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pears (Kuhii),* the day when the moon is quite round (Raka), and the day when one digit is deficient (Anumati), are, all, seasons when gifts are meritorious.
The sun is in his northern declination in the months Tapas, Tapasya, Madhu, Madhava, Sukra, and Suchi; and in his southern, in those of Nabhas, Nabhasya, Isha, Urja, Sahas, Sahasya.1
On the Lokaloka mountain, which I have formerly described to you, reside the four holy protectors of the world, or Sudhaman and Sankhapad,f (the two
1 These are the names of the months which occur in the Vedas, and belong to a system now obsolete, as was noticed by Sir William Jones. Asiatic Researches, Vol. III., p. 258. According to the classification of the text, they correspond, severally, with the lunar months Magha, Phalguna, Chaitra, Vaisakha, Jyaishtha, Ashadha, or from December to June; and with Sravaria, Bhadrapada, Aswina, Karttika, Agrahayaria, and Pausha, from July to December. From this order of the two series of the months, as occurring in the Vedas, Mr. Colebrooke infers, upon astronomical computations, their date to be about fourteen centuries prior to the Christian era. t Asiatic Researches, Vol. VII., p. 283. §
lation and tradition in support of the birth of the planets in the Nakshatras Ashadha, &c." Aig-veda, Vol. IV., Preface, p. Ixxxvii.
Mr. Hind's calculations, here referred to, if construed, as by Professor Whitney, with a discerning eye, will be seen, far from supporting Mr. Bentley's explanation of the planetary names, to explode it past all rehabilitating. See Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. VIII., pp. 84 — 93.
"See Goldstiicker's Sanskrit Dictionary, under ^TOTOPBT
t This name is read, in several of my MSS., Sankhapa.
* On the age of the Vedas, as derivable from astronomical data, see Archdeacon Pratt, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1862, pp. 49, 50; Professor Max Muller, Rig-veda, Vol. IV., Preface, pp. xiv-xxix; and, particularly, for a masterly treatment of the subject, a paper by Professor Whitney, some extracts from which will be found at the end of the present chapter.
§ Or Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. I, pp. 200—202; with which compare idem, pp. 107—110,
sons of Kardama), and Hiranyaroman, and Ketumat.1 Unaffected by the contrasts of existence, void of self
1 The Vayu* has the same names, but ascribes a different descent to the first, making Sudhaman I the son of Viraja: Sankha
^rrr% Tfwmf^?wr ^rrateraTfi; 11
Sankhapa and Hiranyaloman are, thus, the readings which I find; and yet the passages from the Vdyu-purdna quoted in notes \ and § to p. 263, infra, have Sankhapad and Hiranyaroman.
^nwi ^rft %rrsr: vrrsri f^far -m*iIpmh: i
Sudhaman is here called son of Viraja and Gauri, and Lokapala of the eastern quarter.
Elsewhere, self-consistently, the Vdyu-purdna expresses itself as follows, regarding the paternity of Sudhaman and Ketumat:
^ TTOT fWTpi TTWR ^T5«T^l^ II
At p. 86, supra, I have changed Professor Wilson's "Viraja" to Vairaja. But the father of the Lokapala Sudhanwan is there spoken of; and none of my MSS. gives any reading but Sudhanwan. Here, then, unless it is to be supposed that Vairaja and Sudhanwan are, both of them, textual depravations, we have an irreconcileable discrepancy. In one place, the Lokapala of the east is Sudhanwan, son of Vairaja-and . Vairaja is Sudhaman, according to the Vdyu-purdna-; and, in another place, the corresponding Lokapala is Sudhaman, of whose origin the Vithnu-purdna gives no information. The passage of p. 86, just referred to, is thus worded:
tjwf f^f%r Ttwpt tTiw wnra: i
On this the larger commentary observes: IfT^rWIl $(tfl^J*n I TJ^f*f frf TffTt ^TTI Vairaja is here said to be a son of Brahma, i. e., a Manu. ishness, active, and unencumbered by dependants,* they take charge of the spheres, themselves abiding on the four cardinal points of the Lokaloka mountain.
On tbe north of Agastya, and south of the line of the Goat,.f exterior to the Vaiswanara path, lies the
pad + is the son of Kardama: the other two are the sons of Parjanya§ and Rajas,|| consistently with the origin ascribed to these Lokapalas in the patriarchal genealogies of that Puraria. IT (See Vol. I., p. 153, notes 1 and 2, and p. 155, notes 1 and 3.)
Furthermore, there can be little doubt as to the correctness of the reading Sudhanwan. Some of my MSS. have, in the first line of the stanza, instead of ^TWPTi ^RT ^> the reading of the smaller commentary.
For the grandsons of the patriarch Vairaja, among whom were Satadyumna and Sudyumna, see Vol. I., p. 177.
"Sankhapada ", the word in the original edition, I should have changed, at p. 86, supra, into Sankhapad. The Sanskrit is TJ^ IlitM^H'
* Nishparigraha is the original expression.
Sankhapad is here said to be son of Kardama and Sruti. He had a sister Kamya. His mother was daughter of Atri.
Hiranyaroman is here spoken of as having Parjanya and Marichi for his parents.
II T^reit ^rra Sh^i^iq^ti ^rcrf^ft i
Here Ketumat is described as son of Rajas and Markandeyi, and as Prajapati of the occidental region. % The Matsya-purdna declares:
So read all my MSS.: and, if they are not corrupt, the second Lokapala is here said to be Kardama.
road of the Pitris.1 There dwell the great Pdshis, the
1 Allusion is here made to some divisions of the celestial sphere which are not described in any other part of the text. The fullest, but still, in some respects, a confused and partly inaccurate, account is given in the Matsya Puraria;* but a more satisfactory
offerers of oblations with fire, reverencing the Vedas,
description occurs in the comment on the Bhagavata, * there cited
Vaiswanari I Piirvashadha
Nagavithi, &c, Arshabhi, &c., and Ajavithi, &c, are stated to be northern, intermediate, and southern, respectively; constituting groups known as Airavata, Jaradgava, and Vaiswanara.
The Proshftapadas are the Bhadrapadas; Varuna is Satabhishaj; Maitra, Anuradha; and Aindra, Jyeshfha.
The word Punarvasii, implied in the ninth line of the Sanskrit extract, deserves passing notice. The special plural inflection there given to the compound of which it forms the last member shows that the word must have been regarded, by the writer of the Puraiia, as feminine. One may suggest, therefore, that he mistook the Vaidik Punarvasii, a masculine dual, lor a feminine singular.
See, further, the second note at the end of the present chapter.
* Where Sridhara expounds V., XXI., 7: and the same passage, with