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his monastery of St. Asaph in Wales, he built the church and other offices, of dressed wood, " more Britonum," " quum de lapide nondum construere poterant nee usum habebant"l
St. Gwynllyw, towards the end of the sixth century, "signavit cimiterium, et in medio tabulis et virgis fundavit templum."2 About the same time St. Cadoc erected "insigne monasteriolum ex lignorum materie."3
Before the middle of the ninth century, Ronwallon, a man of power, conveyed to the Abbot of Redon his house made "ex tabulis ligneis."4
The use of wooden materials in buildings was also common among the Saxons.
Venerable Bede notices many instances of the erection of stone churches on sites previously occupied by wooden structures, and in describing the conversion of Northumbria, and the numbers baptized in streams by Paulinus, he adds—" Nondum enim oratoria vel baptisteria in ipso exordio nascentis ibi ecclesiae poterant cdificare."5 To the same effect William of Malmesbury writes, "Neque ante Benedictum [Biscop] lapidei tabulatus domus in Britannia nisi per raro videbatur."6
In King Edgar's charter to the Abbey of Malmesbury, dated A.d. 974, he describes the state of the monasteries in his kingdom, "quae velut muscivis scindulis cariosisque tabulis tigno tenus visibiliter diruta."7
1 Vita Kentigerni ap. Pinkerton's Vitae * Chart tie Redon, p. 443.
Sanctor. Scotiae, p. 248. * H. E. lib. ii . cap. xiv.
3 Lives of the Cambro-British Saints, * Hist., voL i. p. 82.
Vita S. Gundleii, p. 148. T Gesta Regum Anglorum, lib. ii. § 153,
* Idem, p. 34. vol . ii. p. 247 (Eng. Hist . Soc.)
Bede describes a wooden dwelling-house in 654. The occupants were engaged in feasting at night, and having kindled a great fire in the middle, it happened that the sparks flying up set on fire the roof, which was made of wattles and thatched with hay.1
It was after their visits to the imperial city that Benedict Biscop, and his friend Wilfrid, were incited to erect their monasteries at Wearmouth and Hexham "Romano opere," and by means of tradesmen brought from abroad,—as at a later period, we have seen the Irish Malachi desirous of erecting a stone church like those which he had seen on his journey to Rome.2
1 H. E. lib. iii. c. x.
'As ideas of Roman art were diffused by the pilgrims to the Holy City, on their return to their own homes, so it is interesting to notice, on the other hand, how the Irish ecclesiastics clung to their own customs. Thus, when the great Irish missionary, St . Columbanus, received from the King of Lombardy a site for his monastery at Bobbio in A.d. 615, he erected "ecclesiam in honore almee genitricis semperque virginis Maria) ex lignit" Towards the end of the ninth century, the erection of a church of stone, by the Abbot Agilulf, is recorded: "ecclesiam ex lapidibtu construxit, turremque super eam edificavit et campanas fecit in ea pendere sicut nunc cernitur."—(Vita S.Columbani Abbatis, ap. Mabillon, Acta SS. Ord. Ben. Tom. ii. p. 37.) Another Irish custom is recorded in this life:—The saint erected a cross near to his church for his devotions, " consuetudo est enim hominibus hujus gentis unumquemque per diem centies et eo plus genuflectere."—(Idem, p. 38.)
The conflict of Roman with Scotic customs appears under other aspects in an ordinance of Louis le Debonnaire, in which, after reciting that the monastery of Landevennec, in Brittany, continued to follow the tonsure and other customs which had been received from the Scots, he enjoined the adoption of the rule of St. Benedict.— (CartuL Landev. ap Morice, Memoires pour servir de Preuves a l'Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de Bretagne, voL i. coL 228. Paris, 1742.)
