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504 The HISTORY of the loft Session of Parliament. Ce. act, is to be administered to him. The on penalty of forty pounds, with cofis ef court, however, if required by a credi- fuit. tor, may sumupon the person who acted The prisoner's future estate and effects, as gaoler on the 29th of September, notwithstanding his personal discharge 1768, or since, and examine him touch. are liable to creditors ; wearing apparel, ing the cominitment and continuance bedding, and working tools, not exin custody of the priloner; and the feeding 101. value, excepted ; and the gaoler disobeying the warrant, or order creditor inay sue for the recovery of debts of the court, forfeits 100l. with treble due at the time of the prisoner's discharge, colis.
but not hold the prisoner to special bail, Debtors, who were beyond the seas on nor take his person, wearing apparel, the 29th of September, 1768, surrender. bedding or tools in judgment; and na ing themselves, may take the benefit of advantage is to be taken of the cause of this act, upon the same terms as other action not accruing within three years, prisoners, 'excepting such particulars, nor of the statute of limitation, unless wherein the cases of both differ, but a Such cause of action did not accrue particular oath, prescribed by this act, within three years next belore any fuch is required for fugitives,
prisoner or fugitive shall be discharged Gaoler and printer of the Gazette, or under this act. And, further, the disa other news paper, not complying with charge of the prisoner is no acquittal to the regulations in this act, forfeit rool, the copartner' or (ureties. to the prisoners, with treble costs of Gaaler, making false entries in the tuit. Gaoler, convicted of perjury, for- prison book or lints, forfeits cool. with feits 500 l. with full costs of fuit ; one treble costs, over and above all other moiety to go to the informer, and the penalties for such fraud. o her towards satisfying the debts of Prisoner refuting to declare the abode the creditors.
of the person, at whole fuit he is deClerk of the peace refusing the pri- tained, or to come to the creditor in the foner a copy of his discharge, or taking lodge, is excluded the benefit of this exorbitant fees for the fame, or for al. act. figning over the prisoner's estate and ef Those who are prisoners for their fees, tects, forfeits 201. to the prisoner, who, or other demands of the gaoler or offion his hide, convicted of perjury, fuffers cer, are to be discharged. as a felon.
Debtors to the crown, and prisoners Perlons discharged by this act are not wlio owe above rocol. to one person, liable to arrest for debis contracted be- unless the creditors consent, are excludfore the 29th of September, 1768; and ed the benefit of this act. justices, seriffs, and gaolers, may plead A creditor, opposing his prisoner's This act to any action of escape, or fuit discharge, is to allow himn zs. 6d. brought against them, and recover treble per week, and, on non payment, the costs.
prisoner is to be discharged; and all dirPersons discharged may plead general. charges are to be obtained by the ift of ly to all actions or judgments brought August, 1771. against them before the 29th of Septem. Perlons seized of an estate tail, claimher, 1768; and in other fuirs may plead ing the benefit of this act, are to deliin discharge of their persons froin exe ver up the same to the creditors. Alcution. The plaintiff may reply gene. fignees may apply for further examisally, but, if nonfuited, is to pay treble nation of the prisoner, touching the costs.
discovery of his effects, and justices Bankrupts, not obtaining their certifi- may send for and examine the prisoner cates in due time, are excluded the bene- accordingly. The prisoner refusing to fit of this act.
appear, or to answer upon oath, may be Attornies, embezzling their clients committed. Twenty per cent. is allow. money or effects, are also excluded the ed on discovering, within twelve months, benefit of this act.
any part of the prisoner's estate pot reGaoler is to permit the spcaking in turned in the schedule; and a dirprivate to prisoners, whose names are charge obtained fraudulentiy is void. inseried in the list or Gazette, and the Persons concealing any estate or effects xxainining the original books of entries, of the prisoner, forfeit sool, and double
1769. The Rise and Progress of the Polite. Arts. 505 value, with treble costs of suit. Aflig Liberty, the nurse of genius, was nees, with consent of the majority in only to be found among the nobility, value of the creditors, may compound from the establishment of the Saxons for debts due to the pritoner's estate; to the reign of Henry VII. The lower mad may submit any dispute relating classes were in the most abject state of thereto to arbitration; or otherwise may vafsalage ; dependant both for life and Settle and agree the same as they mall fortune on the nod of some haughty think fit. Affignees may be petitioned baron. The learning of those times against for insufficiency, fraud, misma was confined within very narrow linagement, or other misbehaviour ; and mits; the poorer sort were totally igthe court thereupon is to summon the norant of letters, and the highest atparties, and make such orders therein tainments of the clergy were to be as they fall think fit. Where mutual able to read their breviary, and the credit has been given, the balance is to legendary lives of their saints. be stated and allowed.
