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the month of Madhu or Chaitra, as its seven guardians. In (Vaisakha or) Madhava the seven are Aryaman,* Pulaha, Narada, Punjikasthah',f Rathaujas, Kachchhanira,; and Praheti. In Suchi § (or Jyaishtha) they are Mitra, Atri, Haha, || Menaka,t Rathaswana, Takshaka, and Paurusheya. ** In (the month) Sukraff or Ashadha they are Varuna, Vasishtha, Huhu,U Sahajanya,§§ Ra

As to many of these names, it is no easy undertaking to determine which of the Puraiias gives them correctly. See my note at pp. 290—293, infra.

Amsa is the older name, not Am.su; Daksha anciently held the place of Dhatri; &c. &c.

For the Adityas, see p. 27, supra, and Dr. Muir, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, Vol. I., pp. 51 —140; for the Rishis, Vol. I. of this work, pp. 100—103; for the Gandharvas, pp. 75—77, supra; for the Apsarases, pp. 75 and 80—84, supra; for the Gramanis or Yakshas, the Sarpas or Serpents, and the Rakshasas, pp. 74, 75, supra.

* Corrected from "Aryamat", and again in the note at' the end of this chapter. See p. 27, supra, where the Translator had "Aryaman".

t All my MSS. but one have Punjikasthala.

t In emendation of "Kachanira".

§ See the note on Sukra, a little below.

|| One of my MSS. exhibits the elongated form Kanaka.

Professor Wilson put the short form, "Mena'', for which I find no authority in this place.

** Called, in the original, a Rakshas.

++ Jyaishtha, just above, is supplied by the Translator; his Ashadha is in the original. Sukra, according to the Medini-koia, designates the one and the other of these months; but I nowhere find that Suchi stands except for Ashadha. ^jf%^T% looks, therefore, like an error for ^J^fl-rff. Instead of the lection ^pfi, yielding'in Sukra', some MSS. have, simply, t||%, 'in the month',-0*' Ashadha, to-wit. ^J^t, 'in Suchi', would suit the metre equally well.

The commentators remark on the names here discussed, but neither mention other readings, nor support, by adducing external authorities, the tenability of the text which they accept.

H Also read Hiihu, Huha, and Huhu.

§§ Did Kalidasa invent his own mythology, or did he follow an earlier than that of the Puraiias, in making Chitralekha wait on the Sun through thachitra, Naga,* and Budha.f In the month Nabhas (or Sravaria) they are Indra, Angiras, Viswavasn, Pramlocha, t Srotas, § and Elapatra (the name of both serpent and Rakshasa). | In the month Bhadrapada they

the hot season, that is to say, during Jyaishlha and Ashadha? See the VikramorvaM, Act III.

* The order of these names, in the original, is: Varuiia, Vasishfha, Naga, Sahajanya, Huhu, Budha, Rathachitra. One of my MSS. has the reading Naga; but all the rest exhibit Rambha. The Apsaras so called is appointed, below, for Phalguna; and the smaller commentary is disposed to take the view that, under the name Sahajanya, she here serves during the first of two months. Rathachitra is, then, to be taken as the name of the Yaksha, and also as that of the serpent. The reading Naga, in preclusion of the necessity of such speculation, is, however, mentioned:

In the larger commentary we read:

\*i%*\5t xfa xrr3' *n*r: i ^rrnps[wrefNN*{ i Here

we have a still different serpent introduced, Vatsa.

There is, in my opinion, not much doubt that Rambha is, here, a corruption of Rambha,— a very unusual name, if compared with the familiar Rambha,—the reading of the Vayu-purdna and Linga-purdna. Or, if we had the reading — which that of Rl^pl),

coupled with the fact of the common occurrence of "^TT ^TC^WT, evinces to be altogether supposable,—we should still be entitled to Rambha, by the rule referred to, touching Vatsa, in the last paragraph. See Panini, VI., III., 26. That neither of these very obvious suggestions presented itself to our commentators is little to their credit.

t Vadha, though occurring in but one of my MSS., is the only reading that I find in other Puranas.

I Five of my MSS. have, distinctly, Pramlova; but this, which I have seen elsewhere, as in MSS. of the Vdyu-purdna, seems to be only an error of the scribes.

§ The more ordinary, and preferable, reading is Srotas. But PrataK, which also is found in MSS., is, more likely, the right name.

