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CONTENTS.

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· PRE FACE.

SINCE the publication of the first edition, this work has been carefully revised, and many corrections and improvements have been made. The Author would direct attention particularly to the “PARSING EXERCISES,” at the end of the book. These consist principally of selections from the best writers in the language; and they are regularly arranged according to the rules and remarks in the Syntax. Thus every principle is illustrated by quotations from the best authorities. The Author has attempted to remove difficulties by notes at the bottom of the page.

In the first edition an apology was made for giving new names to the tenses. But these names find so much favor with the best grammarians, that no apology is needed.

The Author would direct attention to his mode of treating Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Prepositions, and Adverbs, in the Etymology; and to the Syntax. The rules for the Analysis of Sentences have been taken, with some changes, from Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar.

ADVERTISEMENT TO TEACHERS.

The additional “Parsing Exercises” on the 216th and following pages, are so arranged that they may be used immediately after the corresponding exercises in the body of the work. Thus, if the teacher should find that any class has not become sufficiently acquainted with the noun by parsing the exercises on p. 33, he may turn to p. 216, where will be found additional exercises of the same kind. The additional exercises arranged according to the rules of Syntax, may be parsed in connection with those in the body of the work, or the parsing of them may be postponed till the pupil has gone through the Syntax.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR treats of the principles of the English language. These principles relate,

1. To the written characters of the language; 2. To its pronunciation;

mitcstisn't ite words. 3. To the classification of its words; 4. To the construction of its sentences; 5. To its versification.

The first division is called ORTHOGRAPHY; the second, ORTHOEPY ; the third, ETYMOLOGY; the fourth, Syntax; and the fifth, PROSODY.

Note.—These principles are derived from the usage of the best writers and speakers.

ORTHOGRAPHY. ORTHOGRAPHY treats of the letters and other characters of a language, and the proper mode of spelling words.

LETTERS. . A letter is a character used to represent an articulate sound.

An articulate sound is the sound of the human voice formed by the organs of speech.

There are twenty-six letters in the English alphabet.

Of what does English Grammar treat?
To what do these principles relate?
What are the names of the divisions of

English Grammar?
From what are the principles of Grammar
derived?

Of what does Orthography treat ?
What is a letter?
What is an articulate sound?
How many letters in the English alpha-

bet?

CLASSES OF LETTERS. Letters are divided into vowels and consonants.

A vowel represents a sound which is perfect without the aid of another sound.

A consonant represents a sound which is made in conjunction. with a vowel sound.

A, e, i, o, u, are vowels ; b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, P, , 1, s, t, v, X, 2, are consonants.

W and y are consonants when they are immediately followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable; as in want, twine, what,* youth, yellow.

In other cases w and y are vowels; as in now, sawing, sky, type, holy, eye.t

EXERCISES.

Tell in which of the following words w and y are consonants, and in which they are

vowels.

Water, wet, winter, young, yet, yonder, boy, joy, glory, sowing, sawing, new, newly, eye, scythe, brow, cow, when, whip, which, paw, enjoying, swine, try, swim.

CLASSES OF CONSONANTS.

The consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels.

The semi-vowels have an imperfect sound by themselves; the mutes have no sound by themselves.

The mutes are b, p, d, t, k,9, c hard, and g hard.I

Into what two classes are letters divided? Into what two classes are consonants
What is a vowel? What is a consonant? divided ?
Name the vowels-the consonants.

What is a semi-vowel -a mute?
When are w and y consonants ?

What consonants are mutes ?

* Though h in what is placed after w, it is sounded before it.
+ In this word, y is followed by a vowel, but the vowel is not sounded.

C is hard when it has the sound of k, as in cat; and soft when it has the sound of 8, as in city. G is hard when it is sounded as in gun; and soft when it has the sound of j, as in gentle.

The semi-vowels are f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, 2, C soft, and g soft.

X is a double consonant, equivalent to ks.

Four of the semi-vowels, l, m, n, r, are called - liquids, on account of their smooth, flowing sound.

Remarks.—The vowels represent sounds, the consonants modifications of sound made by the lips, tongue; palate, etc. Thus, if we make the sound represented by a, and close the lips, we make that modification of sound which is represented by p. The mutes close the organs, so that no sound can be emitted while the organs are in that position; the pure mutes (p, k, t, q, and c hard,) entirely, the others almost so. The semi-vowels admit the passage of sound through the month or the nose. Some of the semi-vowels (as vand 2,) are almost as pure sounds as the vowels. The sounds of the vowels, and the modifications represented by the consonants, are so closely connected, that the most obvious division of words seems to be into syllables ; and accordingly we find trat in the Hebrew, and other early lauguages, the letters represented syllables. The division into vowels and consonants was the result of a more accurate investigation of the elements of speech.

DIPHTHONGS. Two vowels in immediate succession in the same syllable, form a diphthong ; as, ou in found.

A proper diphthong is one in which both vowels are sounded; as, oi in voice. .

An improper diphthong is one in which only one of the vowels is sounded; as, ea in beat.

TRIPHTHONGS.

Three vowels in immediate succession in the same syllable, form a triphthong ; as, eau in beau.

A proper triphthong is one in which all the vowels are sounded; as, uoy in buoy.

What consonants are semi-vowels ?
What is said of ?
Which of the semi-vowels are called li-

quids? Why?

What is a diphthong ?-a proper diph

thong ? - an improper diphthong? -a triphthong ?-a proper triphthong ?

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