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The progeny of Kadru were a thousand powerful many-headed serpents, of immeasurable might, subject to Garuda;* the chief amongst whom were Sesha, Vasuki, Takshaka, Sankha, Sweta, Mahapadma, Kambala, Aswatara, Elapatra, Naga, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, and many other fierce and venomous serpents.1

The family of Krodhavasa were, all, sharp-toothed monsters,2 whether on the earth, amongst the birds, or in the waters, that were devourers of flesh.3f

substituted for Surasa, in the Vayu, and in one of the accounts of the Padma. t The Bhagavata says § Rakshasas were her offspring. The Matsya has both Surasa and Anayus; making the former the parent of all quadrupeds, except cows; the latter, the mother of diseases.

1 The Vayu names forty; the most noted amongst whom, in addition to those of the text, are Airavata, Dhritarashtra, Mahanila, Balahaka, Anjana, Pushpadamshtra, Durmukha, Kaliya, Puridarika, Kapila, Nahusha, and Mani.

2 By Damshtrin (^fj}«l,) some understand serpents; some, Rakshasas: but, by the context, carnivorous animals, birds, and fishes seem intended. The Vayu makes Krodhavasa j| the mother of twelve daughters, Mrigi and others, from whom all wild animals, deer, elephants, monkeys, tigers, lions, dogs, also fishes, reptiles, and Bhiitas and Pisachas, or goblins, sprang.

3 One copy only inserts a half-stanza here: "Krodha was

* Supama, in the original.

f All the MSS. accessible to me read as follows: "Know thus her irascible brood", &c.

It is Kadru that is referred to; and there is no mention of "Krodhavasa". I Vide supra, p. 26, note 1.

§ It says—VI., 6, 28—Yatudhanas.. These are a sort of goblins (?). || According to the Bhdgavata-purdna, VI., 6, 27, the serpents and other reptiles were offspring of Krodhavasa.

Surabhi was the mother of cows and buffaloes:1 Ira,* of trees, and creeping plants, and shrubs, and every kind of grass; Khasa, of the Yakshas2 and Rakshasas; Muni, of the Apsarasas;3 and Arishta, of the illustrious Gandharvas.

the mother of the Pisachas";f which is an interpolation, apparently , from the Matsya or Hari Variisa. The Padma Puraria, second legend, makes Krodha the mother of the Bhutas; and Pisacha, of the Pisachas.

1 The Bhagavatat says, of animals with cloven hoofs. The Vayu has, of the eleven Rudras, of the bull of Siva, and of two daughters, Rohirii and Gandharvi; from the former of whom descended horned cattle, and, from the latter, horses.

According to the Vayu, Khasa had two sons, Yaksha and Rakshas, severally the progenitors of those beings.

3 The Padma, second series, makes Vach the mother of both Apsarasas and Gandharvas. The Vayu has long lists of the names of both classes, as well as of Vidyadharas and Kimnaras. The Apsarasas are distinguished as of two kinds, Laukika, 'worldly', of whom thirty-four are specified; and Daivika or 'divine', ten in number. The latter furnish the individuals most frequently engaged in the interruption of the penances of holy sages, such as Menaka, Sahajanya, Ghiitachi, Pramlocha, Viswachi, and Piirvachitti. Urvasi is of a different order to both, being the daughter of Narayaria. Rambha, Tilottama, Misrakesi, are included amongst the Laukika nymphs. There are also fourteen Ganas or troops of Apsarasas, bearing peculiar designations, as Ahutas, Sobhayanti's, Vegavatis, &c. §

* See my third note in p 26, supra.

t I find it in several MSS.; and it occurs in the text as recognized by the smaller commentary. It is in these words:

sft^T g 5r?ittw fwr^tg JTfTspsrre: i

But three copies have, instead of ?fi^\rf jj, Jl % 1

t VI., 6, 26.

§ See the note at the end of this chapter.

