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1569. As evidenced from Experiments. sit be supposed, at the beginning of tlie we have no material objection to M. experiment, not to exceed 100 degrees. Tillet's first experiments, as we see no Not to mention that M. Tillet's two great harm in an experimental phigirls may not possibly have been fub- losopher's giving two willing girls as jected to so great a degree of lieat as sweat, in his own peculiar manner; that indicated by the thermometer; with a view to the propagation of nawhich appears to us to have always tural knowledge; yet we cannot think remained on the novel in contact with so well of those which follow, nor look the hearth.

on our ingenious academician as quite It is observable, that none of the so innocently employed, in putting to animals which suffered under M. Til. torture, and to death, the poor inno. let's experiments, exhaled any disagree. cent rabbits, pullets, and finches, ble odour : M. Tillet therefore Tupwhich were the victims of them : and poses, that the dog, from whom to this merely to have the pleasure of great a stench proceeded, in the set of knowing how high Mons. Reaumur's experiments made by Fahrenheit, la- thermometer would stand on the occaboured under some internal disorder, fion : for we cannot be of opinion and had within him some latent prin- with M.Tillet, that experiments of this ciple of corruption, which was, as it kind may polibly be of use in medi. were, developed by the extraordinary cine ; nor are we quite clear how far heat. If we might venture to hazard they are justifiable, on that suppoütion. our opinion, after those of Dr. Boer. haave and M. Tiller, we should ob. A curious and interesting Account of a ferve, in the first place, that; among Substance, not before attended 10% the animals used in the experiments which tbe Bees collect and turn to Honey. related by Boerhaave, the dog only ex T was formerly the opinion of na

; and that, in those of M. Tillet, that lect honey in the form we see it ș the animal was not employed. We should liquor they collect being digefted in think therefore, that the horrid Itench their stomachs, where both its nature complained of, neither proceeded from and consistence are changed. But this any decomposition or putrescency of opinion seems to be founded on erro. the humours, effected by the extraor neous principles; and it is now believe dinary heat, co-operating with the vie ed, that the bees have no other share tal adion of the vessels in the fluids of in the making of honey than fimply the animal, as is supposed by Boer- collecting its because the honey is, haave; nor that it was caused by any when properly diluted, subject to vi. general or accidental vice of the hu. nous fermentation, a property not mours, in the individual dog who was found in any animal subitarice. the subject of the experiment, as is The flowers of many sorts of plants suggested by M. Tillet; but that it afford a quantity of honey, or facchamay more 'naturally be supposed to rine juice, which the bees collect and arise from the fætid humour which carry to their hives; but besides this is known to be secreted from the glan. liquor, the Abbe Bouflier acquaint us, dule odorifere seated near the anus of that he has seen two kinds of honeys that animal; the secretion of which dews, which the bees are equally fond may be fuppofed to have been increas- of, both deriving their origin from ed, as well as its natural offenfiveness vegetables, though in a different mangreatly heightened, by the action of ner. the heat on the living animal.

The first kind, the only one known Before we quit the subject of this to husbandmen, and which passes for a memoir, we cannot, salva conscientiâ, dew which falls on trees, is no other help interceeding with natural philo. than a mild feveet juice, whichi, having sophers, in behalf of our fellow.crea- , circulated through the vesels of vegetures of the brute creation, at whore tables, is separated in proper reservoirs expence the philosophic appetite for in the flowers, or on the leaves, where knowledge, in matters of pure curiosi. it is properly called the honey. dew : ty (for such we must elteem the pre- fómetimes it is deposited in the pith, as fent) is often moft unfeelingly grati- in the lugar-cane; at other times, in fied. In the present instance, though the juice of summer fruits, when ripe.

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Oct. 1769.

518

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An Account of a new-discovered Subftante, Such is the origin of the manna; which origin to a small infect called a vine ja collected on the ath and maple of fretter : the excrement ejected with Calabria and Briançon, where it fows some force by this insect makes a part in great plenty from the leaves and of the mot delicate honey known in trunks of these trees, and thickens in nature. to the form in which it is usually seen. Thefe vine-fretters reft during for

