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1769 ColleEting the Antiquities at Wilton-House.
573 at Richlieu, which he effected, and columns with inscriptions, as lafting furnithed with niches for above forty monuments of his victories; this hilo ftatues and as many bustos. Lord torian himself law many of them in Arundel advised him to buy a fur- different places, and Strabo assures us, nihed palace at Rome, and recoin. they remained to his time. If we rea mended to him one, with about to collect that no expedition was undera wany, though not all antiques, many taken without consulting the gods, being doctors of the church. The we fall readily think many images cardinal did so, but foon fold it again, of their deities were carried with them; removing however the marbles to and Sefoftris was, no doubt, as anxious Richlieu. Lord Arundel informed to disper se abroad the Egyptian superhim of about eighty bustos, which he stition, as to make the people obedient had seen dispersed in various parts of to his power. Italy, and though duplicates to many The two Persian ftatues as termini of the cardinal's, were yet much finer; are very curious. They were dug out these too be bought, and placed on of the ruins of a palace in Egypt, wooden pedestals, adorned with rich in which the Persian kings lived, in gilding, in his palace at Paris. This, til Amyrteus, 113 years after Camby-, which is now called the Palais Royale, ses returned to Perlia. Perhaps there he gave to Gatton Duke of Orleans, is no where to be found such beautiful
The duke about this time collected remains of these very remote nations, medals as the cardinal did marbles, as the antiques just mentioned. It they were mostly Roman, and became was Lord Pembroke's design to form a: the foundation of the king of France's school of sculpture, beginning at its fine cabinet : Greek ones were after- moft early period, and proceeding wards added, chiefly through the in- downward. duftry of Vaillant.
The beauty and execution of the on the death of Richlieu, Maza. Apollos and Bacchus's in this collecrine had the antiques within the house tion can never be enough admired. It given to hin ; the Atatues indeed were will greatly furprize a modern anatofew, but of the best sculpture. King mist to observe, how accurately the anCharles I. had of Lord Arundel many tient sculptors inarked the origin and of his statues and buits, which, after continuation of the muscles, especially he was beheaded, were dispersed abroad, as we are taught that but little of this and some of them bought by Mazarine. science was known before latter ages. The cardinal had twenty-six bultos If the frame of the human body has finely cast of brals at Florence, and let more nicely been inquired into, . it up on fineered marble termini. may be asked, why are not our sculp
Lastly, Valetta's collection supplied tors superior to those of former ages, a few bustos, he had not many, but of which confeffedly they are not ? The the very best workmanship.
answer is, that enough of anatomy Lord Peinbroke having thus taken was formerly known, to answer every every precaution to make a good col. weful purpose, and further than that, lection, we shall find he succeeded to it was triling. . What gave rise to this the utmost of his wishes, as will appear senection is the colorial Hercules here ; by analyzing it. We may divide it which, though above seven feet highi, into four parts. 5. Statues. 2. Bustos. yet preserves great confiltence and har3. Relievos. 4. Miscellaneous pieces. mony; no part is disproportionate to
The statue of Jupiter Ammon, with another, nothing offends the nicest a ram on his lhoulders, was taken out eye, and the whole, notwithstanding of a temple in Thrace built by Seso- iis magnitude, is as agreeable to conItris. This prince seemed satisfied with template, as if it was of the common nothiog less than reducing the world fize. under the Egyptian yoke; he warred Observe by what fixed rules antient with success against the Assyrians, artists worked ; the same proportion Medes and Scythians; he subdued that this Hercules bears to common Phoenicia and Alia Minor, and pene. Atatur:s, the same does Hercules about trated into Thrace and Colchis. He to die bear to his friend Pæan, who rodotus informs us, that in every supports him. The latter lived in the country he conquered, he left immense heroic times, and was of great strength Nov. 1769.
7 homas Earl of Pembroke's Plan for Nov. and large body, yet the characteristic of parts, it is universal, but as to magnitude of Hercules makes him but fashion, attitude, clothing, and fuck a dwarf. How is the mind delighted incidental matters, as do not partake with comparing a Bacchus crowned of the essence of art, every nation has with vine. leaves, drawn by panthers, its peculias fancies. Agate eyes in and accompanied by his jovial drunken bultos come under this class, and train, with the description of an an- were very common among the antients. tient poet 1 it heightens the relish for It is somewhat deserving attention, clasical learning, as each is a comment that the Romans should, according ng on the other. The fame may be faid the confeffion of Pausanias, have made of the fymbols of Mercury, Ceres, bronze ftatues and bustos before the Pallas, and the other deities:
Greeks. Rhæcus and Theodorus of Groups are included under Atatues: Samos were the firft Grecian artifts in thus that very old one of Saturn hold. this way. They fourifhed in the time ing a child smiling on him, is a good of Polycrates, about the lixtieth Olymconfutation of the barbarity usually piad. Dionylius Halicar. in his Roman imputed to that God. Hercules and Antiquities, says, Romulus made his Antæus, and Hercules, and Achelous own statue of bronze, crowned by a give us becrer ideas of the bero's victory and drawn by four horses. The labours than any description possibly charior and horses were brought from can.
