Imagens da página
PDF
ePub

614 The State of tbe Jefuits in Paraguay. Det who seem ever so little to forget it. strangers, are placed in the greats To conclude, there are doors on both order. The dances being faithed, fides, by which the whole congrega. the cavalry returns to the place wher: tion may come in and go out without they began their march. At nighs the least dilorder or confusion.

bonfires are made from distance to the The reader may imagine from what tance, and all Areets are illuminated I have already faid of the natural tatte The next day, they repair to biga which there Indians discover for mu. mals in the same order they to fic, that the missionaries failed not to paired, the evening before, te fit avail themselves of so happy a difpofi. velpers. At noon, the inhabitants e tion to engage the infidels, whom cu- tertain the strangers; and every a riofity, accident, or business, lead to is regaled with a small cup of vie. the reductions, to listen to their in- Immediately after the second velpers, structions, and inspire those they con- at which every thing passes as ai te verted with a greater liking to the di- first, they run at the ring. The oilvine service. It is for this purpose fionaries allist at it, with all the chiefs that all the christian doctrine has been and officers, to keep the spectators i fet to music, and this expedient has order ; distribute the prizes to the casanswered exceedingly well, Thele querors; and give the lignal tid muficians, who, when they perform in breaking up. church, wear, as all others immediately : But nothing can compare with the in the service of it, a very decent and proceffion of the blessed facrament; neat habit, at the same time that they and it may be affirmed, thar, witboat inspire others with devotion, seem to any display of riches or magnificenc, glow with it themselves, which proves it forms a fight, which yields in itill more, that they do not make any nothing to the richeft and most sig extraordinary efforts to succeed; and nificent procession in any other part af that, as the natural effc& of music is the world. Don Antonio de Viloa ja. to excite in the heart those sentiments foi ms us, in general; that it is atwhich it already poflenes, this art finds tended with very fine dancing, far in the Indians who practise it, and in above what is to be seen in the prethose who hear them, no sentiments vince of Quito; that the dancers are but fuch as tend to piety and devo. very neatly dressed; and that the tion.

pomp of it,, upon the whole, equals The folemn festivals are celebrated that of the greatest cities, at the fans with the greatest pomp, especially that time that intinitely more decency and of the {aint whole name the church devotion accompanies it. I fait, chat bears, and that of the blesed lacrament. no treasures were to be seen at this e. On the approach of the first, invitations remony; but all the beauties of fimpe are sent to the inhabitants of the near nature are there so happily difposed as elt reductions; and they attend in great to represent her in all her glory. Ste niambers, the officers on horseback and even appears, if I may fay fo, al life in their uniforms. The solemnity be- and fout on the occation ; for, Oper gins the eve of the holiday by a very the greens and flowers that core fine military proceflion, in which the pose the triumphal arches, under Alfere7, who carries the great standard, which the blefied facrament paks, appears mounted on a proud courser there appear Alocks of birds of every richiy.caparitoned, and rides under a colour, tied by the legs to ftrings of maguificent canopy. After perambu- such a length, that a stranger would Jating the principal Atreets in very imagine they enjoyed their full liberty, gocd order, to the sound of the drums and were come of their own accord te and other warlike instruments of mu- mix their warblings with the voices of vic, they repair to the great door of the musicians, and the reft of the peo. the cborch, where those on horfeback ple; and bless, in their own was, alight, and the Alferez takes his seat bin, whose providence carefully tip in a chapel prepared for his reception. plies all their wants. The fuit vefpers are then perforined, All the streets are bung with carpes atter which the children are made to very well wrought, and separated oy dance in the great square, where the garlands, feftoons and compartimes's whvie company, both inhabitants and pf verdure, dispoled with the est

beaut

615

17692 The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay. sautiful symmetry. From distance folemnities and days of public re.

distance, there appear lions and joicing, concludes with the most cyutgers very well chained, that they rious fireworks. " In short, says Don may not disturb the folemnity instead Antonio de Ulloa, these Neophytes

adorning it; and even very fine omit no circumstance either of festivity hes sporting and playing in large or devotion practised in the most opus alons of water. In a word, every lent cities of Old Spain." jecies of living creatures assist at the Their cemeteries,or burying.grounds, lemnity, as it were, by their deputies, are great squares, always near the

