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Among its earliest exploits was the following :- The Message of the Governor of the Legislature of New York, delivered at Albany on the 7th of January, and consisting of two columns and a half of solid nonpariel, was published in the city of New York two hours after its delivery, having been transmitted so many miles sentence by sentence.

Mr. Brett now sought to establish a telegraphic communication between England and France, and on the 31st of Dec. 1849, obtained the consent of the President and Minister of the Interior of the French Government for that purpose, the patentees on their part guaranteeing that this Submarine Telegraph should, by the aid of a single wire, and of two persons, one stationed in France and the other in England, be capable of printing, in clear Roman type on paper, one hundred messages of fifteen words each, including addresses and signatures, ready for delivery, in one hundred consecutive minutes.

The arrangements being completed, this great problem was at last to be solved ; and the points selected were the beach at Dover, on the English, and Cape Grenez, on the French coast. A week previous to the experiment, the “Goliah” steam-vessel arrived at Dover, having on board thirty miles of the submarine wire, which was, as in the case previously mentioned, coiled upon an immense reel or drum, fifteen feet by seven, and was coated with gutta percha about nine sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and weighed five tons. About four hundred feet were encased in lead tubing, for better protection from chafing near the shore.

On Wednesday, the 28th of August, 1851, the “Goliah” was moored off the Admiralty Refuge Pier, being provisioned for the day, and having on board a crew of thirty men, besides Mr. Brett; Mr. J. C. Woolaston, C.E. ; Mr. F. Edwards, and other scientific gentlemen. There was an anxious crowd assembled to witness the departure of the steamer with its cargo of noble-minded men engaged in an effort to link together, with a chain of fire, two of the greatest nations of the civilized world. About half

past ten o'clock, the end of the wire on board was securely fastened to the end of that from the shore, and the operation of "paying ” out the thirty miles of wire comnuenced, which was run out at the rate of about three miles an hour: every sixteenth of a mile during the process of paying out, having riveted to it leaden clumps or weights, of from fourteen to twenty-four pounds. During the progress of the work, interesting communications were kept up between the ship and the shore, and by skilful manipulation, every difficulty arising from the peculiar physical configuration of the track over which the wire had to pass was surmounted, and in the evening the gentleman occupying the opposite shores, which are separated by a distance of twenty-one miles, could converse together, though by different meaus, as easily as two friends seated at the same table. Thus amid the most cheering prognostications of future amity and brotherhood was practically developed the most wondrous of modern inventions; and those countries which aforetime had met in bloody war, now vied with each other in seeking the occasion and the means of friendly intercourse, which it will be the wish and the earnest prayer of every good man may be continued in uninterrupted fruition “ until the sun himself grows dim with age, and Nature sinks in years."

Since the above was published, the telegrapic system has been greatly extended both in England and America, as well as on the Continent of Europe, and in some parts of Asia. Submarine communication by Magnetic Telegraph has been established between the Continent and Newfoundland in America. In the late war the telegraphic system was extended to the Black Sea. It is about to be established, if not already done, between France and Algiers, between Cape Comorin and the island of Ceylon, between Calcutta and Kareg, along the bottom of the Persian Gulf, and between Newfoundland and the coast of Ireland, across the Great Atlantic. Land and Ocean are thus destined to be converted into a kind of cerebrum in which shall be interchanged the thoughts of Nations.

LETTERS TO THE YOUNG.–XIX.

WILLIAM COWPER.

My dear young friends,

I cannot tell how many of those who now “take in " the Juvenile Companion, read it in 1855, and some of the preceding years. I fear that many dear, bright eyes that looked over its pages then, are now closed by death. Many dear young friends who were then living, are now no more in this world. I hope that they died in Jesus, and are now with him in heaven. There may be others who subscribed to them then that have given way to the desire for change, that is, alas, too. common both among the old and the young, and have forsaken their former friend, the Hive, for some new one. And it may be that the readers of this little Magazine are many of them fresh ones ; so that in resuming his pen, and writing for it, Uncle Joseph may be introducing himself to many new friends ; many to whom he is an entire stranger. Both to new and old friends he wishes all blessings, and will be most happy if he can contribute to their happiness and improvement.

