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and the truth flashed upon their minds as the by telling them: “As soon as the Yankees came guns—left loaded and spiked in the forts and bat- they would be let loose upon them to outrage teries, heated by the fames-went off one after their women, pillage their houses, and destroy another, keeping up a brisk cannonade along the their property." The people, however, were not entire line of defence. By the light of the con- at all apprehensive after having seen the invaders, flagration the rebels were seen running along the who received assurances from all sides that their beach, carrying torches, with which they were presence was acceptable to the masses. Capt. firing everything that fell in their way-barracks, Jackson was informed that three or four compa. officers' quarters, wharves, the buildings in the nies of cavalry were picketed some three or four Nary-Yard, and the frame of the ship Fulton, on miles from Pensacola, on the road to Mobile, and the stocks.

subsequently learned that there were one thou. The facts being reported to Gen. Arnold, the sand dragoons. The rebels burned two steain. commander of Fort Pickens, he immediately or-ers, the Bradford and Neiffie lying at Pensacola, dered the beat of the “long roll," and opened a but succeeded in escaping up the bay with the tremendous cannonade from the barbette-guns old Time, a light-draught steamer, which made and the water-batteries above the Fort, for the such a flight from the Navy-Yard, January first, purpose of compelling the rebels to abandon their when Pickens wished a party of drunken excurwork of destruction and hasten the evacuation sionists a “happy New Year.” of the place. The firing was kept up five hours The wharves 'at Pensacola are but slightly with the desired effect. The enemy were driven damagod, Long Wharf being the principal sufferer. from the fortifications, and in their haste to es. By the surrender of the town, Gen. Arnold secape, abandoned and left standing their camp, cured between six and seven thousand feet of near the house of Gen. Chase, between the Light- lumber. An extensive oil-factory in the outskirts house and Barrancas. Their tents and a large of Pensacola, containing fifteen thousand dollars' amount of equipments were secured. By this worth of oil, was entirely destroyed, to prevent prompt and decisive action of Gen. Arnold the its falling into the hands of the Unionists. While designs of the traitors were in a measure frus- the conflagration was at its height, the steamer trated, and the result of the conflagration was Harriet Lane, with Commander Porter, of the not so disastrous as from its magnitude was at mortar flotilla, on board, was running down the first apprehended.

coast from Mobile. The unusual and startling Soon as the rebels had been dispersed, Gen. appearance of the sky indicated that something Arnold sent an officer to the blockading schooner of a serious nature was transpiring, and Capt. Maria J. Wood, then lying off Fort Pickens, re- Wainwright steamed into Pensacola Harbor. questing the commander to come into the bay, Capt. Porter, being desirous of coöperating which he did, being the first vessel that has with Gen. Arnold in reëstablishing the dignity passed under the guns of McRae and Barrancas and enforcing the laws of the United States over for twelve months. The schooner proceeded up this important position, despatched the following to the city of Pensacola, taking Capt. R. H. Jack- letter to his Honor the Mayor of Pensacola : son, aid-de-camp to General Arnold, and A. A. General, who as charged with a demand for the


PENSACOLA, May 10, 1862. unconditional surrender of the place. He land- Sır: I wish to confer with the authorities of ed, and was met by about one hundred and fifty this place, whoever they may be, civil or military, people, and who, with one single exception, man- in regard to preserving good order in case there ifested unbounded joy at the arrival of a repre- should be any disposition to commit excesses on sentative of the United States authority. He unoffending and loyal citizens, and I wish to obfound the wharves in flames, and directed the tain information relating to late events and the people to extinguish them. They promptly re- destruction of public property. I take this opsponded to his request—the negroes emulating portunity to say that any abusive or disrespectthe example of the white people, and chanting : ful conduct, from mobs or other parties in this “Dey have come at last, dey have come at last." | town, towards the persons belonging to the naval Capt. Jackson proceeded to the house of Mayor vessels of the United States, will be treated as an Bobee, discovering as he went that the town ap- inimical act, and will be resented as if it was aspeared deserted, grass growing in the streets, and sault and battery. No one need fear any intereverything wearing a sad and forsaken appear- ference with their rights or property as long as ance.