do homage to the incarnate Word, church, divided, lengthways, by fine his august sacrament; and acknow. walks bordered with orange and lemon dge the sovereign dominion his fa trées ; the middle one leading to a jer has given him over all living crea. chapel, planted all round with stately Sres. Wherever the procession passes, cypress and palm trees, and inclosed je ground is covered with mats, and with low 'walls. Every Monday 4 rewed with flowers and odoriferous procession is made to the chapel, in erbs. All, even the smallest children, order to sing a mass of Requiem, which ave a hand in there decorations, is followed by a Libera at each of the mongst which are, likewise, to be crosses planted at the four corners of een the flesh of the animals newly the cemetery. There are other chajlled for food; every thing the In. pels, at some distance from every reians regale themselves with at their duction, to serve as a station to the Teatest rejoicings; and the first fruits processions made on the rogation days, if their labours; all, in crder to make and at other times, either to deprecate in offering of them to the Lord ; the God's anger in cases of public calarain, particularly, they intend to mity, or to return him thanks for ok, that he may give it a blessing special mercies. All the streets of the The warbling of the birds, the roaring town terminate at one or another of of the lions and tygers, the voices of these chapels, and have, besides, every he musicians, the plain chant of the one of them a cross at each end, where hoir, all intermix without confusion, the procession makes a pause, to perind conspire to form a concert not to form musically an anthem, whose words re equaled in any other part of the are adapted to the subject of the proworld.

cession, or else contain some article of The great royal standard is carried the christian doctrine. It then enters behind the blefled facrament. The an avenue planted with the most beaucacique, the corregidor, the regidors, tiful and fately trees, which leads to ind ihe alcaldes, Support the canopy. the chapel. In their way to this chaThe militia, both horse and foot, with pel they fing the usual prayers, and heir colours and standards Aying, af. conclude them by another antkem. aft, likewise, at the procession in good All the inhabitants affitt at this procesorder. But, however striking this fion, except the fick, or those whole spectacle may be, the greatest beauty business will not admit them to be preof it, beyond all manner of doubt, con. sent. lists in the piety, the modelty, the re No paios have been (pared to esta. fpe&t, and even the air of holiness, blith tlie most exact police in this reisible in every countenance ; lo that, public. All the inhabitants are to be perhaps, the triumph of the Saviour at home, every evening, by a certain of mankind is no where more complete hour, when a sufficient detachment han in this barbarous country, where begins to patrol the treets and squares, Dis name was not known two ages ago.

for a certain time, arthe end of which, As soon as the blesed facrament is re they are relieved by another; and lo urned to the church, the Indians pre on till day light. There are two reaent to the missionaries all the several fons for this institution; the first is, inds of eatables that have been exporn to hinder the inhabitants from leaving ed in the procession ; and the fathers, , home at an unfeasonable hour without fter sending the best of every thing irs being known where they go, and o the sick, distribute what remains upon what errand. The second is, mong the rest of the inhabitants. to prevent the town's being furprized The evening, as on all other great by an enemy; for there are every

wiere

[ocr errors]

616 The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay: De where Arcling Indians, against whom and, as yet, thank God, they have as it is imposible is be too much on been known to give themselves an 'one's guard. The persons, thus en- loole. On the contrary we are to frufted with the care of maintaining that the actions and discourses, most good order, and preventing sudden at capable of making bad impreilions, racks, are cholen with the same pre- serve only to inspire them with a caution observed in chusing those who greater horror of vice; tbat no inde. are destined for public employments cent word ever escapes their lips; and and the service of the churches, that they are of themselves extreme

These precautions confist in prepar: solicitous not to omit any of their ulud Ing, from their very infancy, för every exercises of devotion. It muit, boveemployment; those who discover the ver, be owned, that those who live u propereft difpofitions to fill it worthily, the greatest distance from the Spanish The inhabitants, in general, are taught lettlements, and seldomet leave their nothing but what is necessary to make oun, discover a more extraordinary them good workmen; enable them to degree of fervour and fimplicity thaa govern their families well, and qua- the rest ; on whom, for this realos, Tify them for such little subaltern em- the misionaries are obliged to beto ployments, as require no extraordinary more than ordinary care and attengenius. Formerly, the Guaranis, and tion. all the other Indians of these pro [To be continued in our Appendix.] vinces,' could only reckon by their fingers and toes. To express any

