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deep Chitrasena, the Gomatf, the Dhutapapa, and the great river Gahdaki;3 the Kausiki, Nischita,4 Kritya,

Beos of Eastern Malwa: but it rises in the Riksha mountain.*

1 From Paripatra, Kurma: from Mahendra, Vayu. f

2 One copy has Ikshumalini; two others, Ikshula and Kfimi. One MS. of the Vayu has an Ikshula, from Mahendra: the Matsya has Ikshuda. Wilford's list has Drakshala. J

3 Of these rivers the two first are named in the Padma Puraria, but not in the Vayu, &c. The Goomty, in Oude, the Gunduk, and the Coosy§ are well known. The Dhutapapa is said to rise in the Himalaya.

4 In different MSS. read Michita and Nisrita. In the Vayu and Matsya, the Nischira or Nirvira is said to flow from the Himalaya.

an Avanti vorbeibeugend, an Rikschwan dem Berge auch. Dies ist Vindhya die Bergeshohe, Payoschni die zum Meere fliesst — Waldwohnungen von Hochweisen, an Fruchten und an Wurzeln reich; — Dies ist der Weg von Vidarbha; nach Kosala (beide nach Norden) fiihrt jener bin; Welter sfidwarts von dort aber ist das Siidland (Dekan)." Erdkunde, V., 496.

I do not undertake to prove that, in early times, the name of Payoshrii may not have been applied to the whole of the modern Taptee. But the case was otherwise in the Pauranik period, as we see from the Vishnu-purdna, and as appears from the Mdrkandeya-purdi'ia, LVII., 24, the Bhdgavata-purdna, V., 19, 18, &c.

* For the Vedavati, see the Mahdbhdrata, Anusdsana-parvan, 7651. The "Vedasim is mentioned in my sixth note at p. 131, supra; and the Vedavainasika is named, and said to be in the east, in the Bengal recension of the Rdmdyana, Kishkindhd-kdnda, XL., 21,

f The Tridiva and Alaya—or, perhaps, Tridivalaya—are mentioned in a list of rivers cited, apparently from some Purana, in the NHi-mayiikha.

X As. Res., Vol. VIII., p. 335. And see my first note at p. 155, infra.

§ Hodgson—Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1849, p. 766—states that the Gunduk has seven affluents, — the Barigar, Narayani, Swetigandaki, Marsyangdi, Daramdi, Gaiidi, and Trisiil.

The Coosy, also, is made up, he says, of seven streams,—the Milamchi, Bhotia Cosi, Tamba Cosi, Likhu Cosi, Dud Cosi, Arun, and Tamor. Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1848, Part II., pp. 646—649; 1849, p. 766.


Nichita, Lohataririi,1 Rahasya, Satakumbha, and also the Sarayu,2 the Charmanwatf,* Chandrabhaga,3 Hastisoma, Dis, Saravati,4 Payoshril, Para,5 and Bhfmara

1 Also Lohatararii and Lohacharirii.

2 The Sarayu or Surjoo is commonly identified with the Deva. Wilford says it is so by the Paurariiks: but we have, here, proof to the contrary, f They are also distinguished by the people of the country. Although identical through great part of their course, they rise as different streams, and again divide, and enter the Ganges by distinct branches.

3 The recurrence of the same name, in this as in several similar subsequent instances, is, possibly, an error of the copyist: but it is, also, sometimes likely that one name is applied to different rivers. In one MS. we have, in place of this word, Chaitravatf, and, in another, Vetravati. +

4 Read, also, Satavari. According to Wilford, § the Saravati is the Banganga.

5 The Vayu has Para, which is a river in Malwa, the Parvati. || MSS. read Vani and Vena.

* The Chumbul. Vide p. 131, supra.

+ See Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., p. 411. That the Devika is not one with the Sarayu is, again, pretty clear from the Mahdbhdrata, AimMsana-parvan, where, in a list of rivers, the former is mentioned in £1. 7645, and the latter in M. 7647. The Devika and the Sarayu are also clearly distinguished from each other in the Amara-koia, I., 2, 3, 35. In the Bengal recension of the Rdmdyana, Kishkindhd-kdn&a, XLL, 13, a Devika. river is placed in the south.

+ The Rdja-nighant'u thus dilates, metrically, on the river Tapani:

The Tapani is here made one with the Vetravati. In the (fabda-kalpadruma—which reads tdpini—the Vetravati is asserted to be the same as the Vetravati, or Betwa: see p. 131, supra, foot-note. Further, that dictionary, professing to follow the Rdja-nighanfu, identifies the Tipini with the Tapi. § Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV., pp. 409, 456, 457.

|| As. Res., Vol. XIV., p. 408. I question their identity. See, for the Para, Mahdbliarata, Adi-parvan, 2926; Mdrkandeyd-purdna, LVII., 20. Further, there is a feeder of the Godavery called Para.

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thf,1 Kaverf,2 Chulaka,3 Vina,4 Satabala, Nivara, Mahita,5 Suprayoga,6 Pavitra,7 Kundala, Sindhu,8 Rajarri,9 Puramalirri, Purvabhirama, Vira, Bhima,10 Oghavati, Palatini',11 Papahara, Mahendra, Patalavati',12 Karishirri,

I According to the Vayu,* this rises in the Sahya mountain, and flows towards the south. It is, therefore, the Beema of Aurungabad.

s The Kaverif is well known, and has always borne the same appellation; being the Chaberis of Ptolemy.

