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lishman who went to India to make a for, tune first, in order that he might return to ( England and live the life of a poet. He `-should have gone up garret at once. "What l” exclaim a million Irishmen starting up from all the shanties in the land, "is not this railroad which we have built a good thing?" Yes, I answer, comparatively good, that is, you might have done worse; but I wish, as you are brothers of mine, that you could have spent your time better than digging in this dirt.

Before I finished my house, wishing to earn ten or twelve dollars by some honest and agreeable method, in order to meet my unusual expenses, I planted about two acres and a half of light and sandy soil near it chiefly with beans, but also a small part with potatoes, corn, peas, and turnips. The whole lot contains eleven acres, mostly growing up to pines and hickories, and was sold the preceding season for eight dollars and eight cents an acre. One farmer said that it was “good for nothing but to raise cheeping squirrels on." I put no manure whatever on this land, not being the owner, but merely a squatter, and not expecting to cultivate so much again, and I did not quite hoe it all once. I got out several cords of stumps in ploughing, which supplied me with fuel for a long time, and left small circles of virgin mould, easily distinguishable through the summer by the greater luxuriance of the beans there. The dead and for the most part unmerchantable wood behind my house, and the driftwood from the pond, have supplied the remainder of my fuel. I was obliged to hire a team and a man for the ploughing, though I held the plough myself. My farm outgoes for the first season were, for implements, seed, work, etc., $14,723. The seed corn was given me. This never costs anything to speak of, unless you plant more than enough. I got twelve bushels of beans, and eighteen bushels of potatoes, beside some peas and sweet corn. The yellow corn and turnips were too late to come to anything. My whole income from the farm was

$23 44 Deducting the outgoes . . . 14 72} There are left . . . . . . $8 71},

beside produce consumed and on hand at the time this estimate was made of the value of

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$4.50, — the amount on hand much more than balancing a little grass which I did not raise. All things considered, that is, considering the importance of a man's soul and of to-day, notwithstanding the short time oc. cupied by my experiment, nay, partly even because of its transient character, I believe that that was doing better than any farmer in Concord did that year. The next year I did better still, for I spaded up all the land which I required, about a third of an acre, and I learned from the experience of both years not being in the least awed by many celebra On husbandry, Arthur Young among the rest, that if one would live simply and eat only the crop which he raised, and raise no more than he ate, and not exchange it for an insufficient quantity of more luxurious and expensive things, he would need to cultivate only a few rods of ground, and that it would be cheaper to spade up that than to use oxen to plough it, and to select a fresh spot from time to time than to manure the old, and he could do all his necessary farm work as it were with his left hand at odd hours in the summer; and thus he would not be tied to an ox. or horse, or cow, or pig, as at present;

I desire to speak impartially on this point,
and as one not interested in the success or
failure of the present economical and social
arrangements. I was more independent
than any farmer in Concord, for I was not
anchored to a house or farm, but could fol-
low the bent of my genius, which is a very
crooked one, every moment. Beside being
better off than they already, if my house
had been burned or my crops had failed, I
should have been nearly as well off as be-
I am wont to think that men are not so
much the keepers of herds as herds are the
keepers of men, the former are so much the
freer. Men and oxen exchange work; but
if we consider necessary work only, the oxen
will be seen to have greatly the advantage,
their farm is so much the larger. Man does
some of his part of the exchange work in his
six weeks of haying, and it is no boy's play.
Certainly no nation that lived simply in all

respects, that is, no nation of philosophers, T

would commit so great a blunder as to use the labor of animals. True, there never was and is not likely soon to be a nation of philosophers, nor am I certain it is desirable that there should be. However, I should

never have broken a horse or bull and taken him to board for any work he might do for me, for fear I should become a horse-man or a herds-man merely; and if society seems to be the gainer by so doing, are we certain that what is one man's gain is not another's loss, and that the stable-boy has equal cause with his master to be satisfied? Granted that some public works would not have been constructed without this aid, and let man share the glory of such with the ox and horse; does it follow that he could not have accomplished works yet more worthy of himself in that case? hen men begin to do, not merely unnecessary or artistic, but luxurious

and idle work, with their assistance, it is in

evitable that a few do all the exchange work with the oxen, or, in other words, become the slaves of the strongest.) Man thus not only works for the animal within him, but, for a symbol of this, he works for the animal without him. WThough we have many substantial houses of brick or stone, the prosperity of the farmer is still measured by the degree to which the barn overshadows the house. This town is said to have the largest houses for oxen, cows, and horses hereabouts, and it is not behindhand in its public build.

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