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Drostdn, from beginning to end, in freedom from mormaer and from toisech to (the) day of judgment.

The clause translated by the words in Roman type is written

with ink of a different colour from that used in the previous part

of the entry,—at a later time,—and after the succeeding entry

had been engrossed. This may be seen by referring to Plate V.,

where it will be observed that the writing of the words in question

is closer than the rest of the entry, and that its conclusion is

carried above the line, the space below having previously been

filled up. Cathal, who, as we have seen, had already mortified

his share as toisech in certain subjects previously dedicated to

Drostan, is now associated with Domnall and Cathal in "freeing"

other subjects from the claims of mormaer and toisech. Domnall

and Cainnech seem to have been mormaers, or at least in right

of the mormaer's dues, so as to be entitled to surrender them.

Gartnait mac cannech acus ete ingengillemichel doratsat pet mec c6brig ricosecrad eclasi crist acus petir abstoil acus docolumcille acus dodrostan ser onahulib dolodib conanascad d6cormac escob dunicallenn m6cmad bliadin rigi da[bid] Testibus istis nectan escob abbferdeon] acus leot ab brecini acus mdledonn mac meic bead acus algune mac arcill acus r1iadri mormaer marr acus matadiu brithem acus gillecrist mac c6rmaic acus malpetir mac domnaill acus domongart ferleginn turbruad . acus gUlecolaim mac muredig . acus dubni mac malcolaim.

Gartnait son of Cainnech, and Ete daughter of Gille Michel, gave Pett mac Cobrig for (tJie) consecration of a church of Christ and Peter (the) apostle both to Columcille and to Drostdn free from all the exactions, with the gift of them to Cormac Bislwp of Dunkeld in the eighth year of David's reign. Testibus istis Nectdn Bishop of Aberdeen, and Leot Abbot of Brechin, and Maledonn son of Mac Be[th]ad, and Algune, son of Arcell, and Buadri, mormaer of Marr, and Matadin the l/rehon,' and Gillechrist son of Cormac, and Maelpelir son of Domnall, and

1 A later brehon of the province, Far- i. p. 14); and Ferchard is one of three "ju

hard,"judexdeBuchan," witnesses a charter dices" who were present at a perambula

of William, Earl of Buchan, to Cospatrick tion of the lands of Tarves in A.d. 1236.

MacMadethynfRegistr.Episcop.Aberd.vol. —(Registr. de Aberbrothoc, p. 161.)

Dommgart ferleighin of Turriff, and GUlecolaim son of Muredach, and Dubni son of Maelcolaim.

This entry is probably the abstract of a written grant, dated A.d. 1131-32, but the transaction retains the appearance of the earlier unwritten gift, and seems to have been completed at a great gathering of the country, probably held on the Moot Hill at Ellon, where, as we shall see, a similar gift was afterwards made at a like meeting.

On the release of the lands from all exactions, and the gift of them to Oormac, Bishop of Dunkeld, some remarks will be found in connection with the general subject of burdens in a subsequent chapter (" Celtic Polity.") Among the witnesses we find Nectan, the first bishop of the see of Aberdeen, on its foundation or translation from Mortlach about the year 1125; and Leot or Leod, Abbot of Brechin, was one of the lay abbots of that place, by whom, and by Dovenald his grandson, also abbot, portions of the church property were alienated.1

Dorat gartnait acus ingengillemicel ball domin ipet ipair docrist acus docolimcilli acus dodrostan, Teste gille calline sacart acus feradac mac malbhricin acus malgirc mac tralin.

Gartnait and [Ete] the daughter of Gillemichel gave Ball-Domin in Pet Ipair to Christ and to Columcille and to Drostan. Witness, Gillecaline, priest, and Feradach, son of Malbhricin, and Maelgirc, son of Tralin.

No spot in the district now corresponds with the name of the

place here granted.

Acus bennact inchomded arcecmormar acus arcectosech chomallfas acus dansil daneis.

1 Registr. de Dunfermelyn, p. 8; Registr. Episcopal. Brechinen. vol. i. p. 3 ; Registr. Vet. de Aberbrothoc, p. 49.

And the Lord,s blessing on every mormaer and on every toisech who shall fulfil (this), and to their seed after them.

This invocation, which is on the upper margin of the illumination of St. Matthew (Plate VI.), appears to have been written at a different time and by a different hand from the entries on the previous folios.

The side marginal entries on Plates VI. and VII. (fols. 4 b and 5), beginning with the grants of Donchad, son of Mac Bead, and ending with that of Colbain, the mormaer, seem to have been written at one time. The last two lines at the bottom of Plate VI., granting freedom from the toisech, have been inserted after the other writing.

On the upper margin of Plate VII. have been written the words, "in nomine scte Trinitatis," which have been partially pared off in binding the volume.