We can trace the Scotic feeling of strangeness to stone churches so late as the thirteenth, century, in the same country where the stone church of St . Ninian had been erected in the fifth. In the year 1164 Ailred of Rievaux went on a visit into Galloway, and was present at Kirkcudbright on the festival of its patron, St . Cuthbert. A bull was brought to the church as an oblation, which the clerics of the place baited in the churchyard. The more aged remonstrated against such a profanation, but one of the clerics mocked and said,"NecCuthbertihujusadessepresentia, 1 Morice, Memoires pour servir de
Contact with Roman art was followed in other countries by a like result. Thus, of St. Josse, a Breton saint who lived in the middle of the seventh century, we read that on his withdrawing to a retired life, " oratoria duo manibus suis nitebatur construere, unum videlicet B. Petri principis Apostolorum, aliud Sancti Pauli doctoris gentium venerationi deputans, et utrumque ex lignis." Afterwards he went to Rome, and on his return it is said, " Habebat enim jam tunc ecclesiam novam ex petris constructam, quae mox, postquam Dei famulus Roma veniens in earn patrocinia multa detulerat, dedicata est in honore Sancti Martini."1
The "mos Romanus," introduced into Northumbria by Benedict Biscop and Wilfrid, co-existed for a long time with the earlier custom of wooden buildings, just as the introduction of glassmaking by these ardent improvers did not for a long time lead to a general knowledge or use of it, or to the extinction of the earlier modes of giving light.2
No doubt the use of stone in buildings came to be predominant in Northumbria at an earlier period than in Alba; but at the time when the use of wood in building is spoken of as a Scotic custom, it was in reality common to the Irish with many other people.
The wooden cathedral at Chester-le-Street, which had sheltered the body of St. Cuthbert in its wanderings, remained till about A.d. 1042, when Egelric, who became Bishop of Durham in that year, destroyed the ancient fabric, and in its place erected one of stone, "pro eo quod aliquando beati Cutbberti corpus ibidem quieverat."*
nee huic loco talis ei probatur inesse Preuves a l'Histoire de Bretagne, col.
potentia, licet hujus ipsius sit petrosa et de 210.
lapidibus compacta ecclesiola."—(Reginaldi
Dunelmensis Libellus de Admir. B. Cuth- a See Sculptured Stones of Scotland, vol.
berti Virtutibus, p. 179. Surtees Soc.) ii. pref. p. 12, and note.
In some cases, however, the wooden erections were succeeded by others of stone at a much earKer period, as at Tynemouth, where King Edwin [616-633] "sacellum erexit ex ligno;" and his successor Oswald " monasteriolum de Tinemuthe ex ligno lapideum fecit."2
In the same way, the buildings of wooden materials in France were described as of "opus Gallicum."3
1 Simeon, Hiet . de Dunelm. Eccles. coL 34. Ap. Twysden, Decem Scriptores.
8 Lelandi Collect . vol. iv. p. 43.
* At the end of an edict of Liutprand, the Lombard King, dated A.d. 735, are seven chapters, in the same corrupt Latin as the charters in the first volume of the great work of the Sardinian government, "Monumenta Historiae Patriae," where these documents are printed. The volume of the series from which I quote is entitled "Edicta Regum Langobardorum," and the chapters are headed—1. De Sala; 2. DeMuro; 3. De Annonam Comacinorum; 4. De Opera; 5. De Caminata; 6. De Marmorarios; 7. De furnum, De puteum. That " de muro" contains some notices of " Gallican work" and " Roman work." It is as follows :—Si vero murum fecerit qui usque ad pedem unum sit grossus dupplicentur mercedes et usque ad quinque pedes subquinetur; et de ipso muro vadat per solidum unum pedes ducenti viginti quinque; si vero macinam mutaverit,
det pedes centum octoginta in solidum unum usque ad pedes quinque sursum, in longitudinem vero ter quinos per tremisse. Similiter et si murum dealbaverit, sexcenti pedes vadat per solidum unum. Et si cum axes clauserit et opera gallica fecerit, mille quingenti pedes in solido vestito vadant. Et si arcum volserit, pedes duodecim vadat in solido uno. Si vero materias capelaverit majores minores, capita viginti per tremisse; armaturas vero et brachiolas quinque ponantur pro uno materio. 4. De opera. Similiter romanense si fecerit, sic repotet sicut gallica opera, mille quingentos pedes in solidos uno. Et scias quia ubi una tegula ponitur quindecim scindolas lebant; quia centum quinquaginta tcgulas duo milia quingentas scindolas lebant. Et si massa fundederit, sexcenti pedes per solido uno.
