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in the even asterisms, that it is distributed by his beams.1*

1 According to the Vayu,f the water scattered by the ele

Then follows, in all my MSS., including those where the text is accompanied by the two commentaries, a stanza which Professor Wilson has left untranslated:

,3*re yva*i«iir ^psri M'imh<um^*i. I

'Ablution of either kind in the water of the ethereal Ganges is surpassingly holy, removing the sin and the fears of men, and heavenly, great Sage.'

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The water which the clouds shed upon earth is, in truth, the ambrosia of living beings; for it gives fertility to the plants which are the support of their existence.* By this all vegetables grow and are matured, and become the means of maintaining life. With them, again, those men who take the law for their light perform daily sacrifices, and, through them, give nourishment to the gods. And thus sacrifices, the Vedas, the four castes, with the Brahmans at their head, all the residences of the gods, all the tribes of animals, the whole world, all are supported by the rains by which food is produced. But the rain is evolved by the sun; the sun is sustained by Dhruva; and Dhruva is supported by the celestial porpoise-shaped sphere, which

phants of the quarters is, in summer, dew, and, in winter, snow; or the latter is brought, by the winds, from a city called Pundra, which lies between the Himavat and Hemakut'a mountains, and falls down upon the former.

In like manner, also, as heat radiates from the sun, so cold radiates from the moon:

• All my MS8. read as follows:

'As to the water discharged by the clouds, regenerate on«, it developes all annuals, for the behoof of living creatures: it is, indeed, nectar to existence.'

Note the affectation of archaism in '^tftTO! as accusative plural. + From the Vdyu-purdna; but some pages before the passage last extracted.

is one with Narayana.* Narayana, the primeval existent, and eternally enduring, seated in the heart of the stellar sphere, is the supporter of all beings, f

* The reading IITTTCRI] is here followed. But a common read

ing, and pne more in harmony with the context, is UTT^lWTTT • i 'upheld by Narayana'.

'Seated in the heart of that planetary porpoise is its supporter, Narayana, primeval being among all beings, sempiternal.'


Names of the twelve Adityas. Names of the Rishis, Gandharvas, Apsarasas, Yakshas, Uragas, and Rakshasas, who attend the chariot of the sun in each month of the year. Their respective functions.

Parasara.—Between the extreme northern and southern points, the sun has to traverse, in a year, one hundred and eighty degrees, ascending and descending.' His car is presided over by divine Adityas,* Rishis, heavenly singers and nymphs, Yakshas, f serpents, and Rakshasas I (one of each being placed in it in every month). The Aditya Dhatri, the sage Pulastya, the Gandharva Tumburu, § the nymph Kratu

1 It might be doubted whether the text [| meant 180 in each hemisphere, or in both; but the sense is sufficiently clear in the Vayu, &c.; and the number of Mandalas travelled in the year is 360: the Mandalas, 'circles' or 'degrees', being, in fact, the sun's diurnal revolutions, and their numbers corresponding with the days of the solar year; as in the Bhavishya Puraria:

'The horses of the sun travel twice 180 degrees in a year, internal and external (to the equator), in the order of the days.'

* Strictly, 'divine beings, namely, Adityas.'

t In the original, Gandharvas, Apsarases, and Gramams.

t The Sun's attendants are said, in the Bhdgavata-purdna, V., XXI., 18, to be Rishis, Gandharvas, Apsarases, Nagas, Gramanis, Yatudhanas, and Devas.

| One of my MSS. gives Tumbaru.

sthala,* the Yaksha Rathakrit, the serpent Vasuki, and the Rakshasa Heti,f always reside in the sun's car, in

* Four MSS. have Kritasthala; three, Kritasthali.

t The mythological figments named in this sentence are not characterized in the original, Rathakrit excepted, who is there called a Gramani, t. e., Yaksha.

In the Sanskrit of our text, no uniform order is observed in registering the appellations of the Sun's attendants during each of the twelve months; these appellations being disposed, in the main, to satisfy metrical exigencies. Professor Wilson's arrangement of the Adityas, &c, according to the subordination indicated above, admits of amendment; and the Professor, as I show in other notes to this chapter, wouldj probably, have taken a different view of some of th m, had he scrutinized the commentaries more closely. The personages in question may be tabulated as follows:

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