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9. The General Assembly shall not have the power to require the counties or other municipal corporations to pay any charges which are now payable out of the State Treasury.

ARTICLE XII.

Militia.

1. All able-bodied male inhabitants of this State, between the ages of eighteen years and forty-five years, who are citizens of the United States, or have declared their intention to become such citizens, shall be liable to military duty in the militia of the State.

2. The General Assembly, in providing for the organization, equipment, and discipline of the militia, shall conform as nearly as practicable to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United States.

3. Each company and regiment shall elect its own company and regimental officers; but if any company or regiment shall neglect to elect such officers within the time prescribed by law, they may be appointed by the Governor.

4. Volunteer organizations of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, may be formed in such manner, and under such restrictions, and with such privileges, as may be provided by law.

5. The militia and volunteer forces shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at musters, parades, and elections, and in going to and returning from the same.

6. The Governor shall, except as otherwise provided herein, be commander-in-chief of the militia and volunteer forces of the State, except when in the service of the United States, and shall, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint all general officers, whose term of office shall be for four years. The Governor, the Generals and regimental and battalion commanders, shall appoint their own staffs, as may be provided by law.

7. The General Assembly shall provide for the safe keeping of the arms, ammunition and accoutrements, military records, banners and relics of the State.

8. The officers and men of the militia and volunteer forces shall not be entitled to, or receive, any pay, rations or emoluments, when not in active service.

ARTICLE XIII.

Education. 1. The General Assembly shall establish, organize and maintain a system of public schools throughout the State for the equal benefit of the children thereof, between the ages of seven and twenty-one years; but separate schools shall be provided for the children of African descent.

2. The principal of all funds arising from the sale or other disposition of lands or other property, which has been or may hereafter be granted or intrusted to this State, or given by the United States for educational purposes, shall be preserved inviolate and undiminished; and the income arising therefrom shall be faithfully applied to the specific objects of the original grants or appropriations.

3. All lands or other property given by individuals, or appropriated by the State for educational purposes, and all estates of deceased persons, who die without leaving a will or heir, shall be faithfully applied to the maintenance of the public schools.

4. The General Assembly shall also provide for the levying and collection of an annual poll tax, not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each poll, which shall be applied to the support of the public schools in the counties in which it is levied and collected.

5. The income arising from the sixteenth section trust fund, the surplus revenue fund, until it is called for by the United States government, and the funds enumerated in sections three and four of this article, with such other moneys, to be not less than one hundred thousand dollars per annum, as the General Assembly shall provide by taxation or otherwise, shall be applied to the support and maintenance of the public schools, and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to increase, from time to time, the public school fund, as the condition of the Treasury and the resources of the State will admit.

6. Not more than four per cent of all moneys raised, or which may hereafter be appropriated for the support of public schools, shall be used or expended otherwise than for the payment of teachers, employed in such schools: Provided, That the General Assembly may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, suspend the operation of this section.

7. The supervision of the public schools shall be vested in a Superintendent of Education, whose powers, duties, term of office and compensation shall be fixed by law. The Superintendent of Education shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State in such manner and at such time as shall be provided by law.

8. No money raised for the support of the public schools of the State, shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian or denominational school.

9. The State University and the Agricultural and Mechanical College shall each be under the management and control of a Board of Trustees. The board for the university shall consist of two members from the congressional district in which the university is located, and one from each of the other congressional districts in the State. The board for the Agricultural and Mechanical College shall consist of two members from the congressional district in which the college is located, and one from each of the other congressional districts in the State. Said trustees shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall hold office for a term of six years, and until their successors shall be appointed and qualified. After the first appointment each board shall be divided into three classes, as nearly equal as may be. The seats of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class in four years, and those of the third class at the end of six years from the date of appointment, so that one-third may be chosen biennially. No trustee shall receive any pay or emolument other than his actual expenses incurred in the discharge of his duties as such. The Governor shall be ex officio president and the Superintendent of Education ex officio a member of each of said Boards of Trustees.

10. The General Assembly shall have no power to change the location of the State University or the Agricultural and Mechani. cal College as now established by law, except upon a vote of twothirds of the General Assembly, taken by yeas and nays and entered upon the journals.

11. The provisions of this article and of any act of the General Assembly passed in pursuance thereof to establish, organize or maintain a system of public schools throughout the State,

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shall apply to Mobile county only so far as to authorize and require the authorities designated by law to draw the portion of the funds to which said county shall be entitled for school purposes, and to make reports to the Superintendent of Education as may be prescribed by law. And all special incomes and powers of taxation, as now authorized by law for the benefit of public schools in said county, shall remain undisturbed until otherwise provided by the General Assembly:. Provided, That separate schools for each race shall always be maintained by said school authorities.

ARTICLE XIV.

Corporations - Private Corporations. 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal, manufacturing, mining, immigration, industrial and educational purposes, or for constructing canals, or improving navigable rivers and harbors of this state, and in cases, where in the judgment of the General Assembly, the objects of the corporation cannot be attained under the general laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered, amended and repealed.

2. All existing charters or grants of special or exclusive privileges under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

3. The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass any general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, other than in execution of a trust created by law or by contract, except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

4. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State without having at least one known place of business and an authorized agent or agents therein, and such corporation may be sued in any county where it does business by service of process upon an agent anywhere in this State.

5. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter.

6. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general laws, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of stock, first obtained at a meeting to be held after thirty days' notice given in pursuance of law.

7. Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with the privilege of taking private property for public use, shall make just compensation for the property taken, injured or destroyed by the construction or enlargement of its works, highways or improvements, which compensation shall be paid before such taking, injury or destruction. The General Assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person of an appeal from any perliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations or individuals made by viewers or otherwise; and the amount of such damages in all cases of appeal shall, on the demand of either party, be determined by a jury according to law.

Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder be individually liable otherwise than for the unpaid stock owned by him or her.

9. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the consent of the owners of two-thirds of the stock of said corporation.

10. The General Assembly shall have the power to alter, revoke or amend any charter of incorporation now existing, and revocable at the ratification of this Constitution, or any that may hereafer be created, whenever, in their opinion, it may be injurious to the citizens of this State, in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the incorporators. No law hereafter enacted shall create, renew or extend the charter of more than one corporation.

11. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this State, and connect the same with other lines, and the General Assembly shall, by general law of

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