These impediments resulting from Prisoners, for not paying, money, our political constitution were further awarded under submisfions to arbitration; augmented by our insular situation, for not paying costs; and upon writs of which excluded us from the advanexcommunicato capiendo ; are intitled tages, which might have been exto the benefit of this act.
pected from a free intercourse with Those who are prisoners upon pro- continental nations. We, for the cess out of courts of conscience, are also fame reason, retained longer our to have the benefit of this act.
barbarism and national prejudices, This act is not to extend to the kings and seemed, as it were, shut out from dom of Scotland.”
improvement, while other nations were Quakers affirmation to be taken in advancing fast in it. lieu of an oath.
After the coming in of the Normans, Persons who took the benefit of the a communication was opened with the act of s George III. are excluded.
continent, and such architecture, The full intertion of this act we have painting and statuary as was then judged particularly necessary at this pe- practised in France, were introduced riod, while numbers are receiving the here. As for the first, our cathedrals benefit of it; the remaining public busi are beautiful monuments of the talte ness of the last session we thall discuss of those ages. The number of finelywith all possible expedition. We say the illuminated manuscripts thews paintpublic business, as private road bills, ing was carried to tolerable perfecbills for the division of common, tion, and many images of kings and or the naturalization of foreigners (which saints, ftill extant, give us no mean are constantly registered in our Chrono. opinion of those antient artists. logy) would in this place afford but In this state things continued till little entertainment or instruction to the the reformation, when a revival of reader.
the polite arts began in Italy, and [To be continued.]
gradually advanced through Europe.
The popes Leo X. and Julius II. gave An Hiftorical Introduction to the Antiqui- every possible encouragement to ge
ties and Curiosities of Wilton-House. nius, and in their time, brought
having just published a valuable of Raphael and Michael Angelo. account of the curiosities in this elegant Every street, garden and corner of seat of the Pembroke family, we are af. Rome was dug up in search of ansured the following introduction will tiques; the foundations of ruined paafford much fatisfaction to the lovers laces and decayed cities were examin. of science and antiquity.
ed, and multitudes of fine statues, “ The slow progress of the arts of relievos and other curiofities were sculpture and painting in England is found. derived from many caules ; (wü par It was not before the reign of Charles ticularly deserve attention, these were I. who had a taste for the arts, that the existence of the feudal policy for any collections were formed in this many ages, and our insula: Siwlion. kingdom ; his majesty, the duke of
be the consequence, but that it muit Thomas Earl of Pembroke's Plan for Oa. Buckingham and the earl of Arundel of the face. Besides, the viewing of Sirft procured antiques from Italy; these brought to the spectator's mind others of the nobility and gentry fol- the history and glorious exploits of an lowed their example, and we were in tient kings and heroes. the way to have laad very fine galleries, Though his lord ship had a fupe. but for the unfortunate catastrophe of rior esteem for the antique, yet be that justy lamented prince. The earls greatly praised the grand duke of Tulof Pembroke had from the reign of cany's collection, confifting of abore Henry VIII, been encouragers of the eight hundred modern statues. Lewis fine arts, and very early thuwed their XIV. in his estimation, deserved not tafte in employing Holbein and Jones less applause for his encouragement in improving and adorning their noble of French artists, who made many sta. feat at Wilton ; however, it was re tues in marble and lead after origiferved for earl Thomas, to raise it to a nals, and ornamented his gardens degree of magnificence and splendor, with them. These made excellent beyond any this nation afforded, and models for young ftatuaries and enwhich justly made it vie with the most gravers to copy, celebrated abroad.
