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deep Chitrasená, the Gomatí, the Dhútapápá, and the great river Gandaki;: the Kausikí, Niśchitá,4 Krityá,

Beos of Eastern Malwa: but it rises in the Kiksha mountain.*

From Páripátra, Kúrma: from Mahendra, Váyu. † ? One copy has Ikshumáliní; two others, Ikshula and Krimi. One MS. of the Váyu has an Ikshulá, from Mahendra: the Matsya has Ikshudá. Wilford's list has Drakshalá. I

3 Of these rivers the two first are named in the Padma Purána, but not in the Váyu, &c. The Goomty, in Oude, the Gunduk, and the Coosy § are well known. The Dhútapápá is said to rise in the Himalaya.

4 In different MSS. read Michita and Nisritá. In the Váyu and Matsya, the Nischirá or Nirvirá is said to flow from the Himalaya.

an Avanti vorbeibeugend, an Rikschwan dem Berge auch. Dies ist Vindhya die Bergeshöhe, Payoschni die zum Meere fliesst – Waldwohnungen von Hochweisen, an Früchten und an Wurzeln reich; -- Dies ist der Weg von Vidarbha ; nach Kosala (beide nach Norden) führt jener hin; Weiter südwärts von dort aber ist das Südland (Dekan).” Erdkunde, V., 496.

I do not undertake to prove that, in early times, the name of Payoshni may not have been applied to the whole of the modern Taptee. But the case was otherwise in the Pauráńik period, as we see from the Vishnu-purána, and as appears from the Márkandeya-puráńa, LVII., 24, the Bhagavata-purána, V., 19, 18, &c.

* For the Vedavati, see the Mahábharata, Anuśásana-parvan, 7651. The Vedasini is mentioned in my sixth note at p. 131, supra; and the Vedavainásiká is named, and said to be in the east, in the Bengal recension of the Rámáyaňa, Kishkindhá-káńda, XL., 21,

† The Tridiva and Alaya—or, perhaps, Tridiválaya—are mentioned in a list of rivers cited, apparently from some Purana, in the Niti-mayúkha.

As. Res., Vol. VIII., p. 335. And see my first note at p. 155, infra. $ Hodgson-Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1849, p. 766—states that the Gunduk has seven affluents,-the Barigár, Náráyani, Swetigandaki, Marsyangdi, Daramdi, Gandi, and Trisúl.

The Coosy, also, is made up, he says, of seven streams,—the Milamchi, Bhotia Cosi, Támba Cosi, Likhu Cosi, Dúd Cosi, Arun, and Tamor. Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1848, Part II., pp. 646—649; 1849, p. 766.


Nichitá, Lohatáriíí," Rahasyá, Šatakumbhá, and also the Sarayú,” the Charmańwatí,* Chandrabhágá,' Hastisomá, Diś, Šarávatí, 4 Payoshńí, Pará,' and Bhímara

Also Lohatáraní and Lohacháriñí. ? The Sarayú or Surjoo is commonly identified with the Deva. Wilford says it is so by the Pauráńiks: but we have, here, proof to the contrary. † They are also distinguished by the people of the country. Although identical through great part of their course, they rise as different streams, and again divide, and enter the Ganges by distinct branches.

3 The recurrence of the same name, in this as in several similar subsequent instances, is, possibly, an error of the copyist: but it is, also, sometimes likely that one name is applied to different rivers. In one MS. we have, in place of this word, Chaitravati, and, in another, Vetravati. I

* Read, also, Satávarí. According to Wilford, § the Sarávatí is the Banganga.

5 The Váyu has Párá, which is a river in Malwa, the Párvatí. || MSS. read Vání and Veńá.

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• The Chumbul. Vide p. 131, supra.

+ See Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 411. That the Deviká is not one with the Sarayú is, again, pretty clear from the Mahábhárata, Anuśásana-parvan, where, in a list of rivers, the former is mentioned in śl. 7645, and the latter in $l. 7647. The Devika and the Sarayú are also clearly distinguished from each other in the Amara-kośa, I., 2, 3, 35. In the Bengal recension of the Rámáyana, Kishkindhá-kánda, XLI., 13, a Deviká river is placed in the south. The Rája-nighańťu thus dilates, metrically, on the river Tápaní:

तवान्या दधते जलं सुमधुरं कान्तिप्रदं पुष्टिदम् ।

वृष्यं दीपनपाचनं बलकरं वेत्रावती तापनी। The Tápaní is here made one with the Vetrávati. In the Sabda-kalpadruma—which reads tápini—the Vetrávati is asserted to be the same as the Vetravati, or Betwa : see p. 131, supra, foot-note. Further, that dictionary, professing to follow the Rája-nighantu, identifies the Tápini with the Tápí.

Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., pp. 409, 456, 457. || As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 408. I question their identity. See, for the Párá, Mahábhárata, Adi-parvan, 2926; Márkandeya-puráňa, LVII., 20. Further, there is a feeder of the Godavery called Pará.

thí, Kaverí,? Chulaka,° Vímá,* Satabalá, Nívara, Mahitá,5 Suprayogá, Pavitrá," Kundalá, Sindhu, 8 Rájaní,9 Puramáliní, Púrvábhirámá, Vírá, Bhímá,10 Oghavatí, Palášiní, 11 Pápahará, Mahendrá, Pátalávatí, 12 Karishini,


According to the Váyu,* this rises in the Sahya mountain, and flows towards the south. It is, therefore, the Beema of Aurungabad.

? The Káverí † is well known, and has always borne the same appellation; being the Chaberis of Ptolemy.