To those who have read his former eighteen letters, and to those who are now reading a letter of his for the first time, he wishes in all kindness to introduce once more, his favourite poet William Cowper. In former numbers of this Hive you may find two or three letters of his about Cowper. Little did he think in closing his last letter about him, that it would be so long ere he wrote his concluding one.

Since he wrote you about him before, he has read many authors, but none that have put him out of love with William Cowper. He has a warmer place in Uncle Joseph's heart, and a higher place in his esteem than ever. The more he knows about him, the more he loves and esteems him. The longer and more intimately one reads his writings, the stronger becomes one's attachment to them.

Since my last letter about him was printed, I have read over again many of his Poems, and many of his charming letters. I have also read more than once George Gilfillan's sketch of his life, and Critical estimate of his genius. I have also read a volume on Cowper, as I said in my short letter in the January number, by that genial and beautiful writer Dr. Cheever of America. I could read of him for ever, and I am strongly convinced that the more he is read by our young people of the present day, the better. The better it will be for taste, the better it will be for the triumph of the law of kindness, the better it will be for good sense, and the cause of Poetry.

Cowper was truly an original man. He copied no one. He wrote as he thought, and as he felt. His head was clear, his heart was warm, his muse animated by true genius and poetic inspiration, his taste was exquisite, his piety was deep and genuine, and his poetry and prose are alike models of their kind. He is, as a writer, secure of a literary immortality. His influence in the literature of his country has been strong and healthy, and few writers have strove more, among certain classes, to diffuse sound sense, good taste, and genuine religion. sufferings were intensely painful, and wofully mysterious, and while they tinge all his writings with a peculiar hue, they tend at once to recommend the man and his writings to our special regard. Notwithstanding all he suffered, there is a glow of humour and sunshine, as well as a shade of pensive sadness, on nearly all he wrote. Who has not read, and most heartily laughed as he read, his "John Gilpin.” There is in his letters much of the same drollery. A sample thereof I shall bere introduce. It was written to his dear friend the Rer. John Newton. It unveils the motive under which he wrote his excellent poem on “ Charity :" and, at the same time, serves as a capital illustration of his genius when in certain moods of mind,

“ My very dear friend, I am going to send, wbat when

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you have read, you may scratch your head, and say I suppose, there's nobody knows, whether what I have got, be verse or not ;-by the tune and the time, it ought to be rhyme; but if it be, did ever you see, of late or of yore, such a ditty before ? I have writ' Charity,' not for popularity, but as well as I could, in hope to do good; and if the 'Reviewers,' should say to be sure, the gentleman's muse, wears Methodist shoes, you may know by her pace, and talk about grace, that she and her bard, have little regard for the taste and the fashions, and ruling passions, and hardening play, of the modern day; and though she assume a borrowed plume, and now and then wear a tittering air, 'tis only her plan, to catch if she can, the giddy and gay, as they go that way, by a production of a new construction ; she has baited her trap, in the hope to snap all that may come, with a sugar plumb. His opinion in this will not be amiss ; 'tis what I intend, my principal end; and if I succeed, and folks should read, till a few are brought to a serious thought, I shall think I am paid, for all I have said, and all I have done, although I have run, many a time, after a rhyme, as far as from hence to the end of my sense, and by hook or by crook, write another book, if I live and am here another year.

“I have heard before, of a room with a floor, laid upon springs and such like things, with so much art in every part, that when you went in, you were forced to begin, a minuet pace, with an air and a grace, swimming about, now in and now out, with a deal of state, in a figure of eight, without pipe or string, or any such thing; and now I have writ, in a rhyming fit, what will make you dance, and as you advance, will keep you still, though against your will, dancing away, alert and gay, till you come to the end of what I have penn'd, which that you may do, ere Madam and you, are quite worn out with jogging about, I take my leave, and here you receive a bow profound, down to the ground, from your humble me, W. C."

He, however, who occasionally wrote in such a style, most frequently put on the garb of a prophet and a teacher, and

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