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Tamra, Kapila,* Salu, Suvama,1 Vedaswa, Harisrava, Mahopama,2 Sighra, Pichchhila,3 the deep Bharadwaji, the Kausiki, the Sona,4 Bahuda, and Chandrama, Durga, Antrasila,5 Brahmabodhya, Brihadwati, Yavaksha,6 Rohf, Jambunadi, Sunasa,7 Tamasa,8 Dasl,
1 The Vama or Suvama, 'the beautiful river', Wilford f identifies with the Ramganga.
1 Also Mahapaga, 'the great river'.
3 Also Kuchchhila.
4 The Sone river, rising in MainakaJ or Amarkantak, and flowing east to the Ganges.
5 This and the preceding both rise from the Vindhya mountain. The latter is also read Antahsila, 'the river flowing within or amidst rocks'.
6 Also Paroksha.
7 We have a Surana in the Vayu; and Surasa, in the Kurma and Matsya; flowing from the Riksha mountain.
8 The Tamasa or Tonse, from Riksha.
* It is said, in the thirty-fifth chapter of the Bevd-mdhdtmya, that the Kapila originated from the water used by King Vasudana in performing a sacrifice. In the fourth chapter of the same work, the Kapila is described as flowing from the north, and as joining the Narmada at Siddhimanwantara.
I should mention that the Revd-mdhdtmya to which I refer in these notes purports to be a part of the Skanda-purdna, and differs, most essentially, almost from the beginning, from the much more voluminous Revd-mdhdtmya—professedly from the Rudra-samhitd, Raudri samhitd, or Siva-samhitd, an appendage to the Vdyu-purdna — known in Europe. There is an excellent copy of the larger work in the I. 0. Library. See, for an account of it, Dr. Aufrecht's Catalog. Cod. Manuscript., &c, pp. 64, et seq.
The Padma-purdna places Bhrigukshetra at the confluence of the Kapila with the Narmada. See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c, Vol. I., p. 38.
t Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 410.
+ See p. 141, second foot-note, supra. Mount Mekala—not Mainaka— is given as the source of the Sone in the Bengal recension of the Rd~ mdyaAa, Kishkindhd-kdnda, XL., 20.
Vasa, Varana, Asi,1 Nala, Dhritimati, Purnasa,2* Tamasi,3 Vr ishabha,f Brahmamedhya, Brihadwati. These and many other large streams, as the Krishna,* whose waters are always salubrious, and the slow-flowing
'This and the preceding scarcely merit a place amongst the rivers; being two small streams which fall into the Ganges east and west of Benares, which is, thence, denominated Varanasi. +
a Parriasa§ or Varnasa, from the Paripatra mountain.
8 Also Manavi.
4 The Krishna of the Deccan is, probably, here intended; although its more ordinary designation seems to be that already specified, Krishriavena or Krishriaveni. || The meaning is much the same; the one being the 'dark river', the other, simply the 'dark', the Niger.
* In the Calcutta edition of the Mahdbhdrata, this stream, and two others named before, the Panchanii and the Tungavena, have the epithet of 'great river', which is omitted by the Translator.
t The text, from "Brahmabodhya" to "Vrishabha", both names included, has, to me, the air of an interpolation. Some MSS. omit it; and in the Calcutta edition there is Varnna for "Varana".
+ Sic in orig. See the Vdmana-purdi'ia, Chap. XV. The prototypes of 'Benares' given in Professor Wilson's Sanskrit Dictionary are Varanasi, Varanasi, and Varanasi. The second of these three forms is the most usual, and is as old as the Mahdbhdshya, II., 1, 16, for instance; but only the first can possibly come from Varana + Asi. The Asi, pace M. de Saint-Martin, is a real brook, and not a fiction, if I may trust my own senses. I have often crossed the bridge over it.
The essayist just named,—Etude sur la Geog. Grecgue et Laline de I'Inde, p. 286, — referring to the 'Egfrvtaig or 'EQiv(ar)t, writes: "Cette riviere, la derniere de la liste d'Arrien, se reconnait sans difficulte dans la Varanasi, petite riviere qui se jette dans la gauche du Gange a Benares, qui en a pris son nom (en Sanscrit Varanasi)."
On what authority, one may inquire, besides Hiouen Thsang wrested, does this geographer place a river Varanasi near the city of Benares? See his Memoire Analytique, &c, pp. 95, 110, 111.
§ See, for a river thus denominated, Mahdbhdrata, Anusdsana-parvan, 7647. Varnasa = Bannas, the name of two Indian rivers.
|| Vide p. 150, supra, text and notes.
Mandavahirri,1 the Brahmani',2 Mahagaurf, Durga,3 Chitropala,4* Chitraratha, Manjula,5f Mandakini,6: Vaitarani,7 the great river Kosa,8 the Muktimati',9 Ma
1 A river from Suktimat: Vayu.
a A river in Cuttack, according to Wilford. § It is one of the Tirthas of the Mahabharata, || and, apparently, in a different direction. Buchanan (Eastern Hindustan, Vol. II., p. 585) has a river of this name in Dinajpoor.
3 Both from the Vindhya: Vayu and Kurma. There is a Goaris, in Ptolemy, in Central India.
4 From Riksha: Vayu.
5 Also Munja and Makaravahini.
6 From Riksha: Vayu. According to the Mahabharata,IT it rises in the mountain Chitrakuta. **
'The Byeturnee in Cuttack. It is named, in the Mahabharata, ff as a river of Kalinga. U
8 Also read Nipa and Koka.
9 From Riksha, but read also Suktimati, §§ which is the read
* The Pratdpa-mdrtanda speaks of the river Chitrotpala, in the country of Utkala, that is to say, within the limits of the present Orissa. On this river see Colonel Wilford, Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 404.
t Here, in the original, the Vahini is interposed. Possibly the Translator took the word to be epithetical.