they conform to good order. Upon the appearance of the Mayor, he made

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, the demand for an unconditional surrender of the

David D. PORTER, town and its defences; to which demand the

Commanding Mortar Flotilla. Mayor said he complied to the extent of his au- The Mayor replied that he had received the. thority, and added : “The confederates had so communication, and would be pleased to confer: long held sway there, and usurped the power with Commander Porter on board the Harriet which rightfully belonged to the municipal au- Lane, at his earliest convenience. He did so in thorities, that he did not know really how much the course of the morning. The interview failed authority he had left." On returning to his ves- to be productive of any considerable profit or enxel Capt. Jackson was told that the confederates couragement to the naval commander. had attempted to excite the fears of the people The arrival of the Harriet Lane was most op

Vol. V.-Doc. 4


portune. Her services were immediately offered No minute examination has been made of these to Gen. Arnold, to transport troops to the main villages, but it is reported that neither of them land, and she was thus employed all day yester. has suffered severely by the evacuation. day and this forenoon. About twelve hundred The Navy-Yard presents a scene of ruin and troops, together with a large amount of light ar- desolation. Smoke and flames still rise from the tillery, siege-guns, ammunition, camp equipage, burning timbers of the extensive store-houses, horses and supplies, have been conveyed across work-shops, and the wharves, all of which are the channel, and are now actively employed in destroyed. The skeleton frame of the old Fulton establishing themselves upon the “sacred soil." | has vanished into thin air, and the stocks where They have thrown up defences, planted cannon, she stood so long are now an ash-heap. The and taken every measure to prevent a surprise, in splendid granite dock appears to be unharmed, case the enemy should attempt to repossess the and its wooden duplicate lies a wreck under forts, of which, however, there is not the slight- Deer Island. The shears are standing in the est fear. The confederates have abandoned Flo- yard. The foundry-building and the blacksmithrida, and I doubt if five hundred rebel soldiers shop are safe, and the tall chimney still erect. can be found in the State to-day.

The rebels made every preparation to burn the Last evening, Lieut. L. L. James, Second ar- Custom-House, but were probably driven away by tillery, of Gen. Arnold's staff

, with a boat's crew, the fire from Fort Pickens, as it is uninjured. crossed the channel to Fort McRae. Lieut. James All the government buildings outside the yard raised the Stars and Stripes on the staff where the were burned. confederate rag has so long hung. A salute was The rebels removed all the heavy columbiads fired in honor of the old ensign, and three cheers from the forts and batteries, but left many fortygiven for the Union and three for the flag. The two-pounders. When the fire broke out, twenty Fort presented a sad spectacle of charred and guns were seen in position from Fort Pickens. smoking timbers, blackened walls and demolished The rebels left the keys of the magazines of masonry. The timber-flooring in all the case- McRae and Barrancas, and of the gates of the mates, which had sustained the upper tier of latter Fort, hanging against the walls outside, as guns, was entirely consumed, as were the gates if to invite their successors to walk in and take of the main salle porte, and the timbers of the possession. But our troops were not to be caught blindages. Only three pieces of ordnance remain with that chaff. The disposition of the keys had ed in the Fort-two thirty-two-pounders, from one too much the appearance of a sinister design; of which a shot had been discharged during the and with a wariness which marks the true solconflagration, and the casemate howitzer, both dier, when venturing into the enemy's country, spiked and dismounted. In the land-battery ad- they avoided the trap which may have been laid joining the Fort were found two pieces of peculiarly to blow them up, and instead of entering the constructed rebel artillery, of the usual inoffen- Fort by the main passage, they scaled the walls. sive character, but which occupied the places of The magazines of both forts will be excavated, two heavy rifled cannon which had been removed. in order to ascertain if the rebels left any infernal The “Quakers" were the merest shams not mechanism by which to destroy the Federals. logs, but constructed two wooden wheels for Bragg took away with him, in march, a large muzzle and breech, wooden slats forming the rifled cannon and ten-inch columbiad, which body of the piece.

