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PEOPLE AND COUNTRIES.

Next hear from me, descendant of Bharata, the names of the inhabitants of the different countries. They are the Kurus, Pánchálas, Śálwas,* Mádreyas, and dwellers in thickets (Jángalas), † Śúrasenas, Kalingas,» Bodhas, 4 Málas,” Matsyas, 6 Suku

1 The people of the upper part of the Doab. The two words might also be understood as denoting the Pánchálas of the Kuru country; there being two divisions of the tribe. I See the sixth note at p. 160, infra.

2 The Súrasenas were the inhabitations of Mathura,—the Suraseni of Arrian.

3 The people of the upper part of the Coromandel coast, well known, in the traditions of the Eastern Archipelago, as Kling. S Ptolemy has a city in that part, called Caliga; and Pliny, Calingæ proximi mari.

4 One of the tribes of Central India, according to the Váyu. It is also read Báhyas. |

* Vide pp. 133-135, supra; and compare the Markandeya-puráňa, LVIII., 6. In the Bengal recension of the Rámáyana, Kishkindhá-kända, XLIII., 23, they are classed among the western nations. In the Haimakoša, IV., 23, we have the Sálwas or Kárakukshiyas.

+ The original is HTUTTGT:, Mádreyajángalas, the meaning of which is, not “Madreyas and dwellers in thickets”, but dwellers in the Madra thickets'. Similarly we have the Kurujángalas. That there was, however, a tribe called Jángalas, is clear from the Mahábhárata, Udyoga-parvan, 2127. Also see pp. 161, 163, and 176, infra.

See, for the Kurus and Pánchálas, pp 132–134, and foot-note, supra. $ For Kalinga and the Kalingas, compare pp. 132—134, supra, and p. 166, infra. Also see Col. Wilford, Journ. As. Soc. Beng., 1851, p. 233.

|| Proximate, apparently, to the Báhyá river, of which mention is made in the Niti-mayúkha.

tyas,? Saubalyas, : Kuntalas, 9 * Kášikošalas, 10 Chedis, 117

5 The Málas and Málavartis arė placed, in the Váyu and Matsya, amongst the central nations. The Márkandeya reads Gavavartis. I Wilford § considers Mála to be the Malbhoom of Midnapoor. As noticed in the Megha Dúta,|| I have supposed it to be situated in Chhattisgarh.

6 The people of Dinajpoor, Rungpoor, and Cooch Behar. Quarterly Oriental Magazine, (December, 1824), Vol. II., p. 190, first foot-note.

? Read Kušańdas, Kušalyas, Kuśádhyas, Kisádhyas, and placed in Central India.

8 Also Sausalyas and Sausulyas.

9 Kuntala is, in one place, one of the central countries; in another, one of the southern. The name is applied, in inscriptions, to the province in which Kurugode is situated, part of the Adoni district (Asiatic Researches, Vol. IX, p. 429 T); and, consistently with this position, it is placed amongst the dependent or allied states of Vidarbha, in the Daśa Kumára. Quarterly Oriental Magazine, September, 1827. **

10 A central nation: Váyu. The Rámáyana ft places them in the east. The combination indicates the country between Benares and Oude.

11 Chedi is usually considered as Chandail, $8 on the west of * In the Haima-kośa, IV., 27, they have the synonym Upahálakas. + Professor Wilson put “Chedyas”.

I find, in MSS., that the Márkandeya names the Máladas and Gavavartilas among the eastern nations. The printed edition reads-LVII., 43–Mánadas and Manavartikas.

§ Asiatic Researches, Vol. VIII., p. 336.

!! See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. II., p. 329, note on verse 99 of the translation of the Meghadúta.

9 Or Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. II., p. 272, foot-note. The authority for the statement is Major Mackenzie.

** See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. II., p. 280.

tt Kishkindhá-káńda, XL., 22. For the country of the Kosalas, see the Translator's second note at p. 172, infra.

$$ The history of this view I have given at length, and, moreover, bave proved conclusively that Chedi was collocal, at least in part, with the present District of Jubulpoor. See Journal of the American Oriental

Matsyas, '

Kárúshas, 2

Bhojas, 3

Sindhupulin

the Jungle Mehals, towards Nagpoor. It is known, in times subsequent to the Puráňas, as Ranastambha.*

Some copies read Vatsa; and the other Puráňas have such a name amongst the central countries; the people, perhaps, of Vatsa, + Rájá of Kaušámbi, near the junction of the Jumna and the Ganges. I There are, however, two Matsyas, ß one of which, according to the Yantra Samráj, is identifiable with Jeypoor. In the Dig-vijaya of Nakula, he subdues the Matsyas further to west, or in Gujerat.

? Situated on the back of the Vindhya range: Váyu and Matsya. They are generally named with the people of Málava, I which confirms this locality. They are said to be the posterity of Karúsha, one of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata. **

3 These are also placed along the Vindhya chain, but, at

Society, Vol. VI., pp. 517, 520—522, 533; and Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1861, pp. 317, et seq.; 1862, pp. 111, et seq.

* It seems scarcely established that any division of India was ever called Ranastambha. See Journal Amer. Orient. Soc., Vol. VI., pp. 520, 521. For Ranastambabhramara, see Transactions of the Royal As. Soc., Vol. I., p. 143, Colebrooke's foot-note.

† Udayana - here referred to - is, indeed, called Vatsarája, but in the sense of Raja of Vatsa, not in that of Rájá Vatsa. Vatsa was the name of his realm, and Kaušámbi, that of his capital. See my edition of the Vásavadattá, Preface, pp. 2–6, foot-notes; and Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1862, p. 11, third foot-note.

Gen. Cunningham finds it on the site of the present Karra. See Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1848, p. 28.

