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The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay. year 1616. It lies not far from the houses. For a great many years, noMoluccas, and is reckoned among the thing could be more mean and simple, Selebes. It is welt of Band 24 leagues, being built with canes covered with and situated very near the sun. plaister; without window or chimney; CAUCASUS

without seats or beds; in a manner is a mountain of Asia, which the fable without any furniture. The whole of Prometheus hias rendered famous. family fat on the floor ; and lay in It is that part of Mont Jaus which lies hammocks, which were not to be seen between the Euxine sea on the west, in the day time; the smoke of the and the Caspian fea on the east. It is fires, which they made in the center exceedingly lofty, and always covered of their cabins, had no issue, nor the with snow.

light of the sun any entrance, but by BORNEO

the door. At present, their houses is one of the greatest islands in the East are as convenient, as neat, and as Indies. It lies between Sumatra to the well furnished, as those of the comwest, Java to the south, Celebes to the mon Spaniards. They have even beeast, and the Phillippine islands to the gun to build them with stone, and conorth. It is of a round thape, and ver them with tile. the line cuts the southern part of it. The work of the women is regulated It is reported to be eighteen hundred as well as that of the men. It confifts miles in circumference, and to contain chiefly in spinning. The beginning several kingdoms. Borneo the prin. of every week, every woman receives cipal city, lies on the north weitern a certain quantity of wool and cotton, fhore, in a bay: it is rich, populous, which the must return, the Saturday and well traded, is built in a low night following, ready for the loom. ground, not much unlike Venice, and they are, likewise now and then, pyt it has a capacious harbour belonging to certain country labours, which do to it.

not surpass their strength and capa. The State of the Jefuits in Paraguay. city, Continued from p. 462.

The trade these Indians carry on,

to procure what their country does not HERE are, every where, work, afford, consists chiefly in wild wax and sculptors; gold, silver, andother smiths; which they have every where made clockmakers, carpenters, joiners, wea- plantations; the sale of it being cervers, and founders; in a word, for tain, as no one in this country all the arts and trades that can be use. can do without it. I said, that the ful to them. As loon as the children first plants of this vegetable were are old enough to begin to work, they brought from the canton of Maare taken to these workhops, and ap racayu, where the best kind of it plied to the business which they ex. grows naturally; but they have dege. press the greatest liking for, from a nerated very little in the reductions. persuasion, that art is to be guided by This trade is sufficiently explained in

Their first masters were lay- the decree of Philip V. which I have brother Jesuits, fent for on purpose to already so often cited. Some persons instruct them. Sometimes the fathers have censured the manner of carrying themselves have been obliged to drive it on, though every circumstance of the plough, and handle the spade, to it is authorized by the sovereign, who initiate them in husbandry; and en plainly saw how indispensably necessagage them, by their example, to cul- ry it was for the preservation of this tivate the earth; to sow and to reap. republick. To conclude, thele Neophytes have We shall see in its place what rea. built, after designs furnished them by sons the missionaries had for asking for the Jesuits, such churches as would their Neophytes, and the kings of not disgrace the greatest cities in Spain Spain for granting them, the ule of or Peru, either in regard to the beau. fire-arms. This privilege was, in fact, ty of their triicture, or the richness absolutely necessary to prevent their and good taste of their sacred vefiels falling into the most cruel liavery ; of and ornaments of every kind. being dispersed over the woods and This is not the case with their mountains; and that too, without be.

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1769.

The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay.

