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randharas,' Sodhas, 10 Madrabhujingas, 11 Kášis, 12 Apa

Ganges, and restored to its former chief the other half, south of that river, as far as to the Chumbul. The capital of the latter became Mákandi on the Ganges; and the country included also Kámpilya, the Kampil of the Mohammedans, but placed, by them, in the Doab. * The capital of the northern portion was Ahikshatra, a name traceable in the Adisathrus of Ptolemy, † though the position differs. But Ahikshatra, or Ahichchhatra, I as it is also written, seems to have been applied to more than one city. S

? Perhaps the people of Tirhoot, along the Coosy.

8 “Having more than one back'; probable some nickname or term of derision. Thus we have, in the Rámáyańal and other

* And there it was, as Professor Wilson himself admits. See his notes on Book IV., Chap. XIX. of the present work.

Kámpilya has long been, to the Jainas, a holy city. See Sir H. M. Elliot's Supplemental Glossary, Vol. I., p. 203.

+ M. V. de Saint-Martin-Étude sur la Géog. Grecque, &c., pp. 324, 357—sees Ahikshatra in Ptolemy's 'Adiodcoc; and he locates the Adisathri to the south of the Vindhya mountains. And see As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 394.

A kingdom so called is spoken of in the Mahábhárata, Adi-parvan, 5515; and the city of Ahichchhatra is named in the stanza next following.

§ In his note to Selections from the Mahábhárata, p. 34, Professor Wilson writes as follows: “Ahichchhatra, in the country of Abichchhatra, is a city of some importance in Hindu tradition; as the Brahmans who introduced their religion into the Deccan are said to have come from thence. We have no indication more precise of its position than as is here stated-north of the Ganges.”

For Abikshatra, etc., also see the Translator's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. I., pp. 48, 291, and the notes thereon.

That there were two regions-not two cities-called Ahichchhatra, one of which was not far from the Vindhyas, I have suggested in the Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1861, pp. 197, 198.

|| The passage of the Rámáyana here referred to runs thus, in the genuine work, Kishkindhá-káńda, XL., 26, 27 :

कर्णप्रावरणांश्चैव तथा चाप्योष्ठ कर्णकाः।
घोरलोहमुखाश्चैव जवनाश्चैकपादकाः॥
अक्षया बलवन्तश्च तथैव पुरुषादकाः।
किरातास्तीक्ष्णचूडाच हेमाभाः प्रियदर्शनाः॥

rakásis, Jatharas, Kukuras, Dasárnas, Kuntis, Avan

works, enumerated amongst tribes, the Karna-právaranas, “those who wrap themselves up in their ears;'* Ashta-karnakas, 'the eight-eared,' or Oshtha-karnakas, † 'having lips extending to their ears;' Kákamukhas, “crow-faced;' Ekapádukas, “one-footed,' or rather one-slippered:' exaggerations of national ugliness, or allusions to peculiar customs, which were not literally intended, although they may have furnished the Mandevilles of ancient; and modern times with some of their monsters. The spirit of the nomenclature is shown by these tribes being associated with Kirátas, barbarians,' and Yavanas, either Greeks or Mohammedans.

9 A preferable reading seems to be Yugandhara. A city in

Here we have, named with the Kirátas, the Karnaprávaranas, Oshthakarńakas, Lohamukhas, and Ekapádakas.

According to the commentator, the Karnaprávarańas had ear-flaps as wide as a sheet; the Oshthakarnakas were furnished with ears that reached to their lips; the Lohamukhas presented faces of a harsh iron-like black colour; and the Ekapádakas were one-footed, and yet fleet-javana.

Professor Wilson's Yavanas-an inferior reading—thus disappear; and his Kákamukhas become Lohamukhas. The Bengal recension of the Rámáyana here has Kalamukhas, 'black-faced'.

* See the Asiatic Researches, Vol. XVII., p. 456, foot-note; and Sir H. M. Elliot's Historians of Muhammedan India, Vol. I., p. 34, first foot-note.

