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blished usage;

rived from the Greek, French, Italian, and German languages.

391. Grammar, in a limited sense, is the art which teaches the construction of phrases and sentences; but, in an extended sense, it embraces the whole science of language.

The study of language is properly divided into the seven following branches : Orthoëpy, Orthography, Accidence, Syntax, Prosody, Rhetoric, and Composition

392. Orthoë py consists of rules for pronoun cing letters and syllables according to the esta

Orthography is the art of writing words with the proper


letters. The Accidence treats of the modification of the different kinds of words, called parts of speech.

Syntax furnishes the rules for the proper construction and just disposition of words in a sentence.

393. Prosody teaches the right accentuation of syllables; and the different measures of verses.

Rhetoric enables us to affect or convince those whom we address in speaking or in writing.

Composition is the art of arranging our thoughts with precision and elegance; and is, consequently, the object and end of the study of language.

394. The nine kinds of words, or nine parts of speech, compose all languages; and there are in the English language about 20,500 nouns, 40 pronouns, 9,200 adnouns, or adjectives, 8,000 verbs, 2,600 adverbs, 69 prepositions, 19 conjunctions, 68 interjections, and 2 articles ;---in all about forty thousand words.

395. After having acquired a stock of words by reading and copying the best authors, and mixing in good company, we should learn to arrange · and combine them in a sentence with elegance; and in such manner,

as exactly to


the sense we intend to convey, and no other than that sense ;-a power of writing which is called perspicuity.

396. The great rule for the attainment of the art of composition, is to conceive, ourselves, that sentiment, which we purpose to convey to others, by previously reflecting upon it; as it is impossible to express clearly, to others, what we do not well understand ourselves.

397. We should never desire to express too many ideas in one sentence; but dispatch them one after another in their proper order ; and confine ourselves to simple and short sentences till we have acquired facility in the management of them.

Obs.—The best exercise in writing and speaking is to read a short story; and then write or speak it, in our own phraseology. Such an exercise continued every day for two years, one day writing, and the other speaking, would teach the arts of spelling, writing, and speaking, at the same instant.

398. We should avoid all quaint phrases, cant words, vulgar proverbs, and foreign idioms; and make our choice from the phraseology of the Old or New Testaments, or the works of Addison or Shakspeare; and avoid the latinized phraseology of Johnson, and the Gallic phraseology of some other modern writers.

Obs.-Happily, the translation of the Scriptures has served to preserve our language ; or it would have been lost amidst the barbarous affectations of Johnson and his

followers. We have no where such variety of beautiful and affecting language, as in the Old and New Testaments. These will, I hope, preserve our language from the corruptions and innovations daily making in it, by those who prefer sound to sense.

399. To speak or write our ideas in an able and persuasive manner, we ought to possess ourselves of various knowledge; to read the best books on all subjects; to suffer no hour to pass, without making some improvement ; and think, talk, and write ourselves on subjects, on which we have perused the opinion of others.

400. We should commit to memory the terms and leading facts of the various Arts and Sciences; and frequently reduce to writing, striking facts or important sentiments which we meet with in reading. We should compare one author with another on the same subject; and frequently converse with others, on any points in which authors do not satisfy our curiosity.

Obs.--Dr. Irving's Elements of Composition is a library for young persons; and the study of it should follow that of every grammar. Adair's Questions render it practical for schools.

XVI. Logic. 401. Logic, (which notwithstanding its importance, is too much neglected,) is the science of correct thinking. Logicians give five general rules, by which to assist their views in thinking, writing, and speaking on all subjects.

As these rules are of great and constant use, I have copied them from my own English Grammar :

a. Conceive of things clearly and distinctly, in their own natures.

Obs. That is, we should acquire a clear and distinct conception of things as they are in their own nature ;

and not be content with obscure and confused ideas, when clearer are to be obtained.

b. Conceive of things completely, in all their parts.

Obs.—There is a metaphysical, or ideal whole, a mathematical, or integral whole, and a physical, or essential whole.

c. Conceive of things comprehensively, in all their properties and relations.

Obs.—That is, we must consider them in all their modes, attributes, properties, and relations; in order to attain a comprehensive view of their essential modes or attributes, and of their various occasional properties, ac. cidental modes, and relations.

d. Conceive of things extensively, in all their kinds.

Obs. That is, we must search out the various species, or special natures, which are contained under the subject as a genus or general nature : as, if we would know the nature of an animal perfectly, we must take cognizance of beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, as well as men; all which are contained under the general nature and name of animal.

e. Conceive of things in order, or in a proper method.

Obs.--That is, we should rank and place our ideas in proper method and just order. We must not conceive of things in a confused heap; but dispose of our ideas in some method, which may be easy and useful for the un. derstanding and memory.

402. METHOD is analytical or synthetical. Analytical method resolves the compound into its principles, and the whole into its parts. Synthetical begins with the parts and leads to a whole, or it puts together the principles and forms a compound.

403. Arguments are either metaphysical, physical, political, moral, mechanical, or theological,


according to the science or subject from which they are drawn. The following deserve notice :

a. The Argumentum ad judicium, is an appeal to the common sense of mankind.

b. The Argumentum ad fidem, is an appeal to the faith.

c. The Argumentum ad hominem, is an appeal the practices, or professed principles of the adversary.

d. The Argumentum ad populum, is an appeal to the people.

e. The Argumentum ex concesso, is when something is proved by means of some proposition previously conceded.

f. The Argumentum ad passiones, is an appeal to the passions.

g. The Argumentum a fortiori, proves the conclusion, by proving a less probable proposition on which the conclusion depends.

h. The Argumentum ad ignorantiam, is founded upon insufficient principles, which the opponent has not skill to refute.

i. Argumentum ad verecundiam, is drawn from authority we are ashamed to dispute.

k. A direct argument, is that which immediately proves the proposition in question.

1. An indirect argument, proves the conclusion; by proving or disproving some proposition upon which the conclusion depends.

404. Certainty or Truth is of several kinds: there is a mathematical certainty, which admits of demonstration; a moral certainty, which is derived from testimony; a physical certainty, derived froin the evidence of the senses and the course of nature ; and a theological certainty, founded on the doctrines of the Scriptures.

405. Evidence is of different kinds; as the evidence of sense, founded on the perceptions of

our senses.

The evidence of intuition, founded on self-eri

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