The use of enzymes – employed either as isolated enzymes, crude protein extracts or whole cells – for the transformation of non-natural organic c- pounds is not an invention of the twentieth century: they have been used for more than one hundred years. However,the object of most of the early research was totally different from that of the present day. Whereas the elucidation of biochemical pathways and enzyme mechanisms was the main driving force for the early studies,in contrast it was mainly during the 1980s that the enormous potential of applying natural catalysts to transform non-natural organic c- pounds was recognized. This trend was particularly well enhanced by the recommendation of the FDA-guidelines (1992) with respect to the use of chiral bioactive agents in enantiopure form. During the last two decades, it has been shown that the substrate tolerance of numerous biocatalysts is often much wider than previously believed. Of course,there are many enzymes which are very strictly bound to their natural substrate(s). They play an important role in metabolism and they are gener- ly not applicable for biotransformations. On the other hand, an impressive number of biocatalysts have been shown to possess a wide substrate tolerance by keeping their exquisite catalytic properties with respect to chemo-, reg- and, most important, enantio-selectivity. This made them into the key tools for biotransformations.
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Biocatalytic Applications of Hydroxynitrile Lyases
Stereoinversions Using Microbial RedoxReactions
Biotransformations with Peroxidases
Production of Chiral C3 and C4Units by Microbial Enzymes
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alcohol aldehydes alkyl AMDase amines amino acid Appl aqueous aromatic asymmetric synthesis Beauveria biocatalysts Biochem Biol Chem Biotechnol biotransformations Brussee carboxylic acid catalyzed cells Chem chemistry chiral compounds corresponding CPO H2O2 CPO tBuOOH cultures Cunninghamella cyanohydrin cysteine decarboxylation dehydrogenase deracemization derivatives diol drug echinulata enantiomer enantiomeric excess enantioselective Entry enzymatic enzyme epoxide hydrolase ester Faber formation fungal Furstoss H-lyase HbHnl Hnls HRP H2O2 hydro hydrogen hydrolysis hydroperoxides hydroxylation incubation inhibitor intermediate isolated JAm Chem Soc ketone kinetic resolution mechanism metabolites method methyl microbial models Microbiol microorganisms mutant N-dealkylation N-Demethylation N-oxidation Nocardia nucleophilic optical purity optically active organic synthesis oxidation PaHnl peroxidases peroxide Pharmacological phenols phenylmalonic acid polyamino acid polymer preparation prochiral racemic reaction Reagents and Conditions reduction residue Rhodococcus Scheme selective sequence solvent stereoinversion stereoselective strains Streptomyces studies substrate sulfoxides synthetic Table Tetrahedron Lett thiol tion trans transformations yield