† In the Mahábhárata, Sabhá-parvan, 1175, we read of the race of Ushtrakarnikas, or the ‘Camel-eared'. Captain Fell — Calcutta Annual Register for 1822, Chapter V., p. 50_reads “Oshthakarnakas”; and upon this word Professor Wilson there remarks: “The Oshthakarnakas, or people whose lips and ears join, remind us of some of the marvels of Ctesias; if allusion is not intended to the thick-lipped race of the Eastern Archipelago.”

# For a rationalization of sundry of the Indian monstrosities and monsters vouched for by the Greeks, see Professor Wilson's Notes on the Indica of Ctesias, pp. 19–38. In that tract, at p. 29, the author writes: “Even Herodotus is not free from incredible fictions; but Megasthenes and Deimachus seem especially to have been authorities for such marvels as men wrapped up in their ears, destitute of mouths and noses, one-eyed, long-legged, and having the fingers bent backwards, satyrs with square heads, serpents swallowing oxen, horns and all, pigmies, and gold-making ants. Amidst these extravagances, however,

tis, 13 Aparakuntis, 14 Goghnatas, 15 Mandakas, Shań

the Punjab, so called, is mentioned in the Mahábbárata, Karna Parvan. *

10 Read Bodhas, † Godhas, and Saudhas. There is a Rajput tribe called Sodha.

11. This may consist of two names, and is so read in MSS.; or the latter term occurs Kalingas. Both terms are repeated. Besides the Madra of the north, a similar word, Madru, is applied to Madura in the south. Asiatic Researches, Vol. IX., p. 428. § The Rámáyana || has Madras in the east, as well as in the north.

12 The people of the Benares district and that opposite. I

there are some vestiges of fact; and of the incredible parts it may be suspected that many of them have, at least, a local propriety, and are of Indian origin; the inventions of Hindu superstition having been mistaken for truths by the credulous ignorance of the Grecian ambassadors.”

* Śloka 2062: Vol. III., p. 73.
† See, for a people of the same appellation, p. 156, supra.

The Madras are mentioned at p. 133, supra, and in the notes to that page. Also see my second note at p. 156, supra, and my sixth at p. 180, infra.

Madra, says Hamilton, — Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, p. 8-was “the ancient denomination, in Hindu writings, for the country which we call Bhotan.” But he does not give his authority for this assertion.

Sir H. M. Elliot — Appendix to the Arabs in Sind, pp. 148, 149–inclines to see the Madras of the Puranas in the Meds of the Muhammadan historians.

M. V. de Saint-Martin, assuming the Bhujingas to have been a real people, would recognize them in the Bolingae of Ptolemy and Pliny. Étude sur la Géog. Grecque, &c., pp. 208, 209.

§ Or Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. II., p. 273, second footnote. Colebrooke there prints, but does not endorse, an opinion of Major Mackenzie, who takes Madru to be one with “Madura and Trichinopoly." Madura is generally considered to be a corruption of Mathura.

| I find mention of the Madrakas in the Kishkindhá-kánda, XLIII., 11, as a northern race.

| At one time, as I have pointed out,-Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1862, p. 5, third foot-note-Kási was, presumably, the more popular name of the city of Benares, while the circumjacent territory was known as Váránasi.

Conversely, we read, in Lakshmivallabha's Kalpa-druma-kaliká, of the city of Váránasi, in the territory of Káši.

das, 16 Vidarbhas, 17 Rúpaváhikas, 18 Aśwakas, 19* Pámśuráshtras, Goparáshéras, 20 Karítis, 21 the people of

13 The inhabitants of Oojein.

14 These should be opposite to the Kuntis; t but where either is situated does not appear.

15 The best reading is Gomanta, part of the Konkan about Goa. 16 The more usual reading is Khańdas: one MS. has Parnas.

17 A country of considerable extent and power at various periods. The name remains in Beder, which may have been the ancient capital: but the kingdom seems to have corresponded with the great part of Berar and Khandesh. It is mentioned, in the Rámáyana 1 and the Puráňas, ß amongst the countries of the south.