The expressions, " Opus Gallicum" and "Opus Romanense" are thus commented on in certain " Adnotationes Caroli Promis," Appendix, xi. of the same volume, p. 245.
"Opera gallica, seu opus gallicum, nova sane vox et glossatoribus ignota, videtur mihi fuisse illa ætate denominatio tabulatorum, sive parietum, ex asseribus ædes sepientium vel cellas dividentium, illo enim tempore plurimae struebantur ligneae aedes, uti apud Gallos (et hodie quoque generatim extra Italiam) mos adhuc viget, qui extructis in oppidis muris exterioribus ex lateribus vel saxis, intus dividunt per tabulata, in pagis vero et rure saepissime omnia lignea sunt. Nec carent codd. ferentes “ et opera cum alliga fecerit," ubi nulla vocum significatio. Gallico vero operi respondent opus romaniense de quo inferius, opus saracenicum paulo post temporis vulgatum apud inferiores Italos, opus signinum iamdiu Romanis notum, necnon et alia quae nomen a gentibus vel oppidis acceperunt. Artificum vero stipendium alteri ex codicibus ferunt unius solidi pro pedibus D (de superficie semper habendum est) alteri idem obferunt pretium pro MD : hanc igitur lectionem rationi magis consentaneam, accepimus, alteram reiicimus, quippe quæ pretiorum proportioni haud aeque respondeat. Dubitavimus etiam, utrum, intelligendum esset de opere formaceo (Gallis pisé Italis fortasse pigiato, idem referente voce) de quo abunde Plinius (Hist. Nat. xxxv. 48, 44, cf. etiam Palladium, i. 34) iamdiu in Africa et Hispania vulgatissimum quoque nostra etiam aetate magnopere utuntur Galli, Sardi et inter Subalpinos Italos praecipue Alexandrini
It will thus be seem that the custom, which has been termed a Scotic one, was, in so far as the materials of their buildings is
rustici: hoc opus vero sollicitum sane, sed habita pretii ratione a nostra lege relati, plenum quidem laboris quodque non sine multis comparatis perficiendum est, vectibus scilicet et machinis et asseribus ad instruendas formas. Qua de causa mihi iudicium erit opus gallicum intelligendum esse non de formaceo sed de tabulato ligneo. Conferantur etiam § CLX. et adnotationes nostrae, ubi evidenter liquebit, gallicum opus ligneum fuisse, sive ex asseribus, vel magnis vel parvis, constasse." IIII.“ De opera. Titulus de opera referendus est ad omnem tecti materiationem. ““ Similiter romanense si fecerit, sic repotet sicut gallica opera mille quingentos pedes in solidos uno.' Vocabulum romanense adjectivum est tecti, intelligendumque tectum romano more structum (scilicet ex tegulis planis et testaceis pro nostratium antiqua et hodierna consuetudine) aestimandum esse ad idem pretium ac si gallico more seu ex ligneis asseribus.” “ Gallicum opus vidimus superius idem esse ac ligneum opus seu tabulatum. Tabulatum vero tectis struendis aptum, constat ex asseribus exilibus scíndulae vel scandulae dictis (accepta antiquitus a Germanis voce Schände!) testibus Vitruvio (ii. 1), Plinio (xvi. 10. 15), Palladio (i. 22), aliisque non paucis ex veteribus scriptoribus ; una autem et altera vox habetur in legibus nostris, ubi Liutprandus scindulas appellat, quas Rotharis (§ 282) Scandulas.