§ In the Mahábhárata, Sabhá-parvan , 1105 and 1108, notice is taken of the king of Matsya and of the Aparamatsyas; and, at 1082, the Matsyas figure as an eastern people. They are placed among the nations of the south in the Rámáyana, Kishkindhá-káńda, XLI., 11; while the Bengal recension, Kishkindhá-kánda, XLIV., 12, locates them in the north.

| The passage referred to is the Mahábhárata, Sabhá-parvan, 1192, where, however, no people called Matsyas is intended.

q M. V. de Saint-Martin-Etude sur la Géog. Grecque, &c., p. 199– suggests that the Kárúshas may be identifiable with the Chrysei of Pliny.

** See Book IV., Chap. I., and the note there on the various localities assigned to the Kárushas; also p. 170, infra, my fourth note.

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dakas, 1* Uttamas, ? Dasárňas, 3 + Mekalas, 4 Utkadifferent times, appear to have occupied different positions. I They were a kindred tribe with the Andhakas and Vrishńis, and a branch of the Yádavas. § A Bhoja Rája is amongst the warriors of the Mahábhárata. At a later period, Bhoja, the Rájá of Dhár, preserves an indication of this people; 9 and from him the Bhojpuris, a tribe still living in Western Behar, profess to be descended. They are, not improbably, relics of the older tribe. Bhoja is also used sometimes as a synonym of Bhojakata, ** a city near the Narmadá, founded by Rukmin, brother-inlaw of Krishńa, and, before that, prince of Kundina or Condavir.

Pulinda is applied to any wild or barbarous tribe. Those here named are some of the people of the deserts along the Indus; but Pulindas are met with in many other positions, especially in the mountains and forests across Central India, the haunts of the Bheels and Gonds. tt So Ptolemy places the Pulindai along the banks of the Narmadá, to the frontiers of Larice, the Láta or Lar of the Hindus,-- Khandesh and part of Gujerat.

* As the original has fagfore at: , it may be that we should read “Sindhus and Pulindakas'. That pulinda means “barbarian” is unproved.

+ The Rámáyana, Kishkindhá-káńda, XLI., 9, makes mention of cities of Daśárna in the south; and the Mahábhárata, Sabhá-parvan, 1189, places Daśárúas in the west. Also see p. 176, supra, text and notes, and my first note at p. 178.

They are ranked among the nations of the south in the Bengal recension of the Rámáyaňa, Kishkindhá-káńda, XLI., 15.

§ In the Rigvedasee Professor Wilson's Translation, Vol. III., p. 85– mention is once made of people called Bhojas, whom Sayańa explains to be Kshatriya descendants of Sudás. || Sabhá-parvan, 596, et aliter.

It is now ascertained, from inscriptions and other sources, that there have been several Hindu celebrities, some of whom dwelt remote from Central India, denominated Bhoja. Of Kanauj alone there were two Rájás so named; and it was, probably, from one of them that Bhojpoor, near Farrukhabad, derived its designation. Jaina traditions have even preserved the memory of a Bhoja, king of Ujjayini. See Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1862, pp. 5, 6; and the Vásavadattá, Preface, pp. 7, 8.

** Vide infra, Book V., Chap. XXVI., ad finem. Also see the Mahabhárata , Sabhá-parvan, 1115, 1166.

ft In the Bengal recension of the Rámáyana, Kishkindhá-kánda, XLI., 17, and XLIV., 12, the Pulindas appear both in the south and in the

las,

Pánchálas, Kausijas, ? Naikapřishthas, 8 Dhu

. In the other three Puránas* we have Uttamarnas, on the Vindhya range.

3 The people of the ‘ten forts', subsequently multiplied to thirty-six’; such being the import of Chhattisgarh, which seems to be on the site of Daśárňa: Megha Dúta. f

4 A Vindhya tribe, according to the other Puráńas. The locality is confirmed by mythological personations; for Mekala is said to be a Rishi, the father of the river Narmadá; thence called Mekala and Mekalakanya. I The mountain where it rises is also called Mekaládri. $ The Rámáyana|| places the Mekalas amongst the southern tribes.

5 Utkala is still the native name of Orissa.

6 These may be the southern Pánchálas. When Drońa overcame Drupada, king of Panchála, as related in the Mahábhárata, Ádi Parvan, he retained half the country, that north of the

north. The real Rámáyaňa, K.-k., XLIII., speaks of the northern Pulindas.

Also see my third note at p. 170, infra. * As in the Márkandeya, LVII., 53.

+ See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. II., p. 336, first foot-note; also p. 329, first foot-note.

The only Chhattisgarh known is that in the old territory of Nagpoor, and of which the capital was Ruttunpoor. It is divided by a long interval, not to speak of the Vindhyas and the Nerbudda, from what may more reasonably be conjectured to have been the site of Daśárńa, namely, the neighbourhood of the Daśárńá river. The oral traditions of the vicinity to this day assign the name of Daśárňa to a region lying to the east of the District of Chundeyree. This I learnt on the spot.

For the Daśárńá river, see the Translator's note at pp. 154, 155, supra, and my fourth annotation thereon.

Abhidhána-ratna-málá, III., 52; Mekalakanyaká, in the Amara-kośa, I., 2, 3, 32; etc.

§ See the Haima-kośa, IV., 149. For Mount Mekala, see my third note at p. 151, supra.

The Narmadá is said to spring from the Riksbavat mountains in the Rámáyaňa, Yuddha-káńda, XXVII., 9; or Bengal recension, III., 10. Compare the reference to the Váyu-puráňa at p. 131, foot-note, supra.

|| As in the Bengal recension, so in the genuine work, Kishkindhákáńda, XLI., 9.

I Ślokas 5511–5513.

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