constituted the light-house battery. The arinaThe light-house was set on fire, but only slight- ments of the different batteries and forts at Penly injured. Fort Barrancas sustained little in- sacola at the time of the bombardment, as near jury from the vandals, owing to the incessant as it can be ascertained, were as follows: There shower of grape poured into that work from Fort were forty-two guns on the island on which Fort Pickens. It was damaged more by the bombard- McRae is situated, including the armament of that ment of December and January than by the reb- work and the water-batteries. There was a batels, but still is in excellent condition. The re- tery of two ten-inch mortars, and another of two doubt is untouched. Casemates in the counter-ten-inch columbiads, just above the residence of scarp gallery, in the old Spanish battery, and the Col. Chase, which also mounted between them redoubt in the rear of Fort Barrancas, are unin- three forty-twos and two eight-inch guns. The jured. Barrancas Barracks, an immense pile on light-house battery, rendered famous by the dethe right of the Fort, escaped the torch of the structive fire it poured into Pickens during the incendiaries ; but the magnificent naval hospital, January bombardment, remains intact.

The said to be the finest structure of the kind in the guns have been removed. In the rear of the United States, lies a mass of smouldering ruins. light-house was a mortar, supposed to be a tenIt was behind this hospital that Bragg had a inch sea-coast. heavy mortar battery during the first bombard- There were four batteries between the lightment, and shielded from the fire of Pickens by house and Barrancas, which mounted seven fortythe humane folds of the yellow flag which floated twos and five eight-inch columbiads. Between over the hospital, he kept up an incessant fire Fort Barrancas and the barracks were four fortyupon the Federal garrison. So general was the twos in two batteries, which are still there, beruin of the towns of Woolsey and Warrington sides four ten-inch columbiads, which had been from the two bonbardments, that there seemed removed. Next to the hospital battery, to which but little remaining to feed the conflagration. I have referred, were four eight-inch columbiads,


which did not open fire. Next in order was the night before had merely been done to catch Wheet's battery, consisting of two ten-inch co- him and his little schooner. lumbiads and three thirty-twos; Church's bat- He was promptly rebuked by a confederato tery, with one ten-inch and two smaller guns. officer, who was standing near by unofficially, There was a ten-inch columbiad mounted on a by being told that he had no right to ask such point in the Navy-Yard, and batteries of unknown questions under a flag of truce; a very proper number and strength lined the shore from the rebuke, which the Federal officer seemed, for a yard to Pensacola. At the mouth of Big Bayou rarity, to feel and appreciate. there were two ten-inch and several smaller guns The interview alluded to above was with Mayor mounted. Nearly all the heavy guns used here Bobe. The surrender of the city was demanded were transported from Norfolk, after the seizure and promptly refused. The Mayor was told that of that place by the rebels.

the city would be occupied during the day by the Federals, and that the people need not be

alarmed, as they would be protected. In the PENSACOLA, May 10, 1862.

boat's crew two deserters were identified. The scenes of last night closed the long cam- The city is generally deserted, but few people paign of Pensacola--of its history you are suffi- remaining. The track of the railroad is torn up ciently familiar. The order for the destruction and the iron removed. The telegraph-office is of the Warrington Navy-Yard, and all public closed and the wire removed. property at that place and Pensacola that could not be moved, was successfully carried into exe

Doc. 14. cution at the Yard and Pensacola.

About half-past eleven o'clock, the signal being OPENING OF SOUTHERN PORTS. given by Brig-Gen. Thomas Jones, in an instant

PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S PROCLAMATION. the torch was applied at every point, and in a few

Whereas, By my Proclamation of the nineminutes the whole works, gun-carriages, etc., in teenth of April, one thousand eight hundred and Forts Barrancas and McRae, and the hospitals, sixty-one, it was declared that the ports of certogether with all the other buildings in the Navy. tain States, including those of Beaufort, in the Yard proper, in the villages of Woolsey and War- State of North-Carolina, Port Royal, in the State rington, were in flames.

