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intelligent sons.' The sister of Váchaspati,* lovely and virtuous, Yogasiddhá, who pervades the whole world, without being devoted to it, was the wife of Prabh ása, the eighth of the Vasus, and bore to him the patriarch Viswakarman, the author of a thousand arts, the mechanist of the gods, the fabricator of all ornaments, the chief of artists, the constructor of the (self-moving) chariots of the deities, and by whose skill men obtain subsistence. Ajaikapád, Ahirvradhna, † and the wise Rudra Twashtri, were born; and the self-born son of Twashtri was also the celebrated Viśwarúpa. There are eleven well-known Rudras, lords of the three worlds, or Hara, Bahurúpa, Tryambaka, Aparájita, Vrishákapi, Sambhu, Kapardin, Raivata, Mřigavyádha, Sarva, and Kapálin.? But there are

1 The Váyu supplies their names, Kshamávarta (patient) and Manaswin (wise). ? The passage is :

अजैकपादहिव॑नस्त्वष्टा रुद्रश्च बुद्धिमान् ।

त्वष्टुश्चाप्यात्मजः पुत्रो विश्वरूपो महायशाः॥ Whose sons they are does not appear; the object being, according to the comment, to specify only the “eleven divisions or modifications of the youngest Rudra, Twasbtři:' dagtige Teat

TUT fOUTH I We have, however, an unusual variety of reading, here, in two copies of the comment: . “The eleven Rudras, in whom the family of Twashtri (a synonym, it may be observed, sometimes, of Viśwakarman) is included, were born. The enumeration of the Rudras ends with Aparajita, of whom Tryambaka is the epithet:" अजैकपादादयश्चैकादश रुद्रा जज्ञिरे

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* The original has Brihaspati. † All the MSS. that I have seen give Ahirbudhnya or Ahirbudhna.

The extract just preceding is from the smaller commentary; that which follows, from the larger.

a hundred appellations of the immeasurably mighty Rudras. 1

मध्ये त्वष्ट्रवंशयुक्ता रुद्रसंख्यासमापनमपराजित इति अम्बकविशेषVA I Accordingly, the three last names in all the other copies of the text are omitted in these two; their places being supplied by the three first, two of whom are always named in the lists of the Rudras. According to the Váyu and Brahma Puranas, the Rudras are the children of Kaśyapa by Surabhi : the Bhagavata makes them the progeny of Bhúta and Sarúpá: the Matsya, Padma, and Hari Vaṁsa, in the second series, the offspring of Surabhi by Brahma. The names, in three of the Pauráńik authorities, run thus: | Váyu.


Bhagavata. *
Ajaikapád Ajaikapád Ajaikapád
Ahirvradhna Ahirvradhna Ahirvradhna


Íswara Pingala

Bhuvana Dahana Mabat
Angáraka A parájita Bahurúpa.
Ardbaketu Mrigavyádha Vřishákapi
Mrityu Senání


Bhava. Kapálin Kapálin Raivata. The Brahma (or Hari Vamsa), the Padma, the Linga, &c., have other varieties. And the lexicons have a different reading from all; as, in that of Jatádhara, they are Ajaikapád, Ahivradhna, Virúpáksha, Sureswara, Jayanta, Bahurúpaka, Tryambaka, Aparájita, Vaivaswata, Sávitra, and Hara. The variety seems to proceed from the writers applying to the Rudras, as they may legitimately do, different appellations of the common prototype, or synonyms of Rudra or Siva, selected at will from his thousand and eight names, according to the Linga Puráňa.

· The posterity of Daksha's daughters by Dharma are, clearly,

* VI., 6, 17 and 18. And here too I find Abirbudhnya.

The daughters of Daksha who were married to Kaśyapa were Aditi, Diti, Danu,* Arishtá, Surasá, Khasá, t Surabhi, Vinatá, Támrá, Krodhavaśá, Idá, 1 Kadrú, and Muni;' whose progeny I will describe to you. There were twelve celebrated deities in a former Manwantara, called Tushitas, who, upon the approach of the present

allegorical personifications, chiefly of two classes, one consisting of astronomical phenomena, and the other, of portions or subjects of the ritual of the Vedas.

There is some, though not much, variation, in these names, in different Puráńas. The Bhagavataş has Saramá, Káshthá, and Timi, the parents, severally, of canine animals, beasts with uncloven hoofs, and fishes, in place of Vinatá, Khasá, and Kadrú; disposing of the first and last differently. The Váyu has Pravá, in place of Arishtá, and Anáyus (or Danáyus) for Surask. The Padma Purána, second series, substitutes Kálá, Anáyus, Simhika, Piśáchá, Vách, for Arishtá, Surasá, Surabhi, Támrá, and Muni; and omits Idá and Khasá. In the Uttara Khanda of the same, Kaśyapa's wives are said to be but four: Aditi, Diti, Kadrú, and Vinatá.