513 ing fure of escaping the hands of their cultivated, to supply it with the necefinveterate pursuers. I may even ven saries of life; for as to superfluiries, ture io affirm, that the kings of Spain, they are as yet Itrangers to them. and their Spanish subjeéts, are those And considering theis natural dispofiwho reap at present the greatest bene- tion, and the manner in which they fit from this indulgence. Though the are brought up, there is all the reaion latter, from principles of self-interett, in the world to hope, they will ever omitted nothing to have it repealedi continue so. The misionaries, indeed, so that, for many years together, the know the full amount of what their royal council of the Indies was more lands produce. It is the same thing taken up with discussions about it, in regard to their commerce, which than with any other business relating cannot be carried on but under the to the Spanish dominions in America. eyes of those, who are most concerned But the interest of the ftate, joined carefully to inspect it. to that of religion, prevailed at lalt. All the lands of the country, where Philip V. thoroughly persuaded, that it the reductions are situated, are not is more the interest of the missionaries equally good for the farne things. In than of any others, to hinder their those which lie nearest the tropicks, Neophytes from abusing this liberty as the environs of the Parana for exof being constantly well armed, con ample, chere is plenty of honey, wax, fines himself, in iis decree of the 2811 maiz, and cotton ; those more to the of December, 1743, to the recon south yield wool, hemp, and wheat ; mending to the provincial of the Je. and abound, befides, in good pastures. suits, to deliberate with his brethren The woods and the rivers are every on the means of preventing any incon- where well locked with game. Barveniencies that might be apprehended ter supplies the deficiencies of nature. from it; ordering him, in case there Gold and lilver ibines no where but thould appear the least sign of any ten on the altars. But, besides those spots dency to an insurrection, to give early of ground, that have been given in norice of it to the council, and let fee to every father of a family, and them know what measures it may which are cleared in proportion as the be proper to take to prevent a surprize. reductions become more populous, But there is so much the less reason to there are some that belong to the comapprehend any thing like a revolt munity, and the produce of which is among the Neophytes, that their hap. deposied in the public magazines piness and security depend entirely on against unforeseen accidents; for the their loyalty, which nothing but an repairs of the churches, and every attempt upon their liberties can im• thing relating to divine worship; for pair; and none, certainly, but the the Tupport of widows and orphans, enemies of the king, or of the state, the fick and the infirm, those employcan poslibly think of making any such ed in the service of the altar, or comattempt.

manded to any distance, to serve his Several persons imagine, that in majelty in a civil or military capacity ; this republic there is no private pro- for the maintenance of the caciques, perty; but that every week each fa- corregidors, and other civil and milia mily receives the necessary food; and, tary officers; for the poor, wbatever from time to time, the other necefiary the cause of their poverty may be ; articles for their subrittence. Some to supply the deficiencies of bad crops, such regulation might possibly have even for other towns; for the India existed, when those Indians, but new. ans, in all their necesities, affilt each ly united, were not in a capacity to other to the best of their power. The procure themselves; by their labours, surplus, if there happens to be any, is a certain and regular supply of the added to the goods to be sold for paynecefTaries of life; nor well elta. . ing the king's cribute, and purchasing bished in places of sufficient secu. such military stores as the king does rity. But, in process of time, and not supply them with ; and, in a word, especially since they have been no gold, filver, copper, iron, and steel, longer exposed to the danger of being for the construction of arms and the obliged to remove from place to place, decoration of their altars. there has been assigned to every family The reductions are pretty large; the a piece of land, lufficient, if properly ftreets of them quite straight, and the

houses

514

Tbe State of the Jesuits in Paraguay. Oa. houses uniform. In the center of In spite of this police, and all the every reduction there is a square, measures taken to prevent any er which the church faces, and likewise wanting the necessaries of life, the the arsenal, in which all the arms and missionaries find it a very difficult tai ammunition are laid up. Here the to make all things aniwer. This is Indians exercise every week ; for there owing to three failings in their Neoare in every town two companies of phytes, which they have not as yet militia, whose officers bave, accord- been able to correct; namely, their ing to their respective ranks, very little forefight, their laziness, and handsome uniforins laced with gold their want of economy, in confeand silver, but they never wear them quence of which they often come there except when they exercise or take the of seed for their lands. On this occafield. The civil officers have likewise fion there is an absolute neceffity for proper habits to distinguish them. As aflifting them ; but then they are obilto the common dress, it confifts for ged to return, after harvest, a quasthe men in a waistcoat and breeches, .tity of grain equal to that lent then very like those worn by the Spaniards; to procure it. As to other provifions, and above all a frock of white cloth, if the millionaries did not keep a se. which reaches below the knee. This ry watchful eye over them, they would, frock is sometimes made of a coloured in a little time, not have a morsel to cloth; and is then a mark of distinc. eat. This is likewise owing to lo tion allowed only to merit. The wo- insatiable an apperite, that, a few men's dress conífts in a shift without moments after they have stuffed their fleeves that reaches to the feet, and bellies, they are ready for a new meal. over it a gown Somewhat loose and Nay, the missionaries, at first, could flowing. But when employed in the not so much as leave to their discretion fields they wear nothing but the for. the bullocks employed in agriculture, mer. When they carry any burden, left through laziness they should leave they tie it to the two ends of a broad them unyoked, when their work #IS strap, which they pass over the fore- over; and even tear them to pieces, head like the women among the fa. and devour them, as it has often hapvages of Canada. Both men and wo- pened ; when their being hungry wa men go bare legged, bare footed, and all the excuse that could be got out of bare headed. The women's hair serves them. them for a veil.