Lord Pembroke was senlible, that in This nobleman possessed every qua. a few years sculpture would receive lification, necessary to constitute a real but little encouragement, that anconnoiseur and vituoso, in a very tiques would be monopolized in a fer eminent degree. He had an exquisite hands, and therefore was willing, benatural talte, improved by extenlive fore this event took place, as many learning, and a fondness for the Itudy copies might be taken, as would disof antiques. His conversation with feminate a correct talte, and give a rethe best Italian antiquaries of his age, lish for antient beauties. This ac. eherihed his own propensities, and he cordingly is come to pass, at present 3 resolved to form a collection on a plan, sculptor of the best genius can scarce which would render it valuable, and find employment, while every paulory be always a monument of his superio- painter, who can sketch a likeness, is rity in this way.
carefled. Before he began to purchase, he I!. No duplicates were admitted. confined himself by the following li- This rule is so necessary for every col. mitations.
lector to observe, that it seems strange I. He resolved not to run into all any should violate it. What purpose forts of curiofities, but to buy such as can starues with similar heads, trunks were illustrative of antient history and and draperies ferve ? Undoubtedly antient literature. It would have been none useful; they only occupy spaces an endless matter to have endeavoured which may easily be filled up with other to acquire gems, statues, medals, re. things, more valuable. lievos, buftos, domestic utensils, and The case is widely different in respect a thousand other antiques, which how- of divinities. As the symbols of many ever cardinal Albani, many of the of these could not with propriety be popes, and the present king of Naples represented together, fo more figures have done. Being on the spot when than one of them became cecellary. any of these were found, they had op. To exemplify this : Venus rising from portunities of completing sets, which the sea cannot be exhibited but in no foreigner can possibly have. that one action. Suppose her chariot therefore certainly more prudent, to drawn by doves, with Cupid
, Mars, decline what he had no hopes of per. Adonis, and a variety of other actions fedting, than to fill his house with and deities belonging to her were in; fagments, which would neither satis- troduced into one piece, what would fy the ignorant, nor please the connoilleur.
disgust every observer, as all things fo For this reason he rejected Cameos, crouded universally do ? Perus pickies Intaglias, and the imaller Lares and a thorn out of her foot, and Venus bolu. Penates. Bustos he was particularly ing a fhell, are as different in attitude, fond oi, as they exprefled, with more as if they no way related to the fame strength and exactness, the lineaments person.
7692 Collecting the Antiquities at Wilton-House.
507 Tbe same reasoning will hold good having many, and the temples great f Apollo, Hèrcules, Bacchus and numbers. To this religious opinion hers, so that his lordship most judi- concerning Ratues, that they represented outly multiplied fuch ftatues as 'were the deity under a human appearance, xplanatory of different attributes ; for is owing the improvement and perfecereby, as it were, a history was made tion of sculpture. Statues at the beginf these divinities.
ning, were as gross as men's conceptions, Altars, urns and such like came un being little hetter than rude stones and er the denomination of duplicates, for blocks without shape. As politeness and je moft part; however, some of them improvement advanced, they entertained reserved'in relievo many curious things, more becoming ideas of the divine naelative to the fepulture, marriages and ture, and the only means they had of ther sites and ceremonies of the Greeks expressing them fuitably, were to exlii. und Romans; when this was the case, hibit thein under those appearances most hey were valued and retained. Ac- esteemed among inen. cordingly here are eleven forts of inter Thus beauty, or a just conformation Enent, and five different altars.
of features, with a complexion fuited to III. Lord Pembroke rejected whole the climate, has always and ever will nations, as the productions of Egypt, claim the love and admiration of the Hetruria and Magna Græcia; though beholler. Hence the most beauteous he admitted a few to diversify his col persons were the models for their gods lection. The numerous and whimsical and goddesses, and the closer they folEgyptian deities, which captivate the lowed the original, the nearer they apeyes of some connoisseurs, were looked proached to perfection. His lordship on by bis lordship with indifference. observed, that this perfeclion was not The bieroglyphics, wherewith they are to be expected in the antient productions loaded, at present are unintelligible, or of the Grecian artists, it was a work of if they were known, could communi- time, advanced but lowly, and was cate nothing worthy attention. He confined, in some measure, to a partiTherefore was satisfied with an Ilis, Oli- cular epoch. ris and Orus, nor was he solicitous
Nothing does more honour to Lord about more; though he greatly admired Pembroke's taste thian confining his the jaspers and marbles of that country. choice to the best ages. If we consider
Hetruscan figures are not less outrè at that time the civil establishinent in and inexplicable than the foregoing, yet each state was settled as well as their great regard bas been paid to the works manner of conducting wars: that thele of that country, and much pains taken were uansinitted to us with accuracy by to elucidate them. Some of their vases, the celebrated pens of those days, and particularly, are beautifully relieved and consequently that the artists and writers painted ; but not ealily to be met with, murually illustrated each other, which unless in the cabinets of the curious, could not be the case with obscure ages; Even were they to have been procured, when these considerations are lai: togathey would have answered none of his ther, we shall clearly see, that these Jord fhip's views.
