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Támrá, Kapilá, * Salu, Suvámá,1 Vedáśwá, Hariśrává, Mahopamá, Síghrá, Pichchhilá, the deep Bháradwájí, the Kausiki, the Soňa, 4 Báhudá, and Chandramá, Durgá, Antrasilá,Brahmabodhyá, Břihadwatí, Yavakshá,6 Rohí, Jámbúnadí, Sunasá,? Tamasá,8 Dásí,
| The Vámá or Suvámá, “the beautiful river', Wilford † identifies with the Rámgangá.
? Also Mahápagá, “the great river'. 3 Also Kuchchhilá.
4 The Sone river, rising in Mainákaor Amarkantak, and flowing east to the Ganges.
5 This and the preceding both rise from the Vindhya mountain. The latter is also read Antahsilá, “the river flowing within or amidst rocks'.
6 Also Paroksha.
? We have a Surańá in the Váyu; and Surasá, in the Kúrma and Matsya; flowing from the Riksha mountain.
8 The Tamasa or Tonse, from Riksha.
* It is said, in the thirty-fifth chapter of the Revá-máhátmya, that the Kapilá originated from the water used by King Vasudána in performing a sacrifice. In the fourth chapter of the same work, the Kapila is described as flowing from the north, and as joining the Narmadá at Siddhimanwantara.
I should mention that the Revá-máhátmya to which I refer in these notes purports to be a part of the Skanda-puráňa, and differs, most essentially, almost from the beginning, from the much more voluminous Revá-máhátmya—professedly from the Rudra-saṁhitá, Raudri saṁhitá, or Siva-sanhitá, an appendage to the Váyu-puráňa - known in Europe. There is an excellent copy of the larger work in the I. 0. Library. See, for an account of it, Dr. Aufrecht's Catalog. Cod. Manuscript., &c., pp. 64, et seq.
The Padma-puráňa places Bbřigukshetra at the confluence of the Kapilá with the Narmadá. See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. I., p. 38. † Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 410.
See p. 141, second foot-note, supra. Mount Mekala-not Mainakais given as the source of the Sone in the Bengal recension of the Rámáyaňa, Kishkindhá-káńda, XL., 20,
Vasá, Varańá, Así, Nálá, Dhřitimatí, Púrnáśá, 3* Támasí,3 Vřishabhá, † Brahmamedhyá, Brihadwatí. These and many other large streams, as the Krishńá, 4 whose waters are always salubrious, and the slow-flowing
· This and the preceding scarcely merit a place amongst the rivers; being two small streams which fall into the Ganges east and west of Benares, which is, thence, denominated Varańásí. I
' Parńásáş or Varńásá, from the Páripátra mountain. 3 Also Mánaví.
* The Krishńá of the Deccan is, probably, here intended; although its more ordinary designation seems to be that already specified, Krishńavená or Krishńavení. || The meaning is much the same; the one being the “dark river', the other, simply the ‘dark”, the Niger.
* In the Calcutta edition of the Mahábhárata, this stream, and two others named before, the Panchami and the Tungaveńá, have the epithet of 'great river', which is omitted by the Translator.
† The text, from “Brahmabodhyá” to “Vrishabhá”, both names included, has, to me, the air of an interpolation. Some MSS. omit it; and in the Calcutta edition there is Varuńá for “Varana”.
Sic in orig. See the Vámana-puráňa, Chap. XV. The prototypes of “Benares' given in Professor Wilson's Sanskrit Dictionary are Varanasi, Váránasi, and Varanasi. The second of these three forms is the most usual, and is as old as the Mahábháshya, II., 1, 16, for instance; but only the first can possibly come from Varaná + Asi. The Asi, pace M. de Saint-Martin, is a real brook, and not a fiction, if I may trust my own senses. I have often crossed the bridge over it.
The essayist just named, -Étude sur la Géog. Grecque et Latine de l'Inde, p. 286,-referring to the 'EQÉVVEOIS or 'Eivéons, writes: “Cette rivière, la dernière de la liste d'Arrien, se reconnaît sans difficulté dans la Varanasî, petite rivière qui se jette dans la gauche du Gange à Bénarès, qui en a pris son nom (en sanscrit Vârânâsî).”
On what authority, one may inquire, besides Hiouen Thsang wrested, does this geographer place a river Varanasi near the city of Benares ? See bis Mémoire Analytique, &c., pp. 95, 110, 111.
§ See, for a river thus denominated, Mahábhárata, Anusásana-parvan, 7647. Varńáśá = Bannás, the name of two Indian rivers.
|| Vide p. 150, supra, text and notes.
Mandaváhiní,' the Brahmání, 2 Mahágaurí, Durga,” Chitropalá, 4* Chitrarathá, Manjulá, + Mandákiní, 6Vaitarańí," the great river Kośá, the Muktimatí,' Ma
A river from Šuktimat: Váyu.
A river in Cuttack, according to Wilford. Ş It is one of the Tirthas of the Mahabharata, || and, apparently, in a different direction. Buchanan (Eastern Hindustan, Vol. II., p. 585) has a river of this name in Dinajpoor.
3 Both from the Vindhya: Váyu and Kúrma. There is a Goaris, in Ptolemy, in Central India.
4 From Riksha: Váyu.
6 From Riksha: Váyu. According to the Mahabharata, I it rises in the mountain Chitrakúta. **
7 The Byeturnee in Cuttack. It is named, in the Mahabharata, tt as a river of Kalinga. #1
8 Also read Nípá and Koká. 9 From Riksha, but read also Suktimatí, $$ which is the read
* The Pratápa-mártanda speaks of the river Chitrotpalá, in the country of Utkala, that is to say, within the limits of the present Orissa. On this river see Colonel Wilford, Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 404.