Camerinuin, 'when that city was taken. Bustos make the second division of This happened after his triumph over this collection. There are one hun. the Fideilates, in the feventh year of dred and seventy-three all on marble his reign, which anfwers to the eighth termini. of these fifty-cwo are fineer. Olympiad. The inscription on it, aced, and forty-two of solid marble. cording to Plutarch, was in Greek
Thole that are' fineered "are of the letters, but Dionyfius fays, they greatfinest antique marbles and alabasters, ly reseñibled the most antient Greek made at Rome for Cardinal Mazarine. alphabet. Some are coloftal with inscriptions, About the reign of Creelas, the and others with agate eyes, and some Greeks worked in all sorts of metals. of copper with one hand. Under bus, Theodorus 'before-mentioned, made tos are included, bifronts, learned for that king, a silver vafe, which held persons, both Grecian and Roman; fix hundred eimers. An eimer is a Kings and queens of Greece, Alia, German measure, containing fixty-four and Africa, Roman emperors, Ca fars German pints. The first quadriga, or and Augufæ; and divinities, Egyp- chariot drawn by four horses in bronze, tian, Grecian and Roman.
which is mennoned among the Greeks, The head of Sefoftris is as great a was made by the Athenians after the rarity, as is any where to be found. death of Pififtratus, in the fixty-seventh Some Italian gentlemen traveling to Olympiad., the pyramids in Egypt, discovered it. The judgment of Lord Pembroke in there, and brought it with them ; it is antiques and claflical learning, 'if from of red Egyptian granite, and the coon- nothing else, might be proved by the tevance remarkably lively. The an- fimilitude between the busts of Apollo tiquity of it is indisputable, and the and Auguftuss the faces are so like sculpture will give us no contemptible each other as frequently to be mifidea of the artiks of that country's in taken. Ovid, Virgil, Suetonius and very early times. 96.10,3 mm; is.
Mfartial, exprefly inform us, that this We now think it ftrange, that in emperor had an Apollinean face, that the beft ages of art in Grecce," they is, so nearly resembling the antique made their ftatues and balts, not of ftatues of that deity, as to be thought the fame materials throughour, but of his fon." He gave into this flattery, differentMariy were of marble, 'ivory for at a feast in which he and five of and wooil, and of various coloursi'to sinis courtiers represented the great us such would appear tawdry, yet it 'gods, and as many ladies the fix god. pleased their eyes; which evinces, that' defles, he was dressed with the attri. no general definition of talte can be - butes or symbols of Apollo, and what forined, to suit every country. So far is more, he affeèted to have it fuppof: as ir regards proportion and harmony ed, that his eyes beamed forth bright.
1769. Collecting the Antiquities ar Wilton-House.
575 . Defs like Apollo's, and was mightily seen at the distance of fifty paces. pleased, when he looked fully on any We may perceive distinctly the joinone, if they held down their eyes, as ing of the stones, and reckon the tiles when the sun glares too ftrong upon of the roof. It is not thus objects prethem.
sent themselves to us naturally. They The jaspers, alabafters and marbles, appear not only fmaller in proportion whereof the bults are made, are va. to their renioteness, but they are even luable and beautiful beyond descrip- confuled, when they are at a certain tion. So great a number, and in such diltance, by the interposition of the - preservation, are not to be found in air. any collection; they have constantly The modern sculptors, better in. obtained the applause and admiration structed herein than the antients, conof every connoiffeur who hath visited found the strokes of objects which link Wilton, and always will, so long as into the baño relievo, and thus pretrue taste and discernment exist. serve the rules of perspective. With • The third division of this collection two or three inches of relievo they confifts of relievos both high and low. make some figures, which appear in Du Bois, in his reflections, has made full relievo, and others which seem to an ohlervation, which it is not ealy to link into the deepening. They repreacquiesce in. It is, that it requires less fent also landskips thrown ingeniously genius to be a good sculptor than a into perspective by a diminution of good painter. Where is the difference the strokes, which being, not only between the design, ordonnance and smaller, but likewise less distinct, and expression of the famous groupe of mixing with one another as they rethe Niobe, &c. in marble, and the same move farther off, produce the same on canvas ? Sculpture in some respects effect almoft iut sculpture, as the dewill not admit of such deceptions as gradation of colours in a picture. We painting, but in those instances where may therefore venture to affirm, that real genius is concerned, it is capable the antients had not this art in such of them as extenfively as the other. perfection as we have it at present." The maternal tenderness of Niobe in [To be continued in our next.) protecting her children, the terror and amazement in the faces of those Tatbe AUTHOR of the LONDON that are flying, and the various atti
SIR, tudes of those that are dying, would
Du gå til? furnith a subject for the best antient Y inserting in your next the fol. or modern pencil. It cannot there. lowing letter you will oblige fore be truly affirmed, more invention,
Your's, &c. which is the mark of genius, is found
Biar among painters than sculptors.