“ Chance, says the abbe, afforded veral months on the barks of particy. me an opportunity of feeing this juice far trees, and extract their food by and its primitive form on the leaves of piercing that bark, without burting the holm-oak: these leaves were co or deforming the tree. These infe&ts vered with thousands of small round allo.cause the leave of fame trees to globules, or drops, which, without curl up, and produce galls uponotbett. touching one another, seemed to point They fottle on branches that are a year out the pore from whence each of old. The juice, at first perhaps hard them had proceeded. My tafte inand crabbed, becomes, in the bowels formed me that they were as sweet as of this infect, equal io sweetness to the honey: the boney.dew on a neigh- honey obtained from the towers and bouring bramble, did not resemble leaves of vegetables ; excepting that the former, the drops having run to the towers may communicate some of gether ; owing either to the moisture their effential oil to the honey, and of the air which had diluted them, of this may give it a peculiar flavour, as to the heat which had expanded them. happened to myfelf by planting The dew was become more viscous; hedge of rosemary near my bees at Sau. and lay in large drops, covering the vages; the honey has talted of it ever leaves; in this form it is ufually feen. fince, that shrub continuing long in

The oak had at this time two kinds flower. of leaves; the old, which were trong I have observed two fpecies of vineand firm, and the new, which were fretters, which live unsheltered on the tender, and newly come forth. The bark of young branches: they have a honey-dew was found only on the old smooth skin, and those without wings leaves, though these were covered by seem to be the females, which comthe new ones, and by that means lela pose the greater bulk of the fwarm, tered from any moisture that could. or perlaps the young in their caterfall from above. I observed the fame pillar ftate, before they are changed on the old leaves of the bramble, while into flies; for each fwarm has, in its the new leaves were quite free from it. train, two or three males with wings: Another proof that this dew pro- these live on the labour of the females, ceeds from the leaves is, that other at least I always saw them hopping neighbouring trees, not furnished with carelessly on the backs of the females,

a juice of this kind, had no moiffure without going to the back to seek for · on them; and particularly the mul- food. Berry, which is a very particular cir Both species live in clufters, on difa cumstance, for this juice is a deadly ferent parts of the same tree, entirely poison to lilk-worms. If this juice fell covering the bark; and it is remarkain the form of a dew, milt, or fog, it ble that they there take a pohtio would wet all the leaves without dj. which to us appears to be very unealy; tinction, and every part of the leaves, for they adhere to the branch with under as well as upper. Heat may their head downwards, and their belhave some share in it's production: ly upwards. for though the common heat promotes The lesser species is of the colour of only the transpiration of the more vo the bark upon which it feeds, geneJatile and fluid juices

, a fultry heat, rally green. It is chiefly distinguishe especially if reflected by clondé, may ed by two horns, or straight, immoveaso far dilate the vetiel, as to produce a ble, Aethy substances, which rise per: more viscous juice, such as the honey. pendicularly from the lower fides of dew.

the belly, one on each side. This is The second kind of honey-dew, he species which live on the young which is the chicf resource of bees af branches of brambles and elder. ter the spring flowers and dew ly tran The former of thefe fpecies is double Ipiration on leaves are palt, owes its the lize of the latter, and is the

which

1769. From wbich Bees extract their Honey. 519 which I have now more particularly necessary to incline it forward ; and in view, becaufe it is that froin which even in this ftuation the insect seems the honey proceeds. These infects by its Autterings to collect all its are blackish; and instead of the kind Strength. When the winter's cold and of horns which diftinguish the other, rains come on, these vine.fretters have, is the fame part of the skin, a place themfelves wherever they are small button, black and Shining like least exposed ; and as they then take jer.

bur little nourishment, and but seldom The buzzing of bees in a tuft of emit their drop, they seem not to holm-oak, made me suspect that some mind whether the head or tail be upthing very interesting brought so many permoft. of them tbither. I knew that it was The drops thus spurted out fall up. not the season for expecting honey, on the ground, if not intercepted by der, nor was it the place where it is leaves or branches; and the spots usually found, and was furprized to they make on tones remain some time, find the tuft of leaves and branches co. unless washed off by rain. This is vered with drops which the bees col, the only honey-dew that falls ; and this lected with a humming noise. The never falls from a greater height than form of the drops drew my attention, a branch where thele infects can cluster. and led me to the following discovery. It is now easy to account for a phro. Instead of being round like drops which nomenon which forinerly puzzled me had fallen, each formed a smali longith greatly. Walking under a lime-tree oval. I soon perceived from whence in the king's garden at Paris, I felt they proceeded. The leaves covered my hand wetted with little drops, with these drops of honey were fituat. which I at first cook for small rain. ed beneath a swarm of the larger black The tree indeed Mould have theltered rine-fretters; and on obferving these me from the rain, but I escaped it by infeéts, I perceived them, from time going from under the tree. A reat to cime, raise their bellies, at the ex, placed near the tree phone with these tremity of which there then appeared drops. And being then unacquainted a small drop of an amber colour, which with any thing of this kind, except the they inftantly ejected from them to the honey-dew found on the leaves of some distance of some inches. I found, by particular trees, I was at a loss to con, tafting fame of these drops which I cerve how so glutinous a substance could bad catched on my hand, that it had fall from the leaves in such small drops ; the same favour with what had before for I knew that rain could not over fallen on the leaves. I afterwards faw come its natural attraction tothe leaves, the smaller species of vine-fretters eject till it became pretty large drops ; but their drops in the same manner. I have since found that the lime-tree