3 Read Chuluka.

4 Read, also, Tapi; the Taptee river of the Deccan. J

5 Read Ahita and Sahita.

0 Rises in the Sahya mountain, and flows southwards: Vayu, &c.

7 Read Vichitra.

8 Several rivers are called by this name, as well as the Indus. There is one of some note, the Kalee Sindh, in Malwa.

9 Also Vajini.

10 This agrees best, in name, with the Beema. It is also mentioned, as a Tirtha, in the Mahabharata. §

II From Suktimat: Kurma and Vayu. There is a Balasan from the eastern portion of the Himalaya, a feeder of the Mahanada, which may be the Palasini, if the mountain be in this direction.

"Also Pippalavati. The Vayu has a Pippala, from the Riksha mountain.

* And according to the Vishnu. Vide p. 130, supra.

t The Kaveri of the text may be—and, I strongly suspect, is—the so-called river which, according to the Revd-mdhdtmya, Chap. XL., falls into the Nerbndda.

The Haima-kosa, IV., 150, gives Aidhajahnavi as a name of the Kaveri; and the Trikdn&a-ksha, I., 2, 32, gives Ardhaganga. These terms signify Half-Ganges.

Compare a name of the Godavari in my third note at p. 132, supra.

X See my foot-note at pp. 144, 145, supra. In the Trikdii&a-ksha, I, 2, 31, Tapi is a synonym of Yamuna.

§ Vana-parvan, 5026. It there seems to be in or near the Punjab.

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1 Also Kusavira.

3 Also Mahika and Marundachi.

3 Also Sena.

* Read Kritavati and Ghritavati.

5 Also Dhusulya.

6 Also Atikrishna.

7 In place of both, Suvarthacbi.

'From Paripatra: Vayu and Matsya.

9 Also Kusanara.

10 Also Sasikanta.

11 Also Vastra and Suvastra.

13 One of the Tirthas in the Mahabharata. ||

* See my fourth note at p. 131, supra.

t The Amara-kos'a, I., 2, 3, 32, and the Haima-koSa, IV., 151, make Sadanira and Karatoya to be names of one and the same stream. But there appear to have been more than one Sadanira. Thus, a second seems to be located, by the Mahabharata, Sabhd-parvan, 793, et seg., between the Gandaki and the Sarayii. See Original Sanskrit Texts, Part II., p. 423; and M. V. de Saint-Martin's Meinoire Analytique sur la Carte, &c, p. 95.

* For identifications of the Suvastu and Gauri, see Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. II., p. 132. On the former, also see M. V. de Saint-Martin's Memoire Analytigue, &c, pp. 63, 64,

Professor Wilson—Ariana Antigua, pp. 183, 190, 194—considered the Soastus and Garrceas of Arrian as denoting but one river.

§ This stream is named again in the Mahabharata, to-wit, in the Anuidsana-parvan, 7651.

The Little Gunduk is called Hirana, a corruption of its ancient name, Hiranyavati. See Gen. A. Cunningham, Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1863, Supplementary Number, p. lxxvii.

|; Vana-parvan, 8094. On the Kampana and the Hiranwati, see Indische Alterthumtkunde, Vol. II., p. 132,

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1 According to the Mahabharata, this rises in the Vaidurya mountain, part of the southern Vindhya or Satpuda range. 3 Also Kuvira.

3 Three MSS. agree in reading this Ambuvahini. §

4 Also Vainadi.

5 Also Kuveha. It is, possibly, meant for the Tungabhadra or Toombudra.

6 A river in Malwa, so called from the city of the same name, which I have elsewhere conjectured to be Bhilsa. [| Megha Diita, 31. IT There is a 'Bess' river in the maps, which joins the Betwa at Bhilsa, and is, probably, the river of the text.

* The tirtha of Viswamitra is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vanaparvan, 7009.

+ According to the Padma-purdna, there is a river Veni, and it falls into the Krishna. See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c, Vol. I., p. 68.

J For the Krishnavena or Krishna veni, see pp. 130 and 132, supra. The Krishnaveni is ranked among the rivers of the south in the Rdmdyana, Kishkindhd-kdnda, XLI., 9. On the Vena, Tungavena, Krishnavena, and Upavena, consult Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I., p. 576, third foot-note. For the Krishna, see p. 152, infra, fourth foot-note.

§ This river is commemorated in the Mahabharata, Amtedsana-parvan, 7646.

(! I have discovered that, in the middle ages, the sun was worshipped, in Central India, under the designation of Bhailla,—from bhd, 'light', and the Prakrit termination ilia, denoting possession. There was a temple to Bhailla at or near Bhilsa, which name I take to be a corruption of bhailla + tea, or bhdilleia. See Journal As. Soc. Beng., 1862, p. 112.

Reasoning from such data as are now known to me, it would be equally riskful to assert and to deny the identity of the sites of Vidisa and Bhilsa.

IT See Professor Wilson's Essays, Analytical, &c, Vol. II., p. 337, foot-note on verse 161 of the translation of the Meghaduta.

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