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tainments, he added the virtues of the christain. He was distinguished by his benevolence and sympathy with the distressed; by an unaffected humility and modesty; by his readiness to forgive injuries, and by his inflexible integrity. He was superior to the powers and blandishments of the world. Thus eminently qualified for the various public offices in which he was placed, he was humble and faithful in discharging their duties, and he filled them with dignity and reputation in the worst of times, and in the midst of a torrent of unmerited obloquy, abuse, and opposition. When, on a certain occasion, some of his intimate friends desired him to permit them to answer a particular charge made against him, he replied, “no my friends, such things rankle not in my breast-ny character must stand on my general conduct.” Such was his disinterestedness, and his zeal for the public cause, and for the good of others, that his own interest seemed to have been wholly overlooked. In the administration of justice he was impartial and incorruptible. He was an ornament to the profession of christianity, which he made the delight of his connexions, and a public blessing to the state. By his death, religion lost an amiable example, and science a steady friend.
CADWALADER, John, born in Philadelphia, was distinguished for his zealous and inflexible adherence to the cause of America, and for his intrepidity as a soldier, in upholding that cause during the most discouraging periods of danger and misfortune. At the dawn of the revolution, he commanded a corps of volunteers, designated as “the silk stocking company;" of which nearly all the members were appointed to commissions in the line of the army. He afterwards was appointcd colonel of one of the city battalions; and, being thence promoted to the rank of brigadier general, was intrusted with the command of the Pennsyl. vania troops, in the important operations of the winter campaign of 1776 and 1777. He acted with his command, and as a volunteer, in the actions of Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth, and other occasions; and received the thanks of general Washington, whose confidence and regard he uniformly enjoyed.
When general Washington determined to attack the British and Hessian troops at Trenton, he assigned him the command of a division. In the evening of Christmas day, 1776, general Washington made arrangements to pass the river Delaware, in three divisions: one consisting of 500 men, under general Cadwalader, from the vicinity of Bristol; a second division, under the command of general Irvine, was to cross at Trenton ferry, and secure the bridge leading to the town. Generals Cadwalader and Irvine made every exertion to get over, but the quantity of ice was so great, that they could not effect their purpose. The third, and main body, which was command.. ed by general Washington, crossed at M‘Konkey's ferry; but the ice in the river retarded their passage so long, that it was three o'clock in the morning, before the artillery could be got over. On their landing in Jersey, they were formed into two divisions, commanded by generals Sullivan and Greene, who had under their command brigadiers lord Stirling, Mercer, and St. Clair: one of these divisions was ordered to proceed on the lower, or river road, the other on the upper or Pennington road. Colonel Stark, with some light troops, was also directed to advance near to the river, and to possess himself of that part of the town, which is beyond the bridge. The divisions having nearly the same distance to march, were ordered immediately on forcing the out-guards, to push directly into Trenton, that they might charge the enemy before they had time to form. Though they march: ed different roads, yet they arrived at the enemy's advanced post, within three minutes of each other. The out-guards of the Hessian troops at Trenton soon fell back, but kept up a constant retreating fire. Their main body being hard pressed by the Americans, who had already got possession of half their artillery, attempted to file off by a road leading towards Princeton, but were checked by a body of troops thrown in their way. Finding they were surrounded, they laid down their arms. The number which submitted, was 23 officers, and 886 men. Between 30 and 40 of the Hessians were killed and wounded. Colonel Rahl, was among the former, and seven of his officers among the latter. Captain Washington, of the Virginia troops, and five or six of the Americans were wounded. Two were killed, and two or three were frozen to death.The detachment in Trenton, consisted of the regi. ments of Rahl, Losberg, and Kniphausen, amounting in the whole to about 1500 men, and a troop of British light horse. All these were killed or cap; tured, except about 600, who escaped by the road leading to Bordentown.
The British had a strong battalion of light infantry at Princeton, and a force yet remaining near the Delaware, superior to the American ar'. my. General Washington, therefore, in the evening of the same day, thought it most prudent to l'lcross into Pennsylvania, with his prisoners.
The next day after Washington's return, sup. posing him still on the Jersey side, general Call walader crossed with about 1500 men, and pursued the panic struck enemy to Burlington.
The merits and services of general Cadwalader, induced the congress, early in 1778, to complimen him by an unanimous vote, with the appointment of general of cavalry; which appointment he die. clined, under an impression that he could be more useful to his country, in the sphere in which he had been acting.
The victory at Trenton had a most happy effect, and General Washington, finding himself at the head of a force with which it was practicable to attempt something, resolved not to remain inactive. Inferior as he was to the enemy, he yet determined to employ the winter in endeavouring to recover the whole, or a great part of Jersey. The enemy were now collected in force at Princeton, under lord Cornwallis, where some works were thrown up. Generals Mifflin and Cadwalader, who lay at Bordentown and Crosswicks, with three thousand six hundred militia, were ordered to march up in the night of the first of January, 1777, to join the commander in chief, whose whole force, with this addition, did not exceed five thousand men. He formed the bold and judicious design of abandoning the Delaware, and marching silently in the night by a circuitous route, along the left flank of the enemy, into their rear at Princeton, where he knew they could not be very strong. He reached Princeton early in the morning of the third, and would have completely surprised the Britisli, had not a party, which was on their way to Trenton, descried his troops, when they were about two miles distant, and sent back couriers to alarm their fellow soldiers in the rear. A sharp action ensued, which however was not of long duration. The militia, of which the advanced party was principally composed, soon gave way. General Mercer was mortally wounded while exerting himself to rally his broken troops. The moment was critical. General Washington pushed forward, and placed himself between his own men and the British, with his horse's head fronting the latter. The Americans, encouraged by his example, made a stand, and returned the British fire. A party of the British fled into the college, and were attacked with field pieces. After receiving a few discharges they came out and surrendered themselves prisoners
of war. In this action upwards of one hundret of the enemy were killed on the spot, and three hundred taken prisoners. The Americans lost only a few, but colonels, Haslet and Potter, two brave and valuable officers, from Delaware and Pennsylvania, were among the slain.
General Cadwalader's celebrated duel with gemeral Conway, arose from his spirited opposition to the intrigues of that oflicer, to undermine the standing of the commander in chief. The anecdote relative to the duel, in “Anecdotes of the Revolu-tionary War," by Alexander Garden, of Charleston, South Carolina, is not entirely correct.
It will be recollected that general Conway was dangerously wounded, and while his recovery was doubtful, he addressed a letter to general Washing acknowledging that he had done him injustice.
Among many obituary notices of General Cadwalader, this patriotic and exemplary man, the following outline of his character, in the form of a monumental inscription, is selected from a Baltimore paper of the 24th of February, 1786 :
In memory of
In the 44th year of his age.
Had served his Country
Soldier and Statesman :
Share, in the late Revolution,
of American Freedom,
Those who honestly differed from him