H*>thi ^ *rt#w *p$^# ^rf'w t n

Elapatra, therefore, there is no warrant for duplicating. He is the are Vivaswat, Bhrigu, Ugrasena, Anumlocha,* Apurana,f Sankhapala, and Vyaghra. In the month of AswinaJ they are Piishan, Gautama, Suruchi, Ghritachi, Sushena, Dhananjaya, and Vata. In the month of Karttika they are Parjanya, Bharadwaja, (another) Viswavasu, Viswachi', Senajit, Airavata, and Chapa. § In (Agrahayana or) Margasi'rsha they are Amsu, Kasyapa, Ij Chitrasena, Urvasi, Tarkshya, IT Mahapadma, and Vidyut. In the month of Pausha, Bhaga, Kratu, Urn ay u, Purvachitti, ** Arishtanemi, Karkotaka, and Sphurja are the seven who abide in the orb of the sun, the glorious spirits who scatter light throughout the universe. In the month of Magha the seven who are

serpent; and Sarpa-omitted in the translation —is the Rakshasa. Thus the smaller commentary: H^sMTJ"^ «TnT: I * * Vff I And

the larger commentary: ^fqf ^T^T' I

* Umlocha is the lection of two MSS.

+ This is, perhaps, a corruption of Aruna, or of Varuria.

J The more usual designation of the month Aswayuja, named in the original.

§ The smaller commentary is for taking Senajit twice; as the Yaksha, and as the Rakshasa. But it also notices the reading Chapa: ^"5ff%f

larger commentary has these identical words, with the important difference of reading Xtt^petm 'Ap is the Rakshasa'.

All my MSS. have, wrongly, x) |'fl| , 'and also', the reading preferred by the commentators. Had the authors of the commentaries but looked into the Puranas which I quote in a subsequent note to this chapter, they would have seen that t| |fq is, doubtless, to give place to t( m;. To say what I can for the commentators, it is not forbidden to suppose that both ^flft 7TR*f: and ^rpft TT^T: instead of wft JJ^W-, maybe the offspring of meddlesome transcription. 'Apas'-an outgrowth of ap ■- is a rare word for 'Water'. The Rakshasa of the month preceding Karttika, it will be observed, is Vata, 'Wind'.

[| In five MSS. I find Kasyapa. There seems to be no good reason, however, for believing that this is anything better than a clerical error.

T One MS. gives Tarksha. ** Called an Apsaras, in the original. in the sun are Twashtri, Jamadagni, Dhritarashtra, Tilottama, Ritajit,* Kambala, and Brahmapeta. Those who abide in the sun in the month Phalguna are Vishnu, Viswamitra, Suryavarchas,f Rambha, Satyajit, Aswatara, and Yajnapeta.t

In this manner, Maitreya, a troop of seven celestial beings, supported by the energy of Vishnu, occupies, during the several months, the orb of the sun. The sage celebrates his praise, and the Gandharva sings, and the nymph dances before him, the Rakshasa§ attends upon his steps, the serpent harnesses his steeds, [| and the Yaksha trims the reins :f the (numerous pigmy sages, the) Valikhilyas,** ever surround his chariot. The whole troop of seven, attached to the sun's car, are the agents in the distribution of cold, heat, and rain, at their respective seasons.1

'A similar enumeration of the attendants upon the sun's car

* Kratujit is the name in one MS.

f Instead of the "Suryaverchchas" of the original edition.

* The original mentions him as a Rakshas.

Besides the variants already specified, I have found, with several that seem quite unworthy of notice, the following, each occurring in only a single MS.: Kashfanira, for Kachchhanira; Maitra, for Mitra; Daksha, for Eaha; Rathasyana and Daksha, for Rathaswana; Paurusha, for Paurusheya; Dhana, for Budha; Apurayat, for Apurana; Syenajit, for Senajit; Karkafaka, for Karkofaka; Saptajit, for Satyajit.

§ In the Sanskrit, ntictchardK, 'night-roamers.'

|| The original, ^"pfl IB 'IT • > is explained, in both the commentaries:

f tlRT%{)ft^hVf: I Thus interpreted, in the smaller

commentary: ^pftg^VfI I <fi.*nNYaM*l. I

** For these beings, see Vol. I., p. 98, my first foot-note,, and p. 155. occurs in the Vayu,* &c. For Yakshas the generic term there employed is Gramariis; but the individuals are the same. The

* The enumeration contained in the Vdyu-purdna is as follows, according to my collation of five manuscripts:

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