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Lords; " but that house,” says Wood, “ whe" ther approving the doctrine, or not favour“ ing his accusers, did soon dismiss him.”

There seems not to have been much written against him, nor any thing by any writer of eminence. The antagonist that appeared is stiled by him, a Serving-man turned Solicitor. Howel in his letters mentions the new doctrine with contempt; and it was, I suppose, thought more worthy of derision than of confutation. He complains of this neglect in two sonnets, of which the first is contemptible, and the second not excellent.

From this time it is observed that he became an enemy to the Presbyterians, whom he had favoured before. He that changes his party by his humour, is not more virtuous than he that changes it by his interest; he loves himself rather than truth.

His wife and her relations now found that Milton was not an unresisting sufferer of injuries; and perceiving that he had begun to put his doctrine in practice, by courting a young woman of great accomplishments, the daughter of one Doctor Davis, who was how. ever not ready to comply, they resolved to endeavour a re-union. He went sometimes to the house of one Blackborough, his relation, in the lane of St. Martin's-le-Grand, and at one of his usual visits was surprised to see his wife come from another room, and implore forgiveness on her knees. He resisted her intreaties for awhile; “ but partly,” says Philips,“ his own generous nature, more incli“ nable to reconciliation than to perseverance “ in anger or revenge, and partly the strong

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" intercession of friends on both sides, foon “ brought him to an act of oblivion and a firm " league of peace.” It were injurious to omit, that Milton afterwards received her father and her brothers in his own house, when they were distressed, with other Royalists.

He published about the same time his Areopagitica, a Speeh of Mr. John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed Printing. The danger of such' unbounded liberty, and the danger of bounding it, have produced a problem in the science of Government, which human under{tanding seems hitherto unable to solve. If nothing may be published but what civil au. thority shall have previously approved, power must always be the standard of truth; if every dreamer of innovations may propagate his projects, there can be no settlement; if every murmurer at government may diffuse discontent, there can be no peace; and if every sceptickin' theology may teach his follies, there can be no religion. The remedy against these evils is to punish the authors; for it is yet allowed that every society may punish, though not prevent, the publication of opinions, which that socięty ihall think pernicious: but this punishment, though it may crush the author, promotes the book ; and it feems not more reasonable to leave the right of printing unrestrained, because writers may be afterwards censured, than it would be to sleep with doors unbolted, because by our laws we can hang a thief. :

But whatever were his engagements, civil or domestick, poetry was never long out of his thoughts. About this time (1645) a collecti


on of his Latin and English poems appeared, in which the Allegro and Penferoso, with some others, were first published.

He had taken a larger house in Barbican for the reception of scholars; but the numerous relations of his wife, to whom he generously granted refuge for a while, occupied his rooms. În time, however, they went away; and the “ house again,” says Philips, “ now looked “ like a house of the Muses only, though the " accession of scholars was not great. Poffi“ bly by his having proceeded so far in the “ education of youth, may have been the oc“ casion of his adversaries calling him peda“ gogue and school-master; whereas it is well " known he never set up for a publick school, “ to teach all the young fry of a parish; but “ only was willing to impart his learning and “ knowledge to relations, and the sons of gen

tlemen who were his intimate friends; and " that neither his writings nor his way of “ teaching ever savoured in the least of pe“ dantry.”

Thus laboriously does his nephew extenuate what cannot be denied, and what might be confessed without disgrace. Milton was not a man who could become mean by a mean employment. This, however, his warmest friends feen not to have found; they therefore shift and palliate. He did not sell literature to all comers at an open shop; he was a chambermilliner, and measured his commodities only to his friends.

Philips, evidently impatient of viewing him in this state of degradation, tells us that it was not long continued ; and, to raise his cha


racter again, has a mind to invest him withi military Splendour : “ He is much mistaken,” he says, “ if there was not about this time a “ design of making him an adjutant-general “ in Sir William Waller's army. But the “ new-modelling of the army proved an ob“ struction to the design.” An event cannot be set at a much greater distance than by having been only desgned, about some time, if a man be not much mistaken. Milton shall be a pedagogue no longer; for, if Philips be not mistaken, somebody at some time designed him for a soldier.

About the time that the army was new-modelled (1645) he removed to a smaller house in Holbourn, which opened backward into Lin. coln's-Inn-Fields. He is not known to have published any thing afterwards till the king's death, when, fi is murderers condemned by the Presbyterians, he wrote a treatise to justify it, and to compose the minds of the people.

He made some Remarks on the Articles of Peace between Ormond and the Irish Rebels. While he contented himself to write, he perhaps did only what his conscience dictated; and if he did not very vigilantly watch the influence of his own passions, and the gradual prevalence of opinions, first willingly admitted and then habitually indulged, if objections, by being overlooked, were forgotten, and defire superinduced conviction, he yet shared only the common weakness of mankind, and might be no less sincere than his opponents. But as faction seldom leaves a man honest, however it might find him, Milton is lulpect


ed of having interpolated the book called Icon Bahlike, which the Council of State, to whom he was now made Latin secretary, employed him to censure, by inserting a prayer taken from Sidney's Arcadia, and imputing it to the king; whom he charges, in his Iconoclastes, with the use of this prayer as with a heavy crime, in the indecent language with which prosperity had emboldened the advocates for rebellion to insult all that is venerable or great: “ Who would have imagined so little fear in “ him of the true all-feeing Deity—as, im“ mediately before his death, to pop into the “ hands of the grave bishop that attended him, “ as a special relique of his saintly exercises, “ a prayer stolen word for word from the “ mouth of a heathen woman praying to a “ heathen god ?”

The papers which the king gave to Dr. Juxon on the scaffold the regicides took away, so that they were at least the publishers of this prayer; and Dr. Birch, who examined the question with great care, was inclined to think them the forgers. The use of it by adaption was innocent; and they who could so noisily censure it, with a little extension of their malice could contrive what they wanted to accule.

King Charles the Second, being now sheltered in Holland, employed Salmasius, profesfor of Polite Learning at Leyden, to write a defence of his father and of monarchy; and, to excite his industry, gave him, as was reported, a hundred Jacobuses. Salmasius was a man of skill in languages, knowledge of antiquity, and sagacity of emendatory criticism,


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