restrictions were not the effect of caFor the same reason, the basso relie- price, but of an intimate knowledge vos of Valetta, who lived in Magna of the subject. Græcia, (the kingdom of Naples) were Athens, at the beginning of the first not purchased, though antient, becaule Peloponnesian war, had aitained great sculpture did not fourish in that coun power and opulence. Pericles, who try, till after its decline in Greece. then had the management of affairs, was There were but little hopes of finding repolved to make his city as fuperior 10 valuable pieces there, especially as we o:hers in its buildings wid ornaments, know the Romans pillaged all the as his citizens were in letters and eleneighbouring kingdoms to adorn their gance. We need not doubt how trancapital.
icendent there were, when Phidias had IV. Even works of the best ages were the direction of thein :--that Phidias, bought with limitations. As images whose ftatue of Olyinpian Jove was were objects of adoration with the hea. esteemed such a miracle of art, that the thens from the earliest times, they con. sculptor was supposed to have had a resequently were multiplied, each family relation of the supreme Dairy, to be able
508 Lord Pembroke's Plan of collecting bis Antiques. Dati to design and execute so amazing a mended for having extended the performance.
bounds of imagination in fuch exhiThe mentioning this statue suggests bitions. a remark which will be found uleful V. As it was impossible to make a to those not well acquainted with an- ' complete collection, solely from the tient manners and opinions. It is not works of the best ages, particularly as to pronounce peremptorily on the his lordship began his late, so it had comparative merit of either sculpture been want of taste to reject those of or painting from the dress, air or attie the times next succeeding. Neither tudes of the subjects. For instance. sculpture, nor any other art, decays at Naked figures were highly prized by once; there were many performances the Greeks, because the beauty and which came little short of the be symmetry of the parts were thewn to ages, and were worthy of being pregreater advantage. The warmth of served. Those, whose execution was the eastern climate made the inhabi- but indifferent, as the ballo relievo tants go very slightly cloathed, and in with the first Greek letters, were yet the heats of summer with scarce any very curious and of considerable ofe. covering at all. None of the indeli. The same may be said of the buttos cate ideas, which we who live so far of Hesiod and Epicurus, they were northward have, were then annexed worth having, because, according to to nakedness. Moral decency could Cardinal Mazarine's catalogue, therz not be violated, for this decency is were no others of them known. not innate, but results from the senti. Inscriptions, which some value fo ments of mankind modified by the cli- highly, his lord hip paid no regard to mate : so that what bears the charac. when they did not answer some biftoter of turpitude in one country, very rical or chronological use. Thus the often has the opposite in another. letters on the Egyptian granite column
This observation is the more necef were remarkable, as they liewed th: Sary, as many unthinking persons origin of writing in Egypt, and fuphave represented the Greeks, as wan- plied us with some of the letters of tanand lascivious, because they made that antient alphabet. Under the their figures naked, whereas the very class of curious inscriptions may be opposite is true. Morality, legina. ranked, that on the busto of the Viction and unaffected virtue were never tor, on the Sarcophagus of Epapbrodi. better taught and practised, than in tus, on the two ballo relievos and the the writings and examples of Socrates, columbarium. Plato, Xenophon, and the philoso Lastly, no unknown heads were adphers of those times.
mitted, nor fragments. His lordships Olympian Jupiter was made with a design being, as is apparent from thick beard and head of hair. The what has been said, to make a collecantiene statues and bustos exhibit these tion of antiques not mutilated, he appearances. We who have different could not, confiftently, inciude any cuitoms can entertain no conception in it which were so.' They did very how there could be the marks of divini. well for ftatuaries to copy, but other. ty and importance; yet were we to tra wise were mere luinber. These then vel into the Levant, and farther east were the limitations which the earl of ward, we should find the same notions Pembroke prescribed to himself before of sanctity and veneration connected he purchased antiques; we thall now with a flowing beard, as the antients proceed to give an account of those had of it two thousand years ago.
collections from which he principally The Colossal Hercules in this collec. made his up. tion is beyond any thing we know, We before observed, that from the for magnitude and trength; and yet age of Pope Leo X. antiques began to modern discoveries inform-us of some be valued and esteemed as they delermen above his fize, which is seven, ved. From that time they were feet: but even if none existed, it cer- bought up with avidity; so that in a tainly required a body nothing infe- few years ebose which were really varior to the colossal figure to undergo luable became exceedingly scarce. the labours this hero archieved. The antient artists are rather to be coin.
(To be compiqued.)