The Natural History of tbe Beaczt. number exceeding twenty, they mad TOWEVER well known anica

the At prefent, the Neophytes onderstand conceive that the following description enough of numbers to answer all their . of him will be pleagog to your cunog purposes, and nothing more is re. readers, as they may depend upon is quired of them. The missionaries authenticity, know the extent of their capacity, and The beaver is a creature about exact nothing beyond 'it. They keep four foot in length, and twelve or if them within the bounds of their an. teen inches broad; his kin in the cient fimplicity, but diverted of all that northern regions is generally black, vice and savageness which dishgured but it beightens to a reddish tindure it. In a word, this republic is, pro- in the temperate climates. He is coperly, , the seat of evangelical fimpli. vered with two sorts of hair, one long, city ; and it is in order to preserve it and the other a sort of down; the genuine and entire, that the miltona. latter, which is an inch in length, is jies do all that lies in their power to extremely fine and compact, and is hinder the Neophytes from having any commodates the animal with a necefcommunication with the Europeans; sary warmth. The long bair preserves experience having convinced them, the down from dutt and humidity. that all the new christians of America, He is furnished with three natural who are fallen from their primitive implements for building his dwelling i fervour, fell merely in confequence of bis seetli, his paws, and his tail: bis their having converted too freely with teetli are frong and deeply riveted in the old christians from Europe, or even his jaws, with a long and crooked rost; having only taken too near a view of with these he cuts, as well the wood them.

with which he builds, as that which It is, likewise, for this reason, that, furnishes him with food. His fore feet šo all the journeys they are obliged to resemble those of such animals as koid rake, during their refidence in the what they eat in their paws, as apes, Spanifly towns; and all the time they rats, and squirrels: with these feet be terve his majesty, as foldiers or la- digs, softens, and works the day, bourers; they are accompanied by which is extremely useful to him. Ha muistionaries, who never lote light of hind feet are accommodated with thein; who often speak to theni of membranes, or large skins, extending God; see that they exactly comply between his toes, like those of ducks with all their duties, and perform and all other water fowls; which maka punctually all their religious exerciles; is evident that täis creature is ampai

bious

617

: THE

1969. The Natural History of the Beaver. bious.' His tail is long, a little flat, enemy, erects all his darts with a me. intirely covered with scales, fupplied nacing air, and sometimes plunges with muscles, and perpetually lubri. them so deep in the flesh of the cream cated with oil, or fat. "This animal, ture by whom he is aflaulted, that rewho is an architect from his nativity, veral of them remain in the wounds, uses his tail, instead of a hod, for the and are detached from bis body when conveyance of his clay, or mortar, in be retires; she sockets of these are building his habitation, and as a trowel likewise filled by others which are ento spread and form it into incrustation : larged by time. the scales prevent these materials from If you think these particulars.worth penetrating the tail with their coldness a place in your Magazine, you shall and humidity; but the scales, as well find me an occasional, correspondent, as the tail, would be injured by the and am, fir, air and water, were it not for the pre

Your humble servant, vention of an oil which he distributes

R. K, all over them with his fnout. The beavers inhabit the fame manfion in An Hijorical Introduction to the Antiqui. great numbers, unless violent heats, ties and Curiosities of Wilton-House; or inundations, the pursuits of hunters,

continued from p. 575.; scarcity of provisions, or their extra VE relievo with the inscription ordinary increase, oblige them to sepa called Boustrophedon, is older rate. In order to raise themselves a than the completion of the Greek alconvenient abode, they chuse a fitua- phabet, and was brought out of Pelocion that abounds with Tuftenance, and pounesus, where it was most probably is washed by a rivulet, and where they made for a victor in the Olympic games. may form a necessary reservoir for their Statues and relievos were usually bagnio. They begin with building à erected to those who were conquerors mote, or cauley, in which the water in those games. Cicero fays a victory may rise to a level with the first story in these sports was not less honourable of their habitation. This causey may than a triumph at Rome. If any man contain at the foundation ten or a do- merited repeated honours, he was zeo feer in thickness. Nothing can be thought to have attained to the utmost more curious than the nice gradations felicity that human nature is capable by which they proceed on with their of. To this purpose, Plutarch relates work, until it is completed.

a remarkable story of a Spartan, who The edifice is vaulted within like meeting Diagoras, who himn felf had the handle of a basker, and generally been crowned in the Olympic games, rises in an oval form. The divisions and seen his sons and grand-children are proportioned to the number of the victors, embraced him and said, die, intended inhabitants. Twelve feet in Diagoras, for thou canst not be a God. length and ten in breadth are fufficient Many of our relievos were friezes for eight or ten beavers. If the num- taken from porticoes and temples. The ber increases they enlarge the place ac- antients always adapted the subjects to cordingly.