On the other hand, he has, in the preceding pages, treated as appellations of rivers several words which I am disposed to regard as only qualificatory; namely, vipdpd, iatabald, and pdpahard.
I There were more Mandakinis than one. See Original Sanskrit Texts, Part II., p. 429, foot-note 88.
§ Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 404. It is well known.
[| A iirtha called Brahmani is mentioned in the Vana-parvan, 8036.
1 Vana-parvan, 8200, 8201.
"It is a northern river in the Bengal recension of the Rdmdyana, Kishkindhd-kdnda, XLIV., 94. ft Vana-parvan, 10098.
*l The Bengal recension of the Rdmdyana, Kishkindhd-kdnda, XLIV., 65, locates a Vaitaram river in the north.
§§ See my fourth note at p. 132, supra.
ninga,1 Pushpaveni, Utpalavati, Lohitya,2* Karatoya,3 f Vrishakahwa,4 Kumari, Rishikulya,5 Marisha, Saraswatf, Mandakini, Puriya,6 Sarvasanga. All these, the universal mothers, productive of abundance, besides hundreds I of inferior note, are the rivers of Bharata,7
ing of the Matsya. Wilford§ considers it to be the Swarriarekha of Cuttack.
1 Also Anaga and Suranga. Perhaps the preferable reading should be Sumanga; a river flowing from Mainaka, according to the Mahabharata.
3 Part of the Brahmaputra.
3 A considerable river in the east, flowing between Dinajpoor and Rungpoor.
4 Also Vrishasahwa. [[
5 This and the preceding flow from Suktimat, according to the Vayu, Matsya, and Kiirma. The last occurs also Rishika. H
6 Also Suparna. The Puiiya is considered to be the Poonpoon of Behar; but there is also a Poorna river in the same province.
'It is possible that further research will identify more than those attempted to be verified in the foregoing notes, as well as meet with others readily recognizable. In the authorities con
* In the Mahdbh., Anuids.-parvan, 7647, a river Lohita is spoken of; and the Bengal recension of the Rdmayana, Kish.-kdn&a, XL., 26, places the "great river" Lauhitya in the east. And see As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 425.
+ See As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 422; also my second note at p. 149, supra.
t The original speaks of these rivers as existing "by hundreds and by thousands": *jd*fl S W ^W^T• ■
§ Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 403.
|| This and "Vrishakahwa", if real readings, I take to mean "the river named Vrishaka" and "the river named Vrishasa." The printed Mahabharata has Vrishakahwaya.
If See pp. 130—132, supra. As to the Vishnu-pur ana, though it may be uncertain whether it derives a Rishikulya river—rather than the Aryakulya—from the Mahendra mountains, there is scarcely room to doubt that it refers to the Suktimat mountains a stream so named.
Rishikulya, further, stands among the synonyms of Ganga in the Haima-koia, IV., 148. Also see p. 167, infra, note 1, etc.
according to remembrance.
suited several occur not comprehended in the text, as the Kuhii and Ikshu,* from the Himalaya; Vritraghni, Chandanaf (Chundun of Bhagalpoor), Mahi (the Mahy of Western Malwa), Sipra, t and Avanti (rivers near Oojein), from Paripatra; Mahanada in Orissa, Druma, Dasarria (Dhosaun§ in Bundelkhand), Chitrakiita, Sroni (or Syena), Pisachika, Banjula, Baluvahini, and Matkuria, all from Riksha; Nirvindhya, Madra, Nishadha, Sinibahu, Kumudwati, and Toya, from Vindhya; Banjula, from Sahya; Kritamala, Tamraparrii, Pushpajati, and Utpalavati, from Malaya; Langulini and Vamsadhara, from Mahendra; and Mandaga and Kripa (orRupa), from Suktimat. In the Ramayaria we have, besides some already specified, the RuchiraJ Pampa, Eastern Saraswati, 11 Vegavati or Vyki of Madura, and Varada or Wurda of Berar; and we have many others in the Mahabharata and different works, from which the Sanskrit appellations of most of the Indian rivers might be, with some little time and trouble, collected.
* For the Ikshumati, the 'OSv/umn of Arrian, see As. Res., Vol. XIV., pp. 420, 421; also Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I., p. 602, first foot-note; and, for the Ikshumalavi, &c, p. 145, supra, with the Translator's note thereon. Further, the Niti-mayukha names the Ikshuka.
+ In the Bengal recension of the Rdtnayana, Kishkindhd-kdiula XL., 20, the Chandani, in the east, is spoken of; and a Mount Chandana, in the south, at XL., 3.
X See p. 134, supra, foot-note. It should seem that Sipra is no variant of the Vaidik Sipha. See M. Vivien de Saint-Martin's Geographic du Veda, p. 53, first foot-note.
§ Now called, by the natives, Dasan. It rises in Bhopal, and empties into the Betwa.
A Dasarna river is said, in the Puranas, according to Professor Wilson, to rise in a mountain called Chitrakiifa. See his Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. II., p. 336, first foot-note.
|| Signor Gorresio takes this word as an epithet of the Kufila: Bengal recension of the Rdmdyana, Kishkindhd-kdMa, XL., 20.
If Kishkindhd-kdMa, XL., 24, Bengal recension. In the corresponding passage of the genuine Rdmdyana, XL., 21, the Saraswati appears unqualified; and also in the Bengal recension, as a southern river, at XLI., 57.