To Mr. H. C.
F relative to our subject, is worth tran. you read my letter with no small fcribing. We do not, says he, find attention, and that I had almost perby any of the remaining fragments of fuaded you to give up your christian Greek and Roman sculpture, that this bero, one might be apt to question art was perfectly understood by the whether you have read it at all, as it ,antients. Their sculptors could only doth not appear that you have given cut out figures in rehevo, perpendicu- any attention to the contents of it, nor Jarly down from head to foot, and clap have you been so kind as to
favour them, as it were, on the ground of the me with any thing like an answer to ballo relievos, for that the figures it. Instead of that, you put me of which deepened ing received no degra. with an extract from a sermon of Dr. dation of lightA tower which seems Burton's, published many years ago ; to be five hundred paces diftant from telling me, that if the character the docthe fore-part of the balio relievo, to tor hath given of the king is just, judge by the proportion of a foldier certainly he was the beft of kings; and mounted thereon, to the personages repeating the nonsense of his dying a płaced neareft the edge of the plain, martyr for his religion, without taking this tower, I say, is cut as if it were any notice at all of what I had offered
4 D 2
Nov. on that head. You say you are not in not to raise money by way of loan, the least ashamed of your letter to Philan. gift, benevolence, or tax, without thropos, since that amiable and learned consent of parliament, nor to impriion divine, Dr. Burton, seems to be of the without certifying the cause; both same opinion. But have you not, my which articles he violated (faith the frierd, reason to be ashamed of your un. historian) immediately after the difiodertaking to vindicate Dr. Nowell, lution of this parliament, and contiwithout saying any thing to weaken nued to do so for twelve years together. the evidence i produced io prove that “This breach of his parliamentaryward, Charles the Firit was not what the doc the molt solemn, a king can give, was tor ftyles him, the best of kings? Nor afterwards used as a Itroog argument doth what you have now quoted from that he would break through all his Dr. B. amount to a proof that be concessions to the parliament of 1646, thought him intitled to that superla as soon as it hould be in his power, tive character. With regard to his poli and thereby proved one occasion of tical conduet, (1. e. his conduct as a the civil wars. And when the parliaking, which alone is to be regarded in ment met again, they found that the discussing this point) he owns, to at. petition of right had been inrolled and tempt to justify all bis proceedings would printed by the king's order, not with be wrong, but no man, who has a just the right answer, and with some addi. jenje of legal liberties, would commend, tions. Rapin observes.-" It seems or vindicate, actions which be should be to have been a maxiın in this and tbe forry to see imitatct. That there were lait reign, that no faitb is to be kept irregularities and unwarrantable mea. with parliaments:-Hence it came to juris in the course of publick 'administra. pass, that the king was not trufted at tion, which gave orcopon ro popular jea- all; the number of mal-contents was lousies and discontents. This the doctor infinite, and his majelty seemed to do owns; iirimating, indeed, at the same every thing that lay in his power to sime, that all grievances were amply inereale cheir number." So far was redressed to the satisfaction of all reasona. he froin redressing grievances (as Dr. ble subjects: The truth of which is far B. aihirms) to the satisfaction of all from being evident. For as good his reasonable subjects. -- But I am runtorians as the doctor tell us, that ning too great a length.This muft “ His majesty on the contrary descend fuffice for the king's political conduct. ed to the meannels of artful equivoca. With regard to his religious and prio tions, mental relervations, insidious vate moral character, (which, though and evasive answers, and violations of it does not immediately concern the folemn proiniles." His' parliament preient question, I would not overcould not trust him, having often found look) there is no person of the age (says a great deal of artifice ani insincerity, the doctor) appears more unexceptierain his deatings with them. No con ble and blameleji. Tois, leems to be ceilions could hold, nor engagements overttrained. - That he was temperate, bind him. In his propofałs, it was not chargeable with the excesses of the but too usual' to find ambiguous ex.