This ejection is so far from being a is very subject to these vine-fretters. matfer of indifference to these insects Bees are not the only insects that themselves, that it seems to have been feast on this honey, ants are equally wisely indicuted to procure cleanliness fond of it. Led into this opinion by in each individual, as weli as to pre. what naturalists have said, 'I at firit serve the whole. Swarm from deftruc. believed that the horns, in the lefler tion; for pressing as they do one up- (pecies of thele vine-fretrers, had at on another, they would otherwise soon their extremity a liquor which the be glued together, and rendered inca- ants went in search of : but I soon pable of stirring.

discovered, that what drew the ants We may now with fome probability after them came from elsewhere, both account for the feeasing odd fituation in the larger and the lefler species, in which they reft. Their belly is and that no liquor is discharged in about twenty times larger than their the horas. bead and breaft. If the infect was There are two species of ants which placed in a contrary direction, it could search for these insects. The large not, without extreme difficulty, raile black ants follow those which live on its heavy belly, so as to project it far the oaks and chelnut: the lefler ants enough outward to discharge the drop attend those on the elder. But as the over its companions ; whereas, when ants are not like the bees provided the head is lowelt, much less effort is with the means of sucking up Anids,

they

620 ..Sir William Draper to Junius,

OA they place themselves near the vine. most inhuman letter to the duke of fretters, in order to seize the drop the, I have read with a tonifhment moment they see it appear upon the and horror? Where, fir, where were anus : and as the drop remains some the feelings of your own heart, when I time on the small vine-fretters, be. you could upbraid a most affectionate fore they can cast it off, the ants have father with the loss of his only and Jeisure to catch it, and thereby prevent most amiable son ? Read over again the bees from having any share: but those cruel lines of yours, and let them the vine-fretters of ihe oak and chel. ring your very foul! Cannot political put being stronger, and perhaps more questions be discussed without descendplentifully fupplied with juice, darting to the most odious personalities? the drop inftantly, so that the larger Muft you go wantonly out of your way ants get very little of it.

to torment declining age, because the The vine-fretters finding the greatduke of

may have quarrelled est plenty of juice in trees about the with thofe whose cause and politics middle of summer, afford allo, at that you efpoufe? For shame! for hame! time, the greatest quantity of honey; As you have spoke daggers to him, and this leiens as the season advances, you may juftly dread the use of them so that, in the autumn, the bees prefer against your own breaft, did a want of it to the flowers then in season.

courage, or of noble sentiments, fiThough these insects pierce the tree nulate him to such mean revenge: to the sap in a thousand places, yet He is above it, he is brave. Do you the trees do not seem to suffer at all fancy that your own base

arts have in. from them, nor do the leaves lose the fected our whole island ? But your own least of their verdure. The husband. refle&tions, your own conscience, muft man therefore acts injudiciouły when and will, if you have any spark of he destroys them."

humanity remaining, give him most

ample vengeance. Not all the power A Word at parting 10 Junius. of words, with which you are lo SIR,

Clifton, Oct. 2. graced, will ever walk out, or even A siker bare not famourned me with paliate this foul blot in your character

either of the explanations demandçd of you, I can have nothing more diffect your letter so minutely as I could to say to you on my own account. with, but I will be bold enough to say, Your mercy to me, or tenderness for that it is (as to reason and argument) yourself

, has been very great. The the most extraordinary piece of fiorid public will judge of your motives. If impotence that was ever imposed upon your excess of modesty forbids you to the eyes and ears of the too credulous produce either the proofs or yourself, and deluded mob. It accuses the duke 1 will excuse it. Take courage, i of of high treason. Upon have not the temper of Tiberius, anywhat foundation? You tell us, "that more than the rank or power. You, the duke's pecuniary chara&er makes it indeed, are a tyrant of another fort, more than probablé, that he could not and, upon your political bed of tor have made Tuch sacrifices at the peace, ture, can excruciate any subject, from without some private compensatsers ; a first minister down to such a grub that his conduct carried with it an in; or butterfly as my self. Like another cerior evidence, beyond all the legal detested tyrant of antiquity can make proofs of a court of justice." the wretched sufferer fit the bed, if the My academical education, sir, bids bed will not fit the sufferer, by disa me tell you, that it is necessary to efjointing or tearing the trembling limbs tablish the trutb of your firft propos. until they are stretched to its extremi. tion, before you presume to draw inty. But courage, constancy, and pa ferences from it. First prove the ava. tience, under torments, have sometimes rice, before you make the rath, hafty, caused the moft hardened monsters to and most wicked conclufion. This selent, and forgive the object of their father, Junius, whom you call avari