These were the children of Kasyapa, whether movable or stationary, whose descendants multiplied infinitely through successive generations.1 This creation, 0 Brahman, took place in the (second or) Swarochisha Manwantara. In the (present or) Vaivaswata Manwantara, Brahma being engaged at the great sacrifice instituted by Varuria, the creation of progeny, as it is called, occurred. For he begot, as his sons, the seven Bishis, who were, formerly, mind-engendered, and was, himself, the grandsire of the Gandharvas, serpents, gods, and Danavas.2

1 The Kurma, Matsya, Brahma, Linga, Agni, Padma, and Vayu Purarias agree, generally, with our text, in the description of Kasyapa's wives and progeny. The Vayu enters most into details, and contains very long catalogues of the names of the different characters descended from the sage. The Padma and Matsya, and the Hari Vanisa, repeat the story, but admit several variations, some of which have been adverted to in the preceding notes.

2 We have a considerable variation, here, in the commentary; and it may be doubted if the allusion in the text is accurately explained by either of the versions. In one it is said that 'Brahma, the grandsire of the Gandharvas, &c, appointed the seven Rishis, who were born in a former Manwantara, to be his sons, or to be the intermediate agents in creation. He created no other beings himself, being engrossed by the sacrificial ceremony:'

Instead of "putratwe", 'in the state of sons', the reading is, sometimes, "pitratwe,", 'in the character of fathers', that is, to all other beings. Thus, the gods and the rest, who, in a former Manwantara, originated from Kasyapa, were created, in the present period, as the offspring of the seven Rishis. The other explanation agrees with the preceding, in ascribing the birth of Diti, having lost her children, propitiated Kasyapa; and the best of ascetics, being pleased with her, promised her a boon; on which she pi'ayed for a son of irresistible prowess and valour, who should destroy Indra. The excellent Muni granted his wife the great gift she had solicited, but with one condition. "You shall bear a son", he said, "who shall slay Indra;* if, with thoughts wholly pious, and person entirely pure, you carefully carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." Having thus said, Kasyapa departed. And the dame conceived, and, during gestation, assiduously observed the rules of mental and personal purity. Whenf the king of the immortals learnt that Diti bore a son destined for his destruction, he came to her, and attended upon her with the utmost humility, watching for an opportunity to disappoint her intention. At last, in the last year of the century, the opportunity occurred. Diti retired, one night, to rest, without performing the prescribed ablution of her feet, and fell asleep; on which the thunderer divided, with his thunderbolt, the embryo in her womb into seven portions.! The child, thus mutilated, cried bitterly;


all creatures to the intermediate agency of the seven Rishis, but calls them the actual sons of Brahma, begotten, at the sacrifice of Varuria, in the sacrificial fire: TJ^ ~Sf^f[ s^TcTt"

st^inji ^^fi^rr^TN^fiw ^rf^pfr jnr ^rnrr: *tfpn:

^if^sH <i I 1S[frT I * The authority for the story is not given, beyond its being in other Purarias, y <J(JJ l«rH,tj I It has the air of a modern mystification. The latter member of the passage is separated altogether from the foregoing, and carried on to what follows; thus: "In the war of the Gandharvas, serpents, gods, and demons, Diti having lost her children", &c.; the word 'virodha' being understood, it is said: fe)<^Vf ^f?f |jr^ | This is defended by the authority of the Hari Variisa, where the passage occurs, word for word, except in the last half-stanza, which, instead of


rTcTT f^TtV ^TTCT ^TTTRT ^ it

The parallel passages are thus rendered by M. Langlois:t 'Le

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Manou Swarotchicha avait cesse de regner, quand cette creation eut lieu: c'etait sous l'empire du Manou Vevaswata, le sacrifice de Varouria avait commence. La premiere creation fut celle de Brahma, quand il jugea qu'il etait temps de proceder a son sacrifice, et que, souverain ai'eul du monde, il forma lui-meme dans sa pensee et enfanta les sept Brahmarchis.'

* In the original, Sakra.

t Here the Sanskrit inserts the name of Maghavat.

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