† Here, in the original, the Váhini is interposed. Possibly the Translator took the word to be epithetical.
On the other hand, he has, in the preceding pages, treated as appellations of rivers several words which I am disposed to regard as only qualificatory; namely, vipápá, śatabalá, and pápahará.
# There were more Mandakinis than one. See Original Sanskrit Texts, Part II., p. 429, foot-note 88.
§ Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 404. It is well known. || A tirtha called Brahmani is mentioned in the Vana-parvan, 8036.
Vana-parvan, 8200, 8201. ** It is a northern river in the Bengal recension of the Ramayana, Kishkindhá-kanda, XLIV., 94. † Vana-parvan, 10098.
## The Bengal recension of the Ramayana, Kishkindhá-kända, XLIV., 65, locates a Vaitarańí river in the north.
$$ See my fourth note at p. 132, supra.
ningá,' Pushpavení, Utpalávatí, Lohityá,2* Karatoyá,' † Vřishakáhwá,* Kumári, Rishikulyá, Márishá, Saraswati, Mandákiní, Puńyá,6 Sarvasangá. All these, the universal mothers, productive of abundance, besides hundreds of inferior note, are the rivers of Bharata,?
ing of the Matsya. Wilford considers it to be the Swarńarekhá of Cuttack.
? Also Anágá and Surangá. Perhaps the preferable reading should be Sumangá; a river flowing from Maináka, according to the Mahabharata.
Part of the Brahmaputra. 3 A considerable river in the east, flowing between Dinajpoor and Rungpoor.
4 Also Vrishasáhwá. ||
5 This and the preceding flow from Suktimat, according to the Váyu, Matsya, and Kúrma. The last occurs also Rishika. I
6 Also Suparńá. The Punya is considered to be the Poonpoon of Behar; but there is also a Poorna river in the same province.
? It is possible that further research will identify more than those attempted to be verified in the foregoing notes, as well as meet with others readily recognizable. In the authorities con
* In the Mahábh., Anuśás.-parvan, 7647, a river Lohita is spoken of; and the Bengal recension of the Rámáyaňa, Kish.-káńda, XL., 26, places the "great river” Lauhitya in the east. And see As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 425.
+ See As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 422; also my second note at p. 149, supra.
# The original speaks of these rivers as existing “by hundreds and by thousands”: TATT S T FEFT:.
§ Asiatic Researches , Vol. XIV., p. 403.
|| This and “Vřishakáhwa”, if real readings, I take to mean “the river named Vrishaká” and “the river named Vřishasa.” The printed Mahábhárata has Vrishakáhwaya.
q See pp. 130–132, supra. As to the Vishnu-puráňa, though it may be uncertain whether it derives a Rishikulyá river-rather than the Áryakulya—from the Mahendra mountains, there is scarcely room to doubt that it refers to the Suktimat mountains a stream so named.
Rishikulya, further, stands among the synonyms of Gangá in the Haima-kośa, IV., 148. Also see p. 167, infra, note 1, etc.
according to remembrance.
sulted several occur not comprehended in the text, as the Kuhú and Ikshu,* from the Himálaya; Vritraghní, Chandaná † (Chundun of Bhagalpoor), Mahí (the Mahy of Western Malwa), Siprá, I and Avanti (rivers near Oojein), from Páripátra; Mahánada in Orissa, Drumá, Daśárńá (Dhosaun 8 in Bundelkhand), Chitrakútá, Śrońí (or Śyená), Piśáchiká, Banjula, Báluváhini, and Matkuńá, all from Riksha; Nirvindhya, Madrá, Nishadhá, Sinibáhu, Kumudwatí, and Toyá, from Vindhya; Banjula, from Sabya; Kritamálá, Támraparní, Pushpajáti, and Utpalavati, from Malaya; Lángulini and Vaṁsadhárá, from Mahendra; and Mandaga and Křipá (or Rúpá), from Suktimat. In the Rámáyańa we have, besides some already specified, the Ruchirá,|Pampá, Eastern Saraswati, 9 Vegavati or Vyki of Madurá, and Varadá or Wurda of Berar; and we have many others in the Mahabharata and different works, from which the Sanskrit appellations of most of the Indian rivers might be, with some little time and trouble, collected.
* For the Ikshumati, the Of vuatis of Arrian, see As. Res., Vol. XIV., pp. 420, 421; also Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I., p. 602, first foot-note; and, for the Ikshumálaví, &c., p. 145, supra, with the Translator's note thereon. Further, the Niti-mayúkha names the Ikshuká.
† In the Bengal recension of the Rámáyaňa, Kishkindhá-kánda XL., 20, the Chandani, in the east, is spoken of; and a Mount Chandana, in the south, at XL., 3.
See p. 134, supra, foot-note. It should seem that Siprá is no variant of the Vaidik Siphá. See M. Vivien de Saint-Martin's Géographie du Véda, p. 53, first foot-note.
§ Now called, by the natives, Dasán. It rises in Bhopal, and empties into the Betwa.
A Daśárńá river is said, in the Puranas, according to Professor Wilson, to rise in a mountain called Chitrakúta. See his Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. II., p. 336, first foot-note.
|| Signor Gorresio takes this word as an epithet of the Kutila: Bengal recension of the Rámáyaňa, Kishkindhá-kánda, XL., 20.
Kishkindhá-kánda, XL., 24, Bengal recension. In the corresponding passage of the genuine Rámáyaňa, XL., 21, the Saraswati appears unqualified; and also in the Bengal recension, as a southern river, at XLI., 57.