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for the year eighteen hundred and eighty; which apportionment, when made, shall be subject to alteration until the first session of the General Assembly after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken.
3. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year eighteen hundred and eighty, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of representatives and apportion them among the several counties of the State: Provided, That each county shall be entitled to at least one representative.
4. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year eighteen hundred and eighty, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of Senators and to divide the State into as many Senatorial Districts as there are Senators, which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other in the number of inhabitants as may be, and each shall be entitled to one Senator and no more; and which districts when formed, shall not be changed until the next apportioning session of the General Assembly after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken. No county shall be divided between two districts and no district shall be made of two or more counties not contiguous to each other.
5. Should the decennial census of the United States, from any cause, not be taken, or if when taken, the same as to this State is not full and satisfactory, the General Assembly shall have power, at its first session after the time shall have elapsed for the taking of said census, to provide for an enumeration of all the inhabitants of this State, and once in each ten years thereafter, upon which it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to make the apportionment of Representatives and Senators as provided for in this article.
Until the General Assembly shall make an apportionment of Representatives among the several counties, after the first decennial census of the United States, as herein provided, the counties of Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Blount, Calhoun, Chilton, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, DeKalb, Elmore, Etowah, Escambia, Fayette, Franklin, Geneva, Henry, Lauder
dale, Marion, Morgan, Monroe, Marshall, Randolph, Sanford, Shelby, St. Clair, Walker, Washington and Winston shall each have one Representative; the counties of Barbour, 'Bullock, Butler, Chambers, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Jefferson, Limestone, Lawrence, Lowndes, Lee, Macon, Marengo, Perry, Pickens, Pike, Russell, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuskaloosa, and Wilcox shall have each two Representatives; the county of Madison shall have three Representatives; the counties of Dallas and Montgomery shall have each four Representatives.
7. Until the General Assembly shall divide the State into senatorial districts, the senatorial districts shall be as follows:
First district, Lauderdale and Limestone; second district, Colbert and Lawrence; third district, Morgan, Winston and Blount; fourth district, Madison; fifth district, Marshall, Jackson and DeKalb; sixth district, Cherokee, Etowah, and St. Clair; seventh district, Calhoun and Cleburne; eighth district, Talladega and Clay; ninth district, Randolph and Chambers; tenth district, Macon and Tallapoosa; eleventh district, Bibb and Tuskaloosa; twelfth district, Franklin, Marion, Fayette and Sanford; thirteenth district, Walker, Jefferson and Shelby; fourteenth district, Greene and Pickens; fifteenth district, Coosa, Elmore and Chilton; sixteenth district, Lowndes and Autauga; seventeenth district, Butler and Conecuh; eighteenth district, Perry; nineteenth district, Choctaw, Clarke and Washington; twentieth district, Marengo; twenty-first district, Monroe, Escambia and Baldwin; twenty-second district, Wilcox, twenty-third district, Henry, Coffee, Dale and Geneva; twentyfourth district, Barbour; twenty-fifth district, Pike, Crenshaw, and Covington; twenty-sixth district, Bullock; twenty-seventh district, Lee; twenty-eighth district, Montgomery; twenty-ninth district, Russell; thirtieth district, Dallas; thirty-first district, Sumter; thirty-second
thirty-second district, Hale; thirty-third district, Mobile.
Erempted Property. 1. The personal property of any resident of this State to the value of one thousand dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be exempted from sale on execution, or other process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt contracted, since
the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution.
2. Every homestead, not exceeding eighty acres, and the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not in any city, town or village, with the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, owned or occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of two thousand dollars, shall be exempted from sale, on execution or any other process from a court, for any debt contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution. Such exemption, however, shall not extend to any mortgage, lawfully obtained, but such mortgage or other alienation of such homestead, by the owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of the wife to the same.
3. The homestead of a family after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debts contracted since the thirteenth day of July eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution, in all cases, during the minority of the children.
4. The provisions of section one and two of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises.
5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, such homestead shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit.
6. The real or personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may afterwards be entitled by gift, grant, inheritance, or devise, shall be and remain the separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, and engagements of her husband, and may be devised or bequeathed by her, the same as if she was a femme sole.
7. The right of exemption hereinbefore secured, may be waived by an instrument in writing, and when such waiver relates to realty, the instrument must be signed by both the husband and the wife, and attested by one witness.
Taction. 1. All taxes levied on property in this state, shall be assessed in exact proportion to the value of such property: Provided, however, The General Assembly may levy a poll tax not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each poll, which shall be applied exclusively in aid of the public school fund, in the county so paying the same.
2. No power to levy taxes shall be delegated to individuals or private corporations.
3. After the ratification of this Constitution, no new debt shall be created against, or incurred by, this State or its authority, except to repel invasion, or suppress insurrection, and then only by a concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each house of the General Assembly, and the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the journals; and any act creating or incurring any new debt against this State, except as herein provided for, shall be absolutely void: Provided, The Governor may be authorized to negotiate temporary loans, never to exceed one hundred thousand dollars, to meet deficiencies in the treasury; and until the same is paid, no new loan shall be negotiated: Provided, further, That this section shall not be so construed as to prevent the issuance of bonds in adjustment of the existing State indebtedness.
4. The General Assembly shall not have the power to levy, in any one year, a greater rate of taxation than three-fourths of one per centum on the value of the taxable property within this State.
5. No county in this State shall be authorized to levy a larger rate of taxation, in any one year, on the value of the taxable property therein than one-half one per centum: Provided, That to pay debts existing at the ratification of this Constitution, an additional rate of one-fourth of one per centum may be levied and collected, which shall be exclusively appropriated to the payment of such debts, or the interest thereon: Provided, further, That to any debt or liability now existing against any county, incurred for the erection of the necessary public buildings, or other ordinary county purposes, or that may hereafter be created for the erection of the necessary public
buildings or bridges, any county may levy and collect such special taxes as may have been or may hereafter be authorized by law, which taxes so levied and collected shall be applied exclusively to the purposes for which the same shall have been levied and collected.
6. The property of private torporations, associations and individuals of this State, shall forever be taxed at the same rate: Provided, This section shall not apply to institutions or enterprises devoted exclusively to religious, educational or charitable purposes.
7. No city, town or municipal corporation, other than provided for in this article, shall levy or collect a larger rate of taxation, in any one year, on the property thereof, than onehalf of one per centum of the value of such property, assessed for State taxation during the preceding year: Provided, That for the payment of debts existing at the time of the notification of this Constitution, and the interests thereon, an additional rate of one per centum may be collected, to be applied exclusively to such indebtedness: And, provided, This section shall not apply to the city of Mobile, which city may, until the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine, levy a tax not to exceed the rate of one per centum, and from and after that time a tax not to exceed the rate of three-fourths of one per centum to pay the expenses of the city government, and may also, until the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine, levy a tax not to exceed the rate of one per centum, and from and after that time, a tax not to exceed the rate of three-fourths of one per centum, to pay the existing indebtedness of said city and the interest thereon.
8. At the first session of the General Assembly after the ratification of this Constitution, the salaries of the following officers shall be reduced at least twenty-five per centum, viz: Governor, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, Attorney-General, Superintendent of Education, Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts, and Chancellors; and after said reduction the General Assembly shall not have the power to increase the same except by a vote of a majority of all the members elected to each house, taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the journals: Provided, This section shall not apply to any of said officers now in office.