of South-Carolina, and New-Orleans, in the State At the same instant the torch was applied to of Louisiana, were, for reasons therein set forth, the oil-factory and all the government buildings intended to be placed under blockade; and wherein the city of Pensacola, and to the steamers at as the said ports of Beaufort, Port Royal, and the wharf. The scene was grand, thrilling and New Orleans have since been blockaded; but as sublime. The bay was as light as mid-day, while the blockade of the same ports may now be safethe murky clouds overhead reflected back an ap: ly relaxed with advantage to the interests of comparently liquid sea of fire. Fort Pickens could

merce, be plainly seen, and its garrison seemed to have

Now, therefore, be it known that I, ABRAHAM suddenly aroused, astounded and surprised. In LINCOLN, President of the United States, pursua short while, however, Pickens opened with shot ant to the authority in me vested by the fifth secand shell. Our boys, not relishing the compli- tion of the act of Congress, approved on the thirments, instantly returned it from one or two teenth of July last, entitled, "An act further to smooth-bore forty-fours and thirty-twos, which provide for the collection of duties on imports, quickly cleared the ramparts of Pickens of all and for other purposes," do hereby declare that sight-seers. Whether anybody was “hurt” is the blockade of the said ports of Beaufort, Port not known. Pickens seemed to be, and must Royal, and New-Orleans shall so far cease and have been, perfectly ignorant of our movements, determine, from and after the first day of June and from the heaviness of its fire, was in a par- next, that commercial intercourse with those oxysm of wrath and rage.

ports, except as to persons and things and informThe task of dismantling the forts and batteries, ation contraband of war, may, from that time, and the removal of everything worth transport- be carried on, subject to the laws of the United ing, even to small bits of copper and lead, in the States, and to the liinitations and in pursuance face and very teeth of an enemy, was one of a of the regulations which are prescribed by the most difficult and delicate nature. This has been Secretary of the Treasury in his order of this most admirably executed by Gen. Jones. The date, which is appended to this Proclamation. Federals can now take possession of an inhospit

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my able sand-beach.

hand and caused the seal of the United States to About half-past seven o'clock in the morning a be affixed. Federal sailing schooner ran up within about

Done at the City of Washington, this half a mile of the city, and sent a boat on shore

twelfth day of May, in the year of our with a flag of truce. The Federal officer was

Lord one thousand eight hundred and more anxious to find out what was going on and [L. s.]

sixty-two, and of the Independence of obtain information than anything else, for the

the United States the eighty-sixth. manner in which he sailed up the bay was very

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. cautious and prudent, as though he expected a WILLIAM H. SEWARD, rebel ruse and the destruction of the property

Secretary of State.


moved by different routes, and detachments of TREASURY DEPARTMENT, May 12, 1862. troops under experienced officers were sent in Regulations relating to trade with ports opened every direction to explore the roads leading from by proclamation:

Front Royal to Strasburgh, Middletown, New. First

. To vessels clearing from foreign ports town, and Winchester, and ascertain the force, and destined to ports opened by the proclamation position, and purpose of this sudden movement of the President of the United States of this date, of the enemy. It was soon found that his pickets namely: Beaufort, in North-Carolina, Port Royal, were in possession of every road, and rumors in South-Carolina, and New-Orleans, in Louis- from every quarter represented him in movement, iana. Licenses will be granted by consuls of the in rear of his pickets, in the direction of our United States upon satisfactory evidence that the camp. vessels so licensed will convey no person, prop

The extraordinary force of the enemy could no erty, or information contraband of war either to longer be doubted. It was apparent, also, that or from the said ports; which licenses shall be they had a more extended purpose than the capcxhibited to the collector of the port to which ture of the brave little band at Front Royal. said vessels may be respectively bound, immedi- This purpose could be nothing less than the ately on arrival, and if required, to any officer in defeat of my own command, or its possible capcharge of the blockade; and on leaving either of ture by occupying Winchester, and by this movethe said ports every vessel will be required to ment intercepting supplies or reěnforcements, and have a clearance from the collector of the cus- cutting off all possibility of retreat. toms according to law, showing that there has It was also apparent from the reports of fugibeen no violation of the conditions of the license. tives, prisoners, Union men, and our own reconAny violation of the said conditions will involve noitring parties, that all the three divisions of the the forfeiture and condemnation of the vessel and enemy's troops known to be in the valley, and cargo, and the exclusion of all parties concerned embracing at least twenty-five thousand 'men, from any further privilege of entering the United were united and close upon us, in some enterStates during the war for any purpose whatever. prise not yet developed.