This has obliged the miffionaries to 'The missionaries have their houses appoint overseers, who visit every place next to the church. The store houses, exactly, to see if the Indians mind workshops, and granaries for contain their business, and keep their cattle in ing the produce of the common good order ; and have a power to pu. grounds, which are always cultivated nith them, when they find them in at the common expence, itand all up- fault, which seldom happens at preon the same line.' In the reductions sent. Besides, when it does, they reasituated at a great distance from Spa- dily confess their guilt, and submit to nish towns, or navigable rivers, iron the sentence pronounced on them. Al and steel are so scarce, that the Indians their faults are the faults of children; are often obliged to make their tools and indeed they continue children, in of stone, or of wood hardened by fire. many respects, all their lives; but Their bell metal they get from Co- then it is with all the good qualities quimbo, a town of Chili, where they peculiar to that age. In spite how. purchase it in exchange for such of ever of all the precautions we have their commodities as they can there been speaking of, the missionaries ofter find a vent for. Not only those who find it necesary to have recoule carry on this traffic, but in general all to other expedients, to enable fere those who go with any goods for sale ral families to hold out to the end

from the reductions to the Spanish sets of the year ; no beggary being to . clements, are defrayed by, and have lerated in this republic, for fear of

likewise their lands cultivated at the introducing theft, and encouraging expence of, the public. As to the laziness. The fureft method bitherta produce of those goods it is well found out to correct this laft failing, is known; the rates being all fixed, so as to condemn the delinquent to cultivate to admit of no imposition or dispute. the reserved lands, of which we bave

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1769. The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay. 515 spoken, and which are called God's pose bishops in whose diocese they labour ;, feffion or inberitance; but then, as such so that every thing published against workmen are not to be depended up- them on this head has fallen of itself on, care is taken to associate with to the ground; or has been unanswer. them others of known diligence. The ably refuted by the most holy prelates, fathers of families are likewise obliged the province of Paraguay, Tucuman, to send their children there very eas. and Buenos Ayres ever enjoyed. These ly, in order to form and inure them missionaries never took any steps to to labour. Every child's task is ad- enter upon this great work, or bring justed to his strength ; and there is no it to perfection, but with the consent, pardon for those who do not per- and by the authority, of their bihops ; form it.

and never affected any independence One of the greatest advantages de. in the exercise of their functious. rived from this police is, that it keeps They never used the privileges grantevery one employed. It maintains, ed to them by the holy see, but in the besides, not only in every town, but same manner, in which other religious through the whole republic, so perfect most submiffive to their bishops every an union, that ftrangers cannot help where use them. They have even observing it at first light. There are been more reserved. For tho’the kings no quarrels or law suits to be seen of Spain had authorized them to esta. bere; mine and yours are unknown blish reductions wherever they thought words; becaule it is in fact to have no proper, and govern such reductions exclusive property; to be always under the direction of their superiors, ready to divide the little one has with they never made any difficulty to resign those that want it; and to have one's their places to any other pastors the attention as much, and sometimes bishops were pleased to appoint, though even more, taken up with the con- they knew their departure would be cerns of others than one's own. It is followed by the dispersion of their thus the authors of the establishment flock, as it has often happened, have made the very failings of these Indians contribute to procure them on the extraordinary Degree of Heat the greatest blessings of society, and

which Men and Animals are capable of the constant practice of the first of all supporting christian virtues, which is charity. OERHAAVE, in his chemistry, to complete their happiness, and that with great accuracy by the celebrated is, an hospital and a good dispensary Fahrenheit, and others, at his defire, for medicines, in every town, or at on this subject, in a sugar-baker's of leaft in every canton; such as are to fice ; where the heat, at the time of be met among the Moxes, where the making the experiments, was up to Jesuits of Peru have formed a repub- 146 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermome. lic on the model of that of the Guara. ter. A sparrow, subjected to air thus nis. But these fathers found resources heated, died, after breathing very lafor this purpose, which are not to be boriously, in less than seven minutes, expected in Paraguay, where there are A cat refifted this great heat somewhac no opulent persons, and the Spaniards above a quarter of an hour, and a dog besides have no great affection for In- about 28 minutes, discharging, before dians who depend immediately on the his death, a considerable quantity of a sovereign, and serve only the state. ruddy.coloured foam, and exhaled a

What contributes still more to main- stench so peculiarly offensive, as to tain among these new Christians that throw one of the alíftants into a faintsurprizing harmony we have men ing fit. This disolution of the hu. tioned, is the subordination and good mours, or great change from a natuunderkanding that prevails among ral state, the professor attributes not their spiritual governors. Those, who to the heat of the stove alone, which have hitherto had the immediate con- would not have produced any such duct of this flock gathered together by effect on the fieth of a dead animal; their labours, never considered them. but likewise to the vital motion, by selves in any ftation whatsoever, other. which a still greater degree of heat, he wise than as the inftruments of the supposes, was produced in the Auids

circu.