? In the sixth reign, or that of Chákshusha Manu, according to the text: but, in book III., chapter 1, the Tushitas are the gods of the second or Swárochisha Manwantara. The Váyu has a much more complete legend than any other Purána, on this subject. In the beginning of the Kalpa, twelve gods, named Jayas, were created, by Brahmá, as his deputies and assistants in the creation. They, lost in meditation, neglected his commands; on which he cursed them to be repeatedly born in each Manwantara, till the seventh. They were, accordingly, in the several successive Manwantaras, Ajitas, Tushitas, Satyas, Haris, Vai

* Some MSS. here insert Kálá.
+ This name is omitted in several MSS.

The more ordinary reading, it seems, is Irá.
§ VI., 6, 25, et seq. In place of Irá, or Idá, it has llá.

period, or in the reign of the last Manu, Chákshusha, assembled, and said to one another: “Come, let us quickly enter into the womb of Aditi, that we may be born in the next Manwantara; for, thereby, we shall again enjoy the rank of gods.” And, accordingly, they were born the sons of Kaśyapa, the son of Marichi, by Aditi, the daughter of Daksha; thence named the twelve Adityas; whose appellations were, respectively, Vishnu, Sakra, Aryaman, Dhátri* Twashtri, Púshan, Vivaswat, Savitri, Mitra, Varuna, Amsa, † and Bhaga. These, who, in the Chákshusha Manwantara, were the gods called Tushitas, were called the twelve Adityas, i in the Manwantara of Vaivaswata.

kunthas, Sádhyas, and Ádityas. Our authority, and some others, as the Brahma, have, apparently, intended to refer to this account, but have confused the order of the series.

.' The Puráňas that contain this genealogy agree tolerably well in these names. The Bhagavata adds many details regarding some of the Adityas and their descendants.

* The first edition had “Dhúti”, an error of the press. t One MS. has Ańsu.

| Professor Wilson appends the following note to the mention, in the Rig-veda, II., 27, 1, of five Adityas, namely, Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuńa, and ATMsa: “The Adityas, or sons of Aditi, here enumerated are only five. The scholiast quotes the Taittiriya for eight; adding Dhátři, Indra, and Vivaswat to those in the text, and adding Añśu for Añía. The Pauráńik enumeration is, universally, twelve; Vishńu, Púshan, Twashtri, and Savitri being added to the eight of the Taittiriya.Translation of the Rig-veda, Vol. II., p. 274.

The passage of the Rig-veda thus annotated may be taken, on one construction, to speak of a sixth Aditya, Daksha.

For a full discussion of the Adityas, see Original Sanskrit Texts, Part. IV., pp. 10-13 and 101-106,


The twenty-seven (daughters of the patriarch) who became the virtuous wives of the moon were all known as the nymphs of the lunar constellations, which were called by their names, and had children who were brilliant through their great splendour.' The wives of Arishtanemi bore him sixteen children. The daughters of Bahuputra were the four lightnings. The excellent Pratyangirasa Richas were the children of An

I The Nakshatra Yoginís, or chief stars of the lunar mansions, or asterisms in the moon's path.

? None of the authorities are more specific on the subject of Arishtanemi's progeny. In the Mahábhárata, this is said to be another name of Kaśyapa:

मरीचेः कश्यपः पुत्रस्तस्य द्वे नामनी स्मृते।

अरिष्टनेमिरित्येकं कश्यपेत्यपरं विदुः॥ The Bhagavata * substitutes Tárksha for this personage, said, by the commentator, to be, likewise, another name of Kaśyapa. His wives are Kadrú, Vinatá, Patangi, and Yáminí, mothers of snakes, birds, grasshoppers, and locusts.

3 Enumerated, in astrological works, as brown, red, yellow, and wbite; portending, severally, wind, heat, rain, famine.

* VI., 6, 21 and 22:

ताक्षस्य विनता कद्रः पतंगी यामिनी इति ।
पतंग्यसूत पतगान्यामिनी शलभानथ ॥
सुपर्णासूत गरुडं साक्षाद्यज्ञेशवाहनम् ।

सूर्यसूतमनूलं च कर्नागाननेकशः ॥ Burnouf translates these verses as follows:

“Târkcha eut pour femmes Vinatâ, Kadrû, Patangî et Yâmini; Patangî donna le jour aux Patagas (les oiseaux), et Yâminî aux Çalabhas (les sauterelles).

“Suparnâ (Vinatâ aux belles ailes) mit au monde Garuda, celui qui est connu pour être la monture du Dieu chef du sacrifice; et Kadrû donna le jour à Anûru (Aruńa qui est privé de jambes) le cocher du soleil, ainsi qu'à la multitude des Nâgas.”

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