Second. To vessels of the United States clear- The suggestion that, had their object been a ing coastwise for the ports aforesaid license can surprise, they would have given notice of their only be obtained from the Treasury Department approach by an attack on Front Royal, was an

Third. In all other respects the existing block-swered by the fact that on the only remaining ade remains in full force and effect, as hitherto point of attack—the Staunton road-our outposts established and maintained ; nor is it relaxed by were five miles in advance, and daily reconnoisthe proclamation, except in regard to the ports sances made for a distance of twelve miles toto which the relaxation is by that instrument ex

ward Woodstock. pressly applied.


Under this interpretation of the enemy's plans, Secretary of the Treasury. our position demanded instant decision and ac

tion. Three courses were open to us: first, a retreat across Little North Mountain to the Po

tomac River on the West; second, an attack Doc. 15.

upon the enemy's flank on the Front Royal road;

third, a rapid movement direct upon Winchester, RETREAT OF GENERAL BANKS. with a view to anticipate his occupation of the

town by seizing it ourselves — thus placing my GENERAL BANKS'S REPORT.

command in communication with its original base HEADQUARTERS ARMY SHENANDOAH, June, 1862. of operations, in the line of reënforcements by Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War: Harper's Ferry and Martinsburgh, and securing a

INFORMATION was received on the evening of safe retreat in case of disaster. To remain at May twenty-third that the enemy in very large Strasburgh was to be surrounded; to move over force had descended on the guard at Front Royal, the mountains was to abandon our train at the Col. Kenly, First Maryland regiment, command- outset, and to subject my command to flank at. ing, burning the bridges and driving our troops tacks without possibility of succor; and to attoward Strasburgh with great loss. Owing to tack, the enemy being in such overwhelming what was deemed an extravagant statement of force, could only result in certain destruction. the enemy's strength, these reports were received It was therefore determined to enter the lists with some distrust; but a regiment of infantry, with the enemy in a race or a battle, as he should with a strong detachment of cavalry and a section choose, for the possession of Winchester, the key of artillery, were immediately sent to reënforce of the valley, and for us the position of safety. Col. Kenly. Later in the evening, despatches from At three o'clock A.M., the twenty-fourth inst., fugitives who had escaped to Winchester informed the reënforcements—infantry, artillery, and cavus that Col. Kenly's force had been destroyed, alry-sent to Col. Kenly were recalled; the adwith but few exceptions, and the enemy, fifteen vance-guard, Col. Donnelly's brigade, were or twenty thousand strong, were advancing by dered to return to Strasburgh; several hundred rapid marches on Winchester.

disabled men left in our charge by Shields's diOrders were immediately given to halt the re- vision were put upon the march, and our wagon. enforcements sent to Front Royal, which had I train ordered forward to Winchester, under es


cort of cavalry and infantry. Gen. Hatch, with the admirable conduct of the officers and men. nearly our whole force of cavalry and six pieces We lost one man killed and some wounded. of artillery, was charged with the protection of This episode, with the change of front, occuthe rear of the column and the destruction of pied nearly an hour, but it saved our column. army stores for which transportation was not Had the enemy vigorously attacked our train provided, with instructions to remain in front of while at the head of the column, it would have the town as long as possible, and hold the enemy been thrown into such dire confusion as to have in check, our expectations of attack being in that made a successful continuation of our march imdirection. All these orders were executed with possible. Pending this contest, Col. Brodhead, incredible alacrity, and soon after nine o'clock of the First Michigan cavalry, was ordered to the coluinn was on the march, Col. Donnelly in advance, and, if possible, to cut his way through front, Col. Gordon in the centre, and Gen. Hatch and occupy Winchester. It was the report of in the rear.

this energetic officer that gave us the first assurThe column had passed Cedar Creek, about ance that our course was yet clear, and he was three miles from Strasburgh, with the exception the first of our column to enter the town. of the rear-guard, still in front of Strasburgh, When it was first reported that the enemy had when information was received from the front pushed between us and Winchester, Gen. Hatch that the enemy had attacked the train, and was was ordered to advance with all his available in full possession of the road at Middletown. This cavalry from Strasburgh, leaving Col. De Forrest report was confirmed by the return of fugitives, to cover the rear and destroy stores not provided refugees, and wagons, which came tumbling to with transportation. Major Vought, Fifth Newthe rear in fearful confusion.