3 Read Chuluká. 4 Read, also, Tápí; the Taptee river of the Deccan. I 5 Read Ahita and Sabitá. 6 Rises in the Sahya mountain, and flows southwards: Váyu, &c. ? Read Vichitra.

8 Several rivers are called by this name, as well as the Indus. There is one of some note, the Kalee Sindh, in Malwa.

9 Also Vájiní. 10 This agrees best, in name, with the Beema. It is also mentioned, as a Tirtha, in the Mahabharata. $

11 From Suktimat: Kúrma and Váyu. There is a Balásan from the eastern portion of the Himalaya, a feeder of the Mahánada, which may be the Palásiní, if the mountain be in this direction.

12 Also Pippalávatí. The Váyu has a Pippalá, from the Riksha mountain.

* And according to the Vishnu. Vide p. 130, supra.

† The Kaveri of the text may be-and, I strongly suspect, is—the so-called river which, according to the Revá-máhátmya, Chap. XL., falls into the Nerbudda.

The Haima-kośa, IV., 150, gives Ardhajábnaví as a name of the Káveri; and the Trikánda-śesha, I., 2, 32, gives Ardhaganga. These terms signify Half-Ganges. Compare a name of the Godávarí in my third note at p. 132, supra.

See my foot-note at pp. 144, 145, supra. In the Trikánda-śesha, I, 2, 31, Tápí is a synonym of Yamuna.

§ Vana-parvan, 5026. It there seems to be in or near the Punjab.


Asikní, * the great river Kušachírá, + the Makarí," Pravará, Mená, Hemá, and Dhřitavatí,4 Purávatí,5 Anushńá,6 Saibyá, Kápí,? Sadánírá, 84 Adhřishyá, the great river Kušadhárá, . Sadákántá, 10 Sivá, Víravatí, Vástu, Suvástu," Gaurí, : Kampaná,12 Hirańwatí,ş Vará, Víran

Also Kuśavírá. ? Also Mahika and Maruńááchi. 3 Also Sená. * Read Kritavati and Ghřitavatí. 5 Also Dhuśulya. 6 Also Atikrishńá. ? In place of both, Suvártháchí. • From Páripátra: Váyu and Matsya. 9 Also Kušanárá. 10 Also Śaśikántá. 11 Also Vastra and Suvastrá. 13 One of the Tirthas in the Mahábhárata. ||

* See my fourth note at p. 131, supra.

† The Amara-kośa, I., 2, 3, 32, and the Haima-kośa, IV., 151, make Sadánírá and Karatoyá to be names of one and the same stream. But there appear to have been more than one Sadánírá. Thus, a second seems to be located, by the Mahábhárata, Sabhá-parvan, 793, et seq., between the Gaýdaki and the Sarayú. See Original Sanskrit Texts, Part II., p. 423; and M. V. de Saint-Martin's Mémoire Analytique sur la Carte, &c., p. 95.

For identifications of the Suvástu and Gauri, see Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. II., p. 132. On the former, also see M. V. de Saint-Martin's Mémoire Analytique, &c., pp. 63, 64,

Professor Wilson, Ariana Antiqua, pp. 183, 190, 194— considered the Soastus and Garreas of Arrian as denoting but one river.

§ This stream is named again in the Mahábhárata, to-wit, in the Anušásana-parvan, 7651.

The Little Gunduk is called Hirana, a corruption of its ancient name, Hiranyavati. See Gen. A. Cunningham, Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1863, Supplementary Number, p. lxxvii.

| Vana-parvan, 8094. On the Kampana and the Hirańwati, see Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. II., p. 132,

kará, Panchamí, Rathachitrá, Jyotirathá, Viśwámitrá, 1* Kapinjalá, Upendrá, Bahulá, Kuchírá, Madhuváhini, Vinadí, Pinjalá, Veńá, † Tungavená," Vidiśá, Křishňaveńágt

1 According to the Mahábhárata, this rises in the Vaidurya mountain, part of the southern Vindhya or Sátpudá range.

Also Kuvírá. 3 Three MSS. agree in reading this Ambuvahini. § 4 Also Vainadi.

5 Also Kuvená. It is, possibly, meant for the Tungabhadrá or Toombudra.

6 A river in Malwa, so called from the city of the same name, which I have elsewhere conjectured to be Bhilsa.] Megha Duta, 31. There is a ‘Bess' river in the maps, which joins the Betwa at Bhilsa, and is, probably, the river of the text. .

* The tirtha of Viś wamitra is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vanaparvan, 7009.

+ According to the Padma-purána, there is a river Veni, and it falls into the Krishřá. See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. I., p. 68.

For the Krishnavená or Krishnaveni, see pp. 130 and 132, supra. The Krishńavení is ranked among the rivers of the south in the Rámáyana, Kishkindhá-káńda, XLI., 9. On the Veńá, Tungavená, Krishnavená, and Upavená, consult Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I., p. 576, third foot-note. For the Krishńá, see p. 152, infra, fourth foot-note.

§ This river is commemorated in the Mahábhárata, Anuśásana-parvan, 7646.

!! I have discovered that, in the middle ages, the sun was worshipped, in Central India, under the designation of Bháilla,-—from bhá, 'light', and the Prakrit termination illa, denoting possession. There was a temple to Bháilla at or near Bhilsa, which name I take to be a corruption of bháilla + iša, or bháilleśa. See Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1862, p. 112.

Reasoning from such data as are now known to me, it would be equally riskful to assert and to deny the identity of the sites of Vidiśá and Bhilsa.

I See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c., Vol. II., p. 337, foot-note on verse 161 of the translation of the Meghadúta.

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