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That are made, even his eternal power and Godhead: so that they are without excuse. When they knew God, they glorified him not, as God, neither were thankful. They did not like to retain God in their knowledge. Therefore they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image, made like to corruptible man.

If the Gentiles did not like to retain God in their knowledge, neither did the Jews. They had, we have seen, witnessed and acknowledged many illustrious miracles, wrought by Jehovah, in favor of a religion, which declared, that the gods of the heathen were vanity and a lie : a religion, the immediate object of which, was to preserve the nation from idolatry. To avoid apostacy, there were many reasons of interest, as well as duty. Besides this there is generally prevalent a strong partiality in favor of the national religion. A change in this particular is, by the Deity himself, ranked among the most extraordinary events. Pass over the isles of Chittim and see: and send unto Kedar, and consider diligently, and see, if there be any such thing: Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods ? It is immediately subjoined : But my people have changed their glory for that which cannot profit.

Now, if Jews and Gentiles have shown unequivocally a dislike to the moral purity of God, they have evinced beyond the possibility of doubt the immorality of their own charac

ter.

Were there not some moral taint, or wrong tendency common to the whole species, we might justly expect, to find some individuals, not guilty of having violated that law, which is holy, just, and good ; that law, every command of which has the sanction of reason. Of all the remote islands, which of later years, have been discovered, we might naturally hope, that there would be some, whose inhabitants, having learned the character of God, from his works, were habituated to worship the eternal spirit, in spirit and in truth. But the fact is, that these discoveries tend to establish the doctrine, we are considering. Wherever there are human

ms, there is misery and vice. A community, whose lead

ing object it is to obey reason, cultivate moral purity, and secure the favor of God, is not to be found on the earth.

Finally: Our opinion of mankind is generally, perhaps, universally less favorable, in proportion to our converse with the world.

If a man is credulous, and readily presumes on the cor rect views of men, it is commonly and justly remarked, that he is ignorant of mankind; and that further acquaintance will teach him better. This sentiment is usually expressed without the most distant apprehension of the inference, to which it leads.

From the preceding remarks, it appears, that whatever theory we adopt in accounting for the perverseness of man, the fact is undeniable : and further, whether there is in man by nature, a wrong tendency, a moral taint, or not, facts and appearances are, and always have been precisely as if the doctrine were true ; and extremely different from what they probably would have been, had the doctrine been false. Greater disorder could not have been expected, had men been by nature inclined to evil : much less, would have been rationally expected, were they not thus inclined.

LECTURE X.

000:

Human Depravity.

Though many facts have been mentioned in the precedjog lectures, highly dishonorable to the moral character of man, there are others of a contrary aspect, which are supposed to invalidate the conclusion, to which the former would lead. If there is much vice among men, there is likezise, it may be thought, much virtue. If there is much perfidy, idleness, dissipation, and profanity; there is undeniably much truth, fidelity, diligence, and temperance, and much de. cency of manner, in treating things sacred.

I answer, that advocates for the doctrine of human depravity, do not deny the existence of real virtue or holiness among men. They only deny, that this is the native production of the human heart, or ever exists there, without the particular agency of the Almighty. They further suppose, that the qualities, which have been mentioned, such as ve. racity, temperence, industry, &c. are by no means to be considered, as conclusive evidence of real virtue: i. e. of such a state of heart, as God and reason require; since these qualities are generally conducive to worldly advantage. Without veracity a man can neither enjoy reputation, nor conveniently transact business. Without temperance and indus try, he will be subject to the like embarrassments. Profaneness of language, or levity in regard to things sacred, exposes

a man to the displeasure of many, whom it is his interest not to offend. An atheist therefore, were he a man of prudence, would be guilty of none of these vices.

But there are many, you say, whose regularity of deportment evidently arises not from considerations of present convenience, but from their belief in a future retribution. The fact is not to be controverted. But, before we can use it in proof of moral goodness, it is necessary to ascertain, whether this abstinence from crimes, proceeds from a luce to moral rectitude, as such, or from the fear of future punish ment. For, whether human actions proceed from the fear of temporal, or cternal punishment, they are essentially the same. If the fear of being disgraced, or imprisoned tomorrow, be a motive, insufficient to constitute an action virtuous, it cannot be constituted such by the fear of being disgraced or punished beyond the grave. All, that can be proved in favor of a person, thus actuated, is, that a wrong disposition has not the same degree of ascendency over him, which it might have over some others, in the like circumstances. It will hardly be asserted by any person, in the least habituated to contemplate moral subjects, that fear of personal disadvantage or suffering is essentially virtuous. Therefore, so far, as that regularity, observable among men, is the result of no higher principal, than fear, it affords no evidence of human virtue. It only proves, that vice or moral corruption, has not taken such entire possession of the mind, as to exclude from it all considerations of reason and personal interest.

A plausible objection to the doctrine, we are endeavoring to prove, may be supposed to arise from those social feel ings, and those attachments of consanguinity, which are este tensively if not universally discoverable among men.

I answer; if these social feelings are indeed virtuous, or morally good, the objection is much to the purpose ; and although it would not invalidate the proofs, already adduced of general depravity, it would prove that there is, in the heart of man, by nature, real virtue, yet remaining.

Social feelings, parental affection, &c. are amiable qualities, essential to the existence of civil society, and extremely conducive to the happiness of man: but there is nothing in them, I apprehend, either virtuous or vicious. One man is naturally inclined to cheerfulness ; another to gravity. This difference probably arises from bodily organization.

But whether it does or does not, there is nothing of morality in it. To ascertain the moral character of a man, we do not inquire, whether he is naturally cheerful or gloomy.

The reasons for believing, that social feelings, parental affection, &c. though they may be under the influence of moral principles are not of themselves moral qualities, are the following:

1. They are by no means proportionate, to the good or bad characters of men. In some persons, whose lives are dishonest, impure and profane, you perceive parental affection, as strong as it is in the most virtuous. Crimes the most atrocious have been perpetrated under the influence of parental feelings. Nor does the strongest friendship for an individual necessarily prove any real love of virtue. It was the excessive fondness of Achilles for Patroclus, which induced him to sacrifice human victims, and to express the barbarous desire of feeding on the body of Hector. It was the friendship of Zophyrus for Darius, which induced him voluntarily to mangle and mutilate his own person: But these sufferings were, in regard to the Babylonians, the covering of deep dissimulation, and perfidy.

Virtue sometimes requires, not indeed to eradicate these feelings; but to act in opposition to their dictates. Instance the elder Brutus, whom, as magistrale, duty required to punish his own sons for conspiring against the Statc. Now, if the social parental affections, were in themselves morally good, the stronger those affections were, the more, other things being equal, would there be of moral goodness: or, if these affections be the result of moral goodness, when they are strongest the heart must of necessity be the most virtuous.

It may be replied that in the cases, above mentioned, the

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