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and there are still living witnesses to prove it, always favoured the most decisive and energetic measures. He thought it a folly to temporise, and insisted that cordial reconciliation on honourable terms, was impossible. When the news of the repeal of the stamp-act arrived, and the whole community was in extacy at the event, he, on the contrary, received it with indignation, and privately convening a party of his friends beneath the celebrated Liberty-Tree, he there harangued them at considerable length on the folly of relaxing their opposition and vigilance, or indulging the fallacious hope, that Great Britain would relinquish her designs or pretensions. He drew their attention to the preamble of the act, and forcibly pressed upon them the absurdity of rejoicing at an act that still asserted and maintained the absoluto dominion over them. And then reviewing all the chances of succeeding in a struggle to break the fetters whenever again imposed on them, he pressed them to prepare their minds for the event. The address was received with silent but profound devotion, and with linked hands, the whole party pledged themselves to resist; a pledge that was faithfully redeemed when the hour of trial arrived. It was from this event that the Liberty-Tree took its name. The first convention of South Carolina held their meeting under it.”
He was also chosen a member of the congress which met in 1774; and on his return early in 1776, received the thanks of the provincial assembly for his services. He was among the first who advocated republican principles, and wished to make his country independent of the monarchia) government of Great Britain. * During the siege of Charleston, in 1780, he remained within the lines with five of the council, while governor Rutledge, with the other three. left the city, at the carnest request of general Lincoln. Several months after the capitulation, he was taken out of his bed on the 27th of August, and, with most of the civil and military officers, transported in a guard-ship to St. Augustine. This was done by the order of lord Cornwallis, and it was in violation of the rights of prisoners on parole. Guards were left at their houses, and the private papers of some of them were examined. A parole was offered at St. Augustine, but such was the indignation of lieutenant governor Gadsden, at the ungenerous treatment which he had received, that he' refused to accept it, and bore a close confinement in the castle for forty-two weeks, with the greatest fortitude.
Garden, in his anecdotes of the revolutionary war, gives the following interesting particulars : «« The conduct of the British commanders towards this venerable patriot, in the strongest manner evinced their determination rather to crush the spirit of opposition, than by conciliation to subdue it. The man did not exist to whose delicate sense of honour, even a shadow of duplicity would have appeared more abhorrent than general Gadsden. Transported by an arbitrary decree, with many of the most resolute and influential citizens of the republic, to St. Augustine, attendance on parade was peremptorily demanded; when 'a British officer stepping forward, said, “Expediency, and a series of political occurrences, have rendered it necessary to remove you from Charleston to this place; but, gentlemen, we have no wish to increase your sufferings; to all, therefore, who are willing to give their paroles, not to go beyond the limits prescribed to them, the liberty of the town will be allowed; a dungeon will be the destiny of such as refuse to accept the indulgence.' The proposition was generally acceded to. But when general Gadsden was called to give this new pledge of faith, he indignantly exclaimed, With men who have once
deceived me, I can enter into no new contract. Had the British commanders regarded the terms of the capitulation of Charleston, I inight now, although a prisoner, under my own roof, have enjoyed the smiles and consolations of my surrounding family; but even without a shadow of accusation proffered against me, for any act inconsistent with my plighted faith, I am torn from them, and here, in a distant land, invited to enter into new engagements. I will give no parole,' • Think better of it, sir,' said the officer, a second refusal of it will fix your destiny: a dungeon will be your future habitation. •Prepare it, then,' said the inflexible patriot, I will give no parole, so help me God.'
“When first shut up in the castle of St. Augustive, the comfort of a light was denied him by the commandant of the fortress. A generous subaltcrn offered to supply him with a candle, but he declined it, least the officer should expose himself to the censure of his superior. .
“After Andre's arrest, colonel Glazier, the governor of the castle, sent to advise general Gadsden to prepare himself for the worst; intimating, that as general Washington had been assured of retaliation, if Andre was executed, it was not unlikely that general Gadsden would be the person selectcd. To this message he replied, “That he was always prepared to die for his country; and though he knew it was impossible for Washington to yield the right of an independent state by the law of war, to fear or affection, yet he would not shrink from the sacrifice, and would rather ascend the scaffold than purchase with his life the dishonour of his country.”
In 1782, when it became necessary, by the rotation established, to choose a new governor, he was elected to this office; but he declined it in a short speech to the following effect. “I have served my country in a variety of stations for: thirty years, and I would now cheerfully make one of a forlorn hope in an assault on the lines of Charleston, if it was probable, that, with the loss of life, you, my friends, would be reinstated in the possession of your capital. What I can do for my country I am willing to do. My sentiments in favour of the American cause, from the stamp act downwards, have never changed. I am still of opinion, that it is the cause of liberty and of human nature. The present times require the vigour and activity of the prime of life; but I feel the increasing infirmities of old age to such a degree, that I am conscious I cannot serve you to advantage. I therefore, beg for your sakes, and for the sake of the public, that you would indulge me with the liberty of declining the arduous trust." He continued, however, his exertions for the good of his country, both in the assembly and council, and notwiths anding the injuries he had suffered, and the immense loss of his property, he zealously opposed the law for confiscating the estates of the adherents to the British government, and contended that sound policy required to forgive and forget.
The editor will here give an extract from an oration delivered at the city of Washington, on the fourth of July, 1812, by Richard Rush, Esq. where he refers to the patriotism of the venerable Gadsden. He said, “By one of the surviving patriots of our revolution, I have been told, that in the congress of 1774, among other arguments used to prevent a war, and separation from Great Britain, the danger of having our towns battered down and burnt, was zealously urged. The venerable Christopher Gadsden, of South Carolina, rose, and replied to it in these memorable words: “Our sea-port towns, Mr. President, are composed of brick and wood. If they are destroyed, we have clay and timber enough to rebuild them. But, if the liberties of our country are destroyed, where shall we find the materials to replace them?" Behold in this an example of virtuous sentiment fit to be imitated.” He died. September, 1805, aged eighty-one years.
GATES, HORATIO, was a native of England, and was born in 1728. The condition of his family, the incident and prospects of his youth, and his education, we are not able to communicate any particulars. There is reason to believe that he entered the army very early, and began his career as an ensign or lieutenant; yet, we are told, that he obtained, by merit merely, the rank of major, and was aid-de-camp to the British officer, who commanded at the capture of Martinico. At the conclusion of the war in 1748, he was stationed sometime at Halifax, in Nova Scotia. At that period, if the date of his birth be accurate, his age did not exceed twenty years. "
He continued in the army, and, prol bly, in some American garrison, during the ensuing seven years of peace. A new war then broke out in Germany, and North America, and Mr. Gates, in quality of captain of foot, attracts our notice in the earliest and most conspicuous scene of that war. He was in the army which accompanied the unfortunate Braddock, in the expedition against Fort du Quesne, and, together with the illustrious Washington, was among the few officers, who, on that occasion, escaped with life. He did not es. cape, however, without a very dangerous wound, which, for a time, shut him cut from the bloody and perilous scenes of that long and diversified contest. He remained in America to the peace of 1763. and then returned to his native country with a full earned reputation for activity, enterprise, and courage.
At the opening of the American war we find him settled on a farm in Virginia. At what time he laid down the military life, and returned to spend