516 The Degree of Hear Men and Animals can support, Oa circulating through the lungs, in con- indeed confiderably heightened, bother sequence of which the oils, Talts, and respiration by no incans quick or labo spirits of the animal became to highly rious. After M. Tillei's return to exalted.

Paris, these experiments were repeatMeffieurs Du Hamel and Tillet hava ed by Mons. Marantin, Commissaire ing been sent into the province of Au- de Guerre, at Rochefoucault, an ingomois, in the years 1760 and 1761, telligent and accura e observer, on a with a view of endeavouring to de- second girl belonging to the oven; ftroy an infect which consumed the who remained in it, without much it. grain of that province, effected the convenience, under the same degree fame in the manner related in the me- of heat, as long as her predecellor, moirs for 176t, by exposing the affect- and even breathed in air heated to ed corn, with the insects included in about 325 degrees, for the space of fire it, in an oven, where the heat was fuf. minutes. ficient to kill them, without injuring M. Tiller endeavoured to clear up the grain. This operation was per the very apparent contrariety between formed at Rochefoucault, in a large these experiments, and those made on public oven, where, from ceconomical der the direction of Boerhaave, by fueviews, their first step was to allure je&ting various animals, ander different themselves of the heat remaining in it, circumstances, to great degrees of heat. on the day after bread had been baked From his experiments, in fome of in it. This they did, by conveying in which the animals were swaddied with a thermometer on the end of a shovel, clothes, and were thereby enabled to which, on its being withdrawn, indi- refift for a much longer time the efcated a degree of heat conliderably fects of the extraordinary heat, he is. above that of boiling water : but M. fers, that the heat of the air received Tillet, convinced that the thermomes into the lungs was not, as was fuppol

. ter had fallen several degrees, ined by Boerhaave, the only or princidrawing to the mouth of the oven, pal cause of the anxiety, laboriodi and appearing under fome embarraf- breathing, and death of the animals on ment on that head, a girl, one of the whom his experiments were made; attendants on the over, offered to but that the hot air, which had free enter, and mark with a pencil the and immediate access to every part of height at which the thermometer [tood the surface of their bodies, penetrated within the oven. The girl smiled, on the substance on all fides, and brought M. Tillet's appearing to heftate at on a fever, from whence proceeded all this strange proposition, and entering the symptoms : on the contrary, the the oven, with a pencil giren her for girls at Rochefoucault, having their that purpose, marked the thermome- bodies in great measure protected from ter, after ftaying two or three mi. this action by their clothes, wete enanutes, standing at 100 degrees of bled to breathe the air, thús violendig Reaumur's fcale, or, to make use of a heated, for a long time, without great scale better known in this country, at inconvenience. In fact

, we fhould near 260 degrees of Fahrenheit’s." M. think too, that the bulk of their bodi Tiller, who does not seem, on this oc- dies, though not thought of much con: casion, to have been disposed corio hu. Sequence by M. Tillet, appears to have mano ludere, began to express an an. contributed not a little to their feca pa xiety, very commendable' in an expe- rity. In coinmon respiration, the blood, rimental philosopher, for the welfare in its passage through the lungs, of his female

allitant, and to press cooled by being brought into contact her return. This female falamander with the external inspired air : in the however affaring him, that the felt no present experimeuts, on the contrary, inconvenience from her lituation, re the vesicles and vesels of the langs, mained there 10 minutes longer ;' that receiving at each inspiration are is, near the time when Boerhaave's cat heated to 300 degrees, must have been parted with her nine lives, undera much continually cooled and refreihed, less degree of heat; when the thermo- well as the lobcutaneous veillels; by meter standing at 283 degrees, or 76 de. the fuccellive arrival of the whole mais grees above that of boiling water, the of blood contained in the interior came out of the oven, her complexion parts of the body, whose heat nigbe

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