York cavalry, had been previously ordered to reIt being apparent now that our immediate dan- connoitre the Front Royal road, to ascertain the ger was in front, the troops were ordered to the position of the enemy, whom he encountered in head of the column and the train to the rear; and force near Middletown, and was compelled to fall in view of a possible necessity for our return to back, immediately followed by the enemy's cavStrasburgh, Capt. James W. Abert, Topographi- alry, infantry and artillery. In this affair five of cal corps--who associated with him the Zouaves our men were killed and several wounded. The d'Afrique, Capt. Collis was ordered to prepare enemy's loss is not known. Cedar Creek bridge for the flames, in order to After repeated attempts to force a passage prevent a pursuit in that direction by the enemy: through the lines of the enemy, now advanced to In the execution of this order Capt. Abert and the pike, Gen. Hatch, satisfied that this result the Zouaves were cut off from the column, which could not be accomplished without great loss, they joined at Williamsport. They had at Stras- and supposing our army to have proceeded but burgh a very sharp conflict with the enemy, in a short distance, turned to the left and moved which his cavalry suffered severely. An inter- upon a parallel road, made several ineffectual atesting report of this affair will be found in the tempts to effect a junction with the main column. reports of Capt. Abert and Capt. Collis.

At Newtown, however, he found Col. Gordon The head of the reorganized column, Col. Don. holding the enemy in check, and joined his brinelly commanding, encountered the enemy in gade. Major Collins, with three companies of cavforce at Middletown, about thirteen miles from alry, mistaking the point where the main body Winchester. Three hundred troops had been of the cavalry left the road, dashed upon the eneseen in town, but it soon appeared that larger my until stopped by the barricade of wagons and forces were in the rear. The brigade halted, and the tempestuous fire of infantry and artillery. the Forty-sixth Pennsylvania, Col. Knipe, was His loss must have been very severe. ordered to penetrate the woods on the right and Six companies of the Fifth New-York, Col. dislodge the enemy's skirmishers. They were De Forrest, and six companies of the First Versupported by a section of Cothran's New-York mont cavalry, Col. Tompkins, after repeated and battery. Five companies of the enemy's cavalry desperate efforts to form a junction with the were discovered in an open field in the rear of the main body-the road now being filled with inwoods, and our artillery, masked at first by the fantry, artillery and cavalry-fell back to Strasinfantry, opened fire upon them. They stood fire burgh, where they found the Zouaves d'Afrique. for a while, but at length retreated, pursued by The Fifth New-York, failing to effect a junction our skirmishers. The Twenty-eighth New-York, at Winchester, and also at Martinsburgh, came Lieut.-Col. Brown, was now brought up, and un- in at Clear Spring, with a train of thirty-two der a heavy fire of infantry and artillery, the en- wagons and many stragglers. The First Veremy were driven back more than two miles from mont, Col. Tompkins, joined us at Winchester the pike. Col. Donnelly, being informed at that with six pieces of artillery, and participated in point, by a citizen in great alarm, that four thou- the fight of the next morning. Nothing could sand men were in the woods beyond, the men surpass the celerity and spirit with which the were anxious to continue the fight; but as this various companies of cavalry executed their would have defeated our object by the loss of movements, or their intrepid charges upon the valuable time, with the exception of a small enemy. guard, they were ordered to resume the march. Gen. Hatch deserves great credit for the man

This affair occurred under my own observa- ner in which he discharged his duties as chief of tion, and I have great pleasure in vouching for I cavalry in this part of our march, as well as at

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