Donchad mac mec bead mec hidid dorat acchad madchor docrist acus dodrostan acus do choluimchille in sore gobrad malechi acus cdmgell acus gille crist mac finguni innaienasi intestus . acus malcoluim mac molini.

Donchad, son of Mac Bethad, son of Hided, gave Achad Madclwr to Christ and to Drostdn and to Columcille in freedom for ever: Malechi and Comgell and G-illcchrist, son of Fingune in witness thereof, in testimony, and Maelcoluim son of Moline.

The lands in this grant are obviously those of Auchmachar lying about three miles north-west from the church of Deer.

Cormac mac cennedig dorat gonige scab merlec.
Cormac son of Cennedig gave as far as Scale Merlech.

The place here indicated is that now known as Skillymarno, a farm about a mile beyond Auchmachar to the north.

Comgell mac caennaig tacsec clande canan dorat docrist acus dodrostan acus d6choluim cille gonige ingort lie m6r igginn infius isnesu daldin alenn ddabaci g6lurchari et arsliab acus achad issaere othesseach cubrath acus abennacht arcachhen chomallfas araes cubrath acus amallact arcachen ticfa ris.

Comgell, son of Gaennech, toisech of Clan Canan, gave to Christ and to Drostan, and to Columcille as far as the Gort lie m&r (Great-rock field) at (the) hither (?) end which is nearest to Aldin Alenn from Dobaci to Lurchari both mountain and field in freedom from toisech for ever; and his blessing on every one who shall fulfil (this) after him, and his curse on every one who shall go against it.

The lands here conveyed adjoined those of Aden (of old Alneden), which lie along the river Ugie eastward from the church; but from the additional description, "both mountain and field," I infer that they must have comprehended part of the high ground at Pitfour. The granter was toisech of the Clan Canan.

Robhaid colbain morm&r biichan acus eua ingen garnait abenpbusta acus donnachac mac sitbig toesech clenni morgainn nahuli edbarta rf ilia acus ridrostan acus ria columcilli acus ri petar apstal onahulib dolaidib archuit cetri dabacb do ni thissad arardmandaidib alban cucotchenn acus arardchellaib . testibus bis brocin et cormac abb turbruaid et morgunn mac donnchaid acus gilli petair mac donnchaid acus malaechfn acus da mac matni acus mathe bucban huli nafaidnaisse in hclaiu.

Colbain, mormaer of Buchan, and Eva, daughter of Gartnat, his wedded wife, and Donnachac, son of Sithech, toisech of Clann Morgainn, immolated all the offerings to God and to Drostdn and to Columcille and to Peter the apostle from all the burthens for a share of four davochs of what would come on the chief residences [monasteries] of Scotland generally and on chief churches. Testibus his Broccin, and Cormac, Abbot of Turbruaid, and Morgunn, son of Donnchad, and Gille Petair, son of Donnchad, and Malaechin and Matne's two sons, and Hie nobles of Buchan, all in witness hereof in Elan.

This solemn mortmaining of all the offerings was executed by Colban, who was mormaer through his marriage with Eva, the daughter of Gartnat, the previous mormaer. Eva, "his wedded wife," joined in it, and the toisech of Clann Morgainn. Some remarks on the exception from the release from burdens, and the expressions "chief monasteries" and "chief churches," will be found in the

chapter No. IV., "Celtic Polity."

h

The act took place at Ellon, which was of old the capital of the province and earldom of Buchan, at a meeting of the officials, and "good men" or proprietors of the district. This was doubtless held on the Moothill, a green mount at Ellon on the banks of the Ythan, where the Earls of Buchan administered justice and took investiture of their great fief.

One obvious inference may be drawn from the grants now recited—namely, that the annexation of the province to the Crown did not infer the uprooting of the primitive state of society, or the destruction of the early proprietary of the soil, for it is clear that the population and institutions of Buchan were wholly Celtic in the time of David I., and that the influences which led to a change in both must be traced to a later time, and to a concurrence of causes gradually working out their issues throughout the kingdom.

On two blank pages of the Book of Deer (folios 28 b and 29; Plates X. XL) is written in a somewhat later hand than the colophon, the concluding portion of an office for the Visitation of the sick.1

It agrees in character with two similar offices for the visitation of the sick which are found in the Book of Dimma and the Book of Moling, two early copies of the Gospels in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.

In a luminous notice and a careful collation of the three offices by the Bishop of Brechin,2 it has been shown that they all belong to the Ephesine family of offices, thus establishing the very important and interesting fact of the Gallican origin of the liturgy of the

1 The office is printed at p. 89, et seq. butknott. Preface, pp. x-xxiv. Burnt'Liber Ecclesie Beati Terrenani de Ar- island, 1864.

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