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the month of Madhu or Chaitra, as its seven guardians. In (Vaiśákha or) Mádhava the seven are Aryaman, * Pulaha, Nárada, Punjikasthalí, † Rathaujas, Kachchhaníra, 6 and Praheti. In Suchiş (or Jyaishtha) they are Mitra, Atri, Háhá, Menaka, T Rathaswana, Takshaka, and Paurusheya. ** In (the month) Sukratt or Ásháðha they are Varuńa, Vasishtha, Huhu, # Sahajanyá, $$ Ra
As to many of these names, it is no easy undertaking to determine which of the Puranas gives them correctly. See my note at pp. 290—293, infra.
Aỉśa is the older name, not Añśu; Daksha anciently held the place of Dhátři; &c. &c.
For the Adityas, see p. 27, supra, and Dr. Muir, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, Vol. I., pp. 51 - 140; for the Rishis, Vol. I. of this work, pp. 100—103; for the Gandharvas, pp. 75–77, supra; for the Apsarases, pp. 75 and 80–84, supra; for the Grámanís or Yakshas, the Sarpas or Serpents, and the Rákshasas, pp. 74, 75, supra.
* Corrected from “Aryamat”, and again in the note at the end of this chapter. See p. 27, supra, where the Translator had “Aryaman”. + All my MSS. but one have Punjikasthala.
In emendation of "Kachaníra". § See the note on Sukra, a little below. ll One of my MSS. exhibits the elongated form Hábáka.
q Professor Wilson put the short form, “Mena”, for which I find no authority in this place.
** Called, in the original, a Rakshas.
# Jyaishtha, just above, is supplied by the Translator; his Áshádha is in the original. Sukra, according to the Medini-kosa, designates the one and the other of these months; but I nowhere find that Suchi stands except for Áshảdha. regia looks, therefore, like an error for Tatia. Instead of the lection Tan, yielding 'in Sukra', some MSS, have, simply, ATÊ, 'in the month', - of Ásbádha, to-wit. Tat, 'in Suchi', would suit the metre equally well.
The commentators remark on the names here discussed, but neither mention other readings, nor support, by adducing external authorities, the tenability of the text which they accept.
Also read Húbú, Húbu, and Hubú. 88 Did Kalidasa invent his own mythology, or did he follow an earlier than that of the Puranas, in making Chitralekha wait on the Sun through
thachitra, Nága, * and Budha. † In the month Nabhas (or Srávaňa) they are Indra, Angiras, Viśwávasu, Pramlochá, # Srotas, $ and Elápatra (the name of both serpent and Rákshasa). In the month Bhadrapada they the hot season, that is to say, during Jyaishtha and Áshádba? See the Vikramorvasi, Act III.
* The order of these names, in the original, is: Varuńa, Vasishtha, Nága, Sahajanya, Huhu, Budha, Rathachitra. One of my MSS. has the reading Nága; but all the rest exhibit Rambhá. The Apsaras so called is appointed, below, for Phálguna; and the smaller commentary is disposed to take the view that, under the name Sahajanya, she here serves during the first of two months. Rathachitra is, then, to be taken as the name of the Yaksha, and also as that of the serpent. The reading Nága, in preclusion of the necessity of such speculation, is, however, mentioned: रम्भा च सहजन्येति पाठे फाल्गुने वक्ष्यमाणरम्भाव्यावृत्त्यर्थं सहजन्येति संज्ञान्तरेण तस्य विशेषणम् । रथचित्र इति यक्षसर्पयोरेकं नाम । नागश्च सहजन्येति पाठे नागसंज्ञकः सर्पः।
In the larger commentary we read: रम्भा अप्सराः। सहजन्येति नामान्तरेण तस्या एव विशेषणं फाल्गुने वक्ष्यमाणरम्भाव्यावृत्त्यर्थम् । तदा रथचित्र इति यक्षसर्पयोरेकं नाम । GATHER fa TZ OR: #9: 1 Tage ATE TEETH I Here we have a still different serpent introduced, Vatsa.
There is, in my opinion, not much doubt that Rambha is, here, a corruption of Rambha, - a very unusual name, if compared with the familiar Rambbá,—the reading of the Vayu-puráňa and Linga-purána. Or, if we had the reading रम्भासहजन्ये,-which that of वत्सासहजन्ये, coupled with the fact of the common occurrence of रम्भा सहजन्या, evinces to be altogether supposable,--we should still be entitled to Rambha, by the rule referred to, touching Vatsa, in the last paragraph. See Páńini, VI.,, III., 26. That neither of these very obvious suggestions presented itself to our commentators is little to their credit.
of Vadba,, though occurring in but one of my MSS., is the only reading that I find in other Puranas.
Five of my MSS. have, distinctly, Pramlová; but this, which I have seen elsewhere, as in MSS. of the Váyu-purána, seems to be only an error of the scribes.