drunkard, is universally acknowledged. pressions, restrictions and conditions " But (lays our celebrated female bijexpreffed, or implied, which made it corian) neither gratitude, clemency, inpollible to build securely upon such humanity, equity, nor generofity, have foundations. There are several in place in the fair part of bis characier. Itances of thie' in the king's papers. His manners partook of the dissipation, What he seemed to give with one and his conversation of the indecency hand he immediately took away with of a court. His chastity bas been the other." "The king (fays Coke, his called in question by an author of the apologist) was fickle and unstable, highest repuces and were it allowed, ealily put upon things by his favourites, it was tajuted with an excess of uxoand as fuddenly altering them, and do- riousness, which gave it the properties ing quite contrary?" "His majesty
ty care and consequences of vice. Milton his royal allent to the petition of ragbi, taxes him with amorous indecencies (2 molt important act, being a kind committed in publick ; and Lilly asof fucond magna charta): whereby he ferts that he had one or two natural bound limieli, among other things, children." It is however certain be
577 is what some will call a good husband. scorned to appear impressed with a he queen's power over him (lays Cla. lense of his misfortunes, and assumed ndon) was absolute—he had her in the Stoick under the calamities and dirrfekt adoration. So that it seems he tresses which he had brought upon orbipped her not only with bis body himself. He would have discovered .ccording to our matrimonial formi) more of a christian temper if he had at with his mind too ; behaving to
made mournful reflections on his patt ards her as if the apoftolical injunc. behaviour, if he had shed penitential on were (the reverse of what it is) tears, reviewing the blood be bad shed, ufbands, be subje&t to your own wives. the blood of his people, whofe safety, of this subjection and obsequiousnels comfort, and happiness, he was ape gave abundant proof; particularly pointed and obliged by the strongest when he received her order to go to ties to consult and promote. If he he House of Commons and leize the had humbled himself before the of. ve obnoxious members. Go, coward, 'fended majesty of heaven, confesling says she) pull these rogues out by the with thame and corrow of heart his ars, or never see my fate any more. aggravated rebellion against his rightThe magnanimous monarch obeyed, ful fovereign, the king of kings; it he ind thus (as one observes) pulled down had submissively accepted at his Land upon his own ears the fabrick of our the punishment of his iniquity, as far less conftitution, which at last buried him than he delerved, praying to be delin the ruins. I call him magnanimous, vered from blood guiltiness, &c. if this because Dr. B. enlarges on this part had been his dispolition and behaviour, of his character, and celebrates his it would have been much more proper beroism with much lively oratory. Nor and becoming than that generous conis Mrs. Macauley backward to ownhim tempt of all temporal evils, for which poflefled of fortitude and personal bra. Dr. Burton applauds him, as if he had very; but he does not style him a nothing to trouble him, and merited Cbrißian hero, as you, fir, and the doc- nothing but good. I hould here contor do, though you both know there clude ; but cannot forbear taking no. can be no true chriftian magnanimily tice of the following comprehenfive en. without that goodness of heart, to which comium. The fear of God (lays the the unhappy king was too great a doctor) wbicb is ihe beginning of true stranger. A man may have bravery wisdom, appears to have been the goenough to fight a duel; to give, or verning principle throughout bis whole accept an invitation to murder his behaviour. How Itrange an affertion friend, or be murdered by him : but this ! How much has been said, how that gives him no claim to this exalt. much might be said, to prove the ed character. The chriflian bero is contrary! Let one instance fuffice, bold and intrepid in a good cause ; fears which I mentioned formerly ---Was no danger in the way of his duty; the king infuenced by the fear of God, nor is deterred by the prospect of at- when he encouraged and commanded tending difficulties, or troubles, from revels and plays, and all manner of doing what he knows is fit and right, recreations and Iports on the Lord's and ought to be done. The king's day, and severely punished hundreds of courage was of a different kind. He, conscientious, pious ministers, for noc rathly fearless of the consequences, by publishing from their pulpits this coman unjustifiable conduct, provoked his mand of ibe king to break the command subjects to take up arms against him of God? What a shocking complication in their own defence. Nor was his of impiety and inhumanity was this! and unalterable resolution not to yield and how justly applicable to him is the fubmit, any proof of that fortitude character of the judge in she gospel, and greatness of mind, for which he who neither feared God, ner regarded is so highly extolled. And though he
man! kept up his spirits when involved in I will only add, that, though I can. trouble, and did not faint in the day not believe Dr. Noweit put your fir, of adversity, it cannot from hence be upon writing in his defence; yet (as inferred that he was poflefied of true in your former letter you gave him the <brifian heroism. As pride seems to amiable character which, I doubt not, have been his constitutional vice, he le deserves) I suppole you are perio