the deities. Thus nothing could in. The civet cat, which is an animal spire greater awe for the power and peculiar to America, is in every par- anger of Apollo and Diana, than the ticular a beaver in miniature, has the dreadful vengeance they took on the fame labours, and the famc inclina- family of Niobe. The same propriety tions.

was observed in the temples of Jupiter, The porcupine'is' a creature whose Neptune and Bacebus. The modern length feldom exceeds two feet : he is practice in the Romith church, of Tagged all over with hard and harp adorning their-altars with pieces of hairs of an unequal length, from two paintings was common among the or three to twelve inches, or more; heathens : but they had fculptures as these are shaped like the stalks of corn, well as paintings. Of the former fort with intermixtures of black and white; is that relief in the stone hall of a they likewile swell towards the middle, child's stealing meat from the alcar, and terminate in a point with two and some others. Marp lides.

We hall now give a few remarks on This animal presents its lide to his the state of sculpture among the Ro

mans.

618 Kennedy's Remarks on the Polite Arts. Dec. mans. The age of Augustus was a tuous fabric, more loaded with ortaperiod in which we are naturally led ments and incrutations, or which did to look for excellence in the arts. greater honour to a fovereign by its Literature had the attained it's fum- bulk, than the baths of Dioclefian and mit, and the emperor encouraged men Gallienus. The great hall of this eat of genius; architecture - rather than fice is now the Carthufian church at Sculpture seemed to flourik. The great- Rome, and one of the porters lodgs est part of the Roman sculptors made forms another circular church, via their apprenticeship in the condition of that of the mendicant friars of St. Bare Staves; when they lewed abilities, pard. their matters improved them with the When the senate and people of Rose greatest care ; so that an artist in this determined to erect a triumphal acă Situation, had a better opportunity of in bonour of Conftantine, there was having his talente cultivated, than a not in all probability in the capital of freeman in indigent circumstances. the empire, a sculptor able to under

Nero sent Carinas and Acritus, two take the work. Notwithftanding the connoisseurs, into Greece, to collect respect they had at Rome for the mosall the fine pieces of sculpture, which mory of Trajan, they ftript the arch were to be met with, that he might of that prince of its ornaments, and embellish his new buildings at Rome. without any regard to conformity or The poor Greeks, as Juvenal observes, fitness, employed them in the fábric were Aript even of their houshold which they erected to Constantine. Gods.

This thews what a paucity there was Tbeir rapine is fo abject and profane, of sculptors, and to what a low ebb I bey not from trifles nor from Gods ree the art was then reduced. frain; i

What has been advanced is to be But the poor Lares from the niches seize, taken with some restrictions. There If they be lutle images ibat pleaje. might voder the emperors be men of

Siepney. Dot so much genius as to undertake Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, and Alex. capital works, and yet be able to exeander Severus, encouraged thiş art, as cute inferior performances. The great did their luccellors, and yet they were

number of beautiful bustas in this col. never able to rescue it from the dege- lection, seems to be a proof of this, neracy into which it was falling. We Most of them are of a very fine sculpmay look upon the busto of Caracalla ture, and would not disgrace the best as the last effort of Roman sculpture. ages of art. We know that a good The two triumphal arches erected in portrait painter very rarely can exe. honour of his father Severus, the cute a landskip or such like, beyond chapiters of the columns in the Sep. the limits of his natural turn; so ta rizonium at Rome, which were after: make a ballo relievo confifting of many wards removed into different churches, bgures in various attitudes, to give fufficiently, demonstrate how much the features expressions adapted to the Sculpture had declined under that occasion, and to make an agreeable prince and his children. The baso re- whole, requires other talents than lievos of the largelt of thole two ari. bare copying nature exactly, which is ymphal arcbes, were done by an indif- the principal excellence of any butto. ferent hand. It is natural, however, Among the best pieces of sculpture to suppose they were executed by the relating to the Romans may be reckonbelt that age produced, were it only ed that by Cleomenes, of Curtius leapout of a ragard to the place where ing into the fiery gulph.. Tbis fculpthey were erected. This was the most tor was one of the most eminent of confiderable part of the city, at the his time, and was sent from Corinth further end of the Forum Romanum, to Rome, by Polybius, the celebrated and as we have reason to believe, at hiftorian, to execute this work : at the foot of thole ftairs, destined for al whose deliro history does not inform cending to the capitol.

us; let this be as it may, it is so male One cannot behold the ruins of Ca. terly a performance as does honour sacalla's baths without being aito.. to the kill of the artist. The beauti. nished; there aever was a more lumpe ful ftatue of a Faun looking over his

Aboulder,

« AnteriorContinuar »