§ The more ordinary, and preferable, reading is Srotas. But Prátah, which also is found in MSS., is, more likely, the right name. Il tot faarag: a:
T ETETT TT: 1 प्रलोचा च नभस्येते सर्पश्चार्के वसन्ति वै॥ Elápatra, therefore, there is no warrant for duplicating. He is the
are Vivaswat, Bhřigu, Ugrasena, Anumlochá, * Apúraňa, † Sankhapála, and Vyághra. In the month of AŚwina: they are Púshan, Gautama, Suruchi, Ghritáchí, Sushena, Dhananjaya, and Váta. In the month of Kárttika they are Parjanya, Bharadwája, (another) Viśwávasu, Viśwáchí, Senajit, Airavata, and Chápa. S In (Agrahayana or) Márgaśírsha they are Amśu, Kaśyapa, Chitrasena, Urvasí, Tárkshya, I Mahápadma, and Vidyut. In the month of Pausha, Bhaga, Kratu, Urňáyu, Púrvachitti, ** Arishtanemi, Karkotaka, and Sphúrja are the seven who abide in the orb of the sun, the glorious spirits who scatter light throughout the universe. In the month of Mágha the seven who are
serpent; and Sarpa - omitted in the translation - is the Rákshasa. Thus the smaller commentary: TOTOETT OTOT: 1 * * PO TTTE: I And the larger commentary: सर्पो राक्षसः। .
* Umlochá is the lection of two MSS.
The more usual designation of the month Áśwayuja, named in the original.
8 The smaller commentary is for taking Senajit twice; as the Yaksha, and as the Rákshasa. But it also notices the reading Chápa: aro
Hist Totaati hafsat fa uta arut TTTA: I The larger commentary has these identical words, with the important difference of reading TT TTH:, “Ap is the Rákshasa’. .
All my MSS. have, wrongly, aftfu, “and also', the reading preferred by the commentators. Had the authors of the commentaries but looked into the Puráńas which I quote in a subsequent note to this chapter, they would have seen that it is, doubtless, to give place to qui. To say what I can for the commentators, it is not forbidden to suppose that both चापो राक्षस: and ापो राक्षस: instead of अपो राक्षसः, may be the offspring of meddlesome transcription. 'Apas' - an outgrowth of ap - is a rare word for “Water'. The Rákshasa of the month preceding Kárttika, it will be observed, is Váta, “Wind'.
|| In five MSS. I find Káśyapa. There seems to be no good reason, however, for believing that this is anything better than a clerical error.
1 One MS. gives Tárksha. ** Called an Apsaras, in the original,
in the sun are Twashtri, Jamadagni, Dhřitaráshtra, Tilottamá, Ritajit, * Kambala, and Brahmápeta. Those who abide in the sun in the month Phálguna are Vishńu, Viśwámitra, Súryavarchas, † Rambhá, Satyajit, Aswatara, and Yajnapeta. I
In this manner, Maitreya, a troop of seven celestial beings, supported by the energy of Vishnu, occupies, during the several months, the orb of the sun. The sage celebrates his praise, and the Gandharva sings, and the nymph dances before him, the Rákshasa ş attends upon his steps, the serpent harnesses his steeds, || and the Yaksha trims the reins : 9 the (numerous pigmy sages, the) Válikhilyas, ** ever surround his chariot. The whole troop of seven, attached to the sun's car, are the agents in the distribution of cold, heat, and rain, at their respective seasons."
"A similar enumeration of the attendants upon the sun's car
* Kratujit is the name in one MS.
The original mentions him as a Rakshas. Besides the variants already specified, I have found, with several that seem quite unwortby of notice, the following, each occurring in only a single MS.: Kashtanira, for Kachchhanira; Maitra, for Mitra; Daksha, for Hábá; Rathasyana and Daksha, for Rathaswana; Paurusha, for Paurusheya; Dhana, for Budha; Ápúrayat, .for Apúrańa; Śyenajit, for Senajit; Karkataka, for Karkotaka; Saptajit, for Satyajit.
§ In the Sanskrit, niśácharák, 'night-roamers.'
|| The original, af ATT:, is explained, in both the commentaries : वहन्ति वहनानुकूलतया रथं संनयन्तीत्यर्थः। संनयन्ति रथं नागा tra paita: q ue: faca santedag: 1 Thus interpreted, in the smaller commentary: witgaut: I TEHDUTETTA I ** For these beings, see Vol. I., p. 98, my first foot-note, and p. 155.
occurs in the Váyu, * &c. For Yakshas the generic term there employed is Grámanis; but the individuals are the same. The
• The enumeration contained in the Váyu-purána is as follows, according to my collation of five manuscripts :
स रथोऽधिष्ठितो देवैरादित्यै ऋषिभिस्तथा।