Brahma. Besides these, the Váyu-p. mentions fourteen ganas or classes of Apsarases: 1. The Sobhayantyas, produced by the mind (manas) of Brahmá, 2. the Vegavatyas, born in heaven (? the MSS. Faitet:), 3. the Úryás (?, perhaps Úrjas, cf. Vájas., 18, 41), produced by Agni (cf. Vájas., 18, 38), 4. the Ayuvatyas, by the Sun (cf. Vájas., 18, 39), 5. the Subhancharás, by Wind (cf. Vájas., 18, 41), 6. the Kuravas (?), by the Moon (MSS.: .... HTAR GATE ya: 27T:; perhaps their name is Bhekurayas, as occurring also in another passage of one MS.; cf. Vájas., 18, 40), 7. the śubhás (?), by Sacrifice (? their name is, perhaps, Stávás, cf. Vájas., 18, 42), 8. the Vabnayas (? perhaps, Eshťayas, cf. Vájas., 18, 43), by the Rich and Sáman-verses, 9. the Amritás, by Amrita, 10. the Mudas, by Water; (three MSS. bave atemat:, and one MS., QTY AT:, which, however, must be corrected to atentat:, since ayHT: occurs under 5; cf. Vájas., 18, 38), 11. the Bhavás (?), by the Earth, 12. the Ruchas, by Lightning, 13. the Bhairavás, by Death (cf. Vájas., 24, 37), and 14. the Soshayantyas, by Love: (this list is, probably, meant by the author of the Kadambari, who-ed. Calc., p. 122–professes to give fourteen classes of Apsarases, but, in fact, names only thirteen; fathering, moreover, one class on Daksha). The Harivaṁsa (v. 6798) speaks of seven ganas of Apsarases, but without naming them. Vyáði, as quoted in a comm. on Hemachandra, mentions an Apsaras Prabhávati, as born from a hole in the ground for receiving the fire consecrated to Brahma, Vedavati, as born from an altar-ground, Sulochaná, from Yama, Urvasi, from the left thigh of Vishnu, Rambhá, from the mouth of Brahma, Chitralekhá, from bis hand, and, from his head, Maháchittá, Kákalika, Marichi, Súchika, Vi


dyutparná, Tilottamá, Adrika, Lakshańá, Kshemá, the divine and beautiful Rámá (or Divyá, Rámá, Manorama), Hemá, Sugandha, Suvasu, Subáhú, Suvratá, Asitá, Śáradwati, Pundaríká, Surasa, Súníitá, Suvátá, Kámalá, Hamsapadi, Sumukhi, Menaká, Sahajanya, Paríini, Punjikasthala, Ritusthala, Ghřitáchi, and Viśwáchi.

“Originally, these divinities seem to have been personifications of the vapours which are attracted by the Sun, and form into mist or clouds. Their character may be thus interpreted in the few hymns of the Rig-veda where mention is made of them. At a subsequent period, when the Gandharva of the Rig-veda,—who personifies, there, especially the Fire of the Sun,-expanded into the Fire of Lightning, the rays of the Moon, and other attributes of the elementary life of heaven, as well as into pious acts referring to it, the Apsarases become divinities which represent phenomena, or objects both of a physical and ethical kind, closely associated with that life. Thus, in the Yajur-veda, Sunbeams are called the Apsarases associated with the Gandharva who is the Sun; Plants are termed the Apsarases associated with the Gandharva Fire; Constellations are the Apsarases of the Gandharva Moon; Waters, the A. of the G. Wind; Sacrificial gifts, the A. of the G. Sacrifice; Rich and Sáman hymns, the A, of the G. Manas (creating will). In another passage of the Vájas., Fire is connected (Mahídhara, in the two months of Vasanta or spring) with the two Apsarases, Punjikasthala and K ratusthalá (considered, by the comm., as personifications of a principal and an intermediate point of the compass), Wind (Viswakarman), with Menaká and Sahajanyà (comm., in the two months of Grishma or the hot season), Sun (Viśwavyachas), with Pramlochanti and Anumlochantí (comm., in the two months of Varsbá or the rainy season), Sacrifice (Samyadwasu), with Viśwáchi and Ghřitáchí (comm., in the two months of Śarad or the sultry season), Parjanya (Arvágwasu), with Urvasi and Púrvachitti (comm., in the two months of Hemanta or the cold season). This latter idea becomes, then, more systematized in the Puranas, where a description is given of the genii that attend the chariot of the Sun in its yearly course. Thus, the Bhagavata-p. mentions that, besides the Rishis, Gandharvas, &c., also one gana or troop of Apsarases pays adoration to the Sun every month; and the Vishnu-p., that, among the genij who preside each in every month over the chariot of the Sun, Kratusthalá performs this function in the month Madhu, Punjikasthala, in the month Madhava, Mená, in Suchi, Sahajanya, in Sukra, Pramlochá, in Nabhas, Anumlochá, in Bhadrapada, Ghřitáchi, in Áświna, Viśwáchi, in Karttika, Urvasi, in Agraháyana, Púrvachitti, in Pausha, Tilottamá, in Mágha, Rambhá, in Phálguna. An analogous description is given in the Váyu-p., with the only difference that Viprachitti takes the place of Púrvachitti, apparently with less correctness; as this account is a strict development of the quoted passage of the Yajur-veda (Vájas., 15, 15-19). In the last mythological epoch,

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