. cruelty. You, fir, are determined to cious, allowed that fon éight thousand try all that human nature can endure, pounds a year. Upon his moft unfor

. until the expires; else was it possible tunate death, which your usual good, bat you could be the author of that nature took care to remind bin of

521

7769 In Defence of the D- of B*** be greatly encreased the jointure of the the truth, wherever such practices prean afflicted lady, his widow, Is this ava vail, they are equally criminal to, and E' rice? Is this doing good by Realth? destructive of, our freedom. ** It is upon record,

The rest of your declamation is If exact order, method, and true scarce worth confidering, excepting ceconomy as a master of a family ; if for the elegance of the language. Like la splendour and just magnificence, with. Hamlet in the play, you produce two

out wild waste and thoughtless extra- pictures; you tell us, that one is not vagance, may constitute the character fike the duke of

, then you er of an avaricious man; the duke is guil. 'bring a moft hjdeous caricatura, and * !y: But for a moment let us admit tell us of the resemblance; but multhat an ambassador may love money tum abludit imayo. 100 much; what proof do you give All your long tedious accounts of that he has taken any to betray his the ministerial quarrels, and the incountry ? Is it hearsay; or the evidence trigue of the cabinet, are reducible to of letters, or ocular; or the evidence a few short lines; and, to convince of those concerned in this black affair : you, fir, that I do not mean to flatter Produce your authorities to the pub. any minister, either paft or present, lic. It is a most impudent kind of for these are my thoughts; they seem to cery to attempt to bļind us with the bave acted like lovers or children ; Smoke, without convincing us that the have pouted, quarrelled, cried, kissed, fire has existed. You first brand him and been friends again, as the obje&s with a vice that he is free from, torender of desire, the ministerial rattles, have him odious and suspected. Suspicion is been put into their hands. But such the foul weapon with which you make proceedings are very unworthy of the all your chief attacks, with that you gravity and dignity of a great nation, fab. But shall one of the first subjects of We do not want men of abilities; but the realm be ruined in his fame; shall we have wanted steadiness; we want even his life be in constant danger from unanimity: your letters, Junius, will a charge built upon such sandy foun- not contribute thereto. You may one dations ? Must his house be besieged by day expire by a fame of your own lawless ruffians, his journies impeded, kindling. But it is my humble opiand even the asylum of an altar be in nion, that lenity and moderation, secure, from affertions so base and pardon and oblivion, will disappoint false? Potent as he is, the duke is the efforts of all the feditious in the amenable to justice; if guilty, punilh. !and, and extinguish their widespreadable. The parliament is the high and ing fires, I have lived with this sen, solemn tribunal for matters of such timent, with this į Mall die, great moment. To that be they sub

W. D. mitted. But I hope allo that some no. tice will be taken of, and some punish Junius's Reply to the foregoing. ment inflicted upon, false accusers,

SIR, especially upon such, Junius, who are wilfully falle. In any truth I will agree

F Sir William Draper's bed be a bed IE

of torture, he has made it for him.' even with Junius į will agree with felf. I lhall never interrupt his reporea him, that it is highly unbecoming the Having changed the subject, there are dignity of peers to tamper with bo- parts of his last letter not undeserving roughs. Aristocracy is as fatal as de. of a reply. Leaving his private chamocracy. Our conftitution admits of racter and conduct out of the question, peither. !c loves a king, lords, and · I shall consider him merely in the cacommons, really chosen by the vn- pacity of an author, whose labours cer. bought fuffrages of a free people. But tainly do no discredit to a news-paper. if corruption only shifts hands; if the We say, in common discourse, that Healthy commoner gives the bribe, a man may be his own enemy, and instead of the potent peer, is the state the frequency of the fact makes the better served by this exchange? Is the expression intelligible. But that a ta! emancipation of the borough ef man thould be the bittereft enemy of icted, because new parchment bonds his friends, implies a contradi&tion of pay possibly fupersede the old ? To say a peculiar nature. There is something

in

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