18 Also Rúpavásikas. There is a Rúpá river from the Suktimat mountain, the vicinity of which may be alluded to. We have Rúpasas or Rúpapas amongst the southern tribes of the Puránas.

19 Read, also, Asmalas and Asmakas. The latter are enumerated amongst the people of the south in the Rámáyana, || and in the Váyu, Matsya, and Markandeya I Puráňas. . There is a prince of the same name, of the solar dynasty.

20 Gova or Kuva is an ancient name of the Southern Konkan, and may be intended, in this place, by the Gopa country. Or it may imply the district of cow-herds,' that is, of nomadic tribes.

21 Also read Kulatis and Pánítakas.

* It has been proposed to identify this people with the Assaceni of Arrian and the ancient representatives of the modern Afghans. See Lassen's Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I., sixth note; Vol. II., p. 129, et al.; M. V. de Saint Martin's Étude sur la Géog. Grecque, &c., pp. 39–47.

† Colonel Wilford, but without naming his authority for the statement, makes the country of Kunti one with Kachchha. Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1851, p. 234.

Kishkindhá-káńda, XLI., 10.
§ As in the Márkandeya, LVII., 47.

|| But only in the Bengal recension: Kishkindhá-káńda, XLI., 17. Also see a note on Book IV., Chap. XXIV. of the present work.

The Harsha-charita speaks of a Bharata, king of Aśmaka. See my Vásavadattá, Preface, p. 53.

I LVII., 48.

Adhivájya," Kuládya, 2* Mallaráshtra, and Kerala;4 the Várapáśis,Apaváhas, 6 Chakras," Vakrátapas and Śakas, 8 Videhas,' Mágadhas, 10 Swakshas, 11 Mala

Read, also, Adhirajya and Adhirashtra, which mean the same, the over or superior kingdom.'

? Also Kusádhya, Kuśánda, and Mukuntha.

3 Also Valliráshtra. There are Mallas in the east, along the foot of the Himalaya, † in Bhíma's Dig-vijaya; # but we should rather look for them in the north-west, on the site of the Malli of Arrian. § We have, in the Puráňas, Maharashtra, the Mahratta country, which may be here intended.

4 Two copies read Kevala;|| one, Kambala. The text is, probably, wrong, as we have Kerala below, p. 177.

5 Also Váráyásis and Váravasis. One copy has, what is likely to be most correct, Vánarásyas, “the monkey-faced people.'

6 Read Upaváha and Praváha.
7 The MSS. agree in reading this Vakra.

8 The Śakas occur again, more than once, which may be, possibly, unnecessary repetition. But these people, the Sakai and Sacæ of classical writers, the Indo-Scythians of Ptolemy, extended, about the commencement of our era, along the west of India, from the Hindu Koh to the mouths of the Indus.

9 The inhabitants of Tirhoot. I 10 The people of South Behar.

11 Also read Mahyas and Suhmas: the latter is, probably, correct. The Submas and Prasuhmas were found in the east by Bhíma : ** and Suhma is elsewhere said to be situated east of

* Printed featugeat, i. e., Adhivajyakuládya, if anything. + And see p. 166, infra, note 6. Mahábhárata, Sabhá-parvan, 1077.

§ See M. V. de Saint-Martin's Étude sur la Géog. Grecque, &c., p. 103. On the Malli of Pliny, see the same work, pp. 295, 296. || This, as amad, is the best reading. It qualifies Mallaráshtra.

q In the Kalpa-druma-kaliká of Lakshmivallabha, the Jaina, we read of a country called Mahavideba. In its western section were the towns of Pratishthána and Muká; and to its eastern section belonged the town of Vitaśokha, in the district of Saļilávati. ** Mahábh., Şabhá-p., 1090,

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