« AnteriorContinuar »
THE BRITISH LEGISLATURE. countable to a tribunal, from which a by the bearing of each pillar agad criminal has no appeal or deliverance the others. Take but any one of the to look for.
pillars away, and the other two od Again, To the king is committed inevitably tumble. But while all # the cognizance of all causes.
But on each other, all are equally course Tould his judges or justiciaries per- teracted, and thereby affirm and it vert the rule of righteousness, an in- blith the general frame. quifition, impeachment, and trial im How deplorable then would it be pends, from whose judgment the should this elaborate structure of cat judges cannot be exempted.
happy constitution, within the front Again, The king bath a negative period of a thousand years hent, upon all bills, whereby his own pre- possibly in half the time, fall a per rogatives are guarded from invalion. to effeminacy, pufillanimity, venality
, But should he refuse the royal aflent and seduction ; like some ancient car, to bills tending to the general good the lord of the forest, to a pack or vik of the subject, the commons can also worms that lay gnawing at the rood; withbold their bills of assessinent, or or, like Ægypt, he contemptibly és annex the rejected bills to their bill Atroyed by lice and locufts. of aids ; and they never failed to pass Should the morals of our conti. in such agreeable company.
tuents ever come to be debauched, Lastly, To the king is committed consent, wbich is the fall of liberty
, the right of calling the two estates to would then be corrupted, and no fale parliament. But, Thould he refuse so might be found wherewith it could to call them, such a refusal would be be leasoned. Thole who are in warddeemed an abdication of the conftitution; ly the servants of fin must be outwardand no one need to be told, at this ly the servants of influence. Each ma day, that an abdication of the constile would then be as the Trojan terle tion is an abdication of the throne. old, and carry the enemies of his?
Thus, while the king acts in con country within his bosom. Oar ora: sent with the parliament and his peo- 'appetites would then induce us to be. ple, he is limitleis, iseliitable, omni- tray our own interests; and state po- i potent upon earth; he is the free licy would seize us a willing jarifice ta wielder of all the powers of a free our own perdition. and noble people, a king throned over Should it ever come to pass that cor. all the kings of the children of men. ruption, like a dark and low bung But thould he attempt to break bounds, milt, mould spread from man to man, thould be cast for independence; he and cover these lands. Should a gf. finds himself hedged in and traitened neral disolution of manners prevail
. on every side; he finds himself aban. Should vice be countenanced and comdoned by all his powers, and justly municated by the leaders of fashido. left to a itate of utter impotence and Should it come to be propagated by inaction.
ministers among legislators, and by Hence is imputed to the sovereign the legislators among their conftituents. head, in the constitucion of Great Siould guilt lift up its head without Britain, the high and divine attribute, fear of reproach, and avow itself in the king can do no wrong; for he is the face of the sun, and laugh virtue so circumscribed from the poflibility cut of countenance by force of num. of transgression, that no wrog can be beis. Should public duty turn pubpermitted to any king in tbe confiitution. lic strumpet. Should mops come to
While the king is thus controuled be advertised, where men may dilby the lords and the commons; while pole of their honour and honesty ar the lords are thus controuled by the fo much per ell. Should public mar. .commons and the king; and while the fiets be opened for the purchase of commons are thus controuled by the consciences, with an ozoj! We bid other iwo ettates, from attempting any most to those who set themselves, their thing to the prejudice of the general trusts, and their country to fale! li welfare ; the three estates may be luch a day, I say, fhould ever arrive, aptly compared to three pillars di- it will be doom's day, indeed, to the vided below at equidistant angies, but virtue, the liberty, and conftitution united and supported at top, merely of these kingdoms. It would be the
1769. The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay, fame to Great Britain, as it would fing one single and well regulated fahappen to the universe, hould the mily. laws of cohesion cease to operate, and The fathers, on their fide, repay all the parts be dislipated, whole or these teftimonies of esteem and affecderly connection now forms the beau. tion by a perpetual flow of more than ty and commonwealıb of nature. Want paternal tenderness.“ The moit laboriof fanity in the materials, can never ous part (says Don Antonio de Ulloa) be supplied by any art in the buildling. of the duty belonging to the prielts, is to -A constitution of public freemen can visit, personally, the chacaras or plannever contiit of private prostitutes, tations of the Indians; and in this
they are remarkably sedulous, in or. The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay, der to prevent the ill consequences HE affairs of the Jeluits bave of that Rothful disposition to natural
to the Guaranis, who, were they not versation, and their supposed autho. frequently rouled and stimulated by rity in Paraguay has been so often the presence of the priest, would amisrepresented, that we think it will bandon their work, or, at least perprove an entertaining as well as in- form it in a very superficial manner, fructive article to our readers, if we He also attends at the public flaughpresent them with a real state of mat- ter house, where, every day, they kill ters in that part of the world ; this some of the cattle ; large herds of we are enabled to do from Father which are kept for the public use by Charlevoix, who tells us, “ that there the Indians. The fieth of these beasts are two Jesuits in every reduction or
is dealt out by the priests, proportown, the second is almost always a tionable to the number of persons missionary newly arrived from Europe, each family consists of; so that every or a young prielt, who has just fin one has a sufficiency to supply the pished his Itudies in the university of calls of nature, but nothing tor waste. Corduba. He, at once, acts as vicar He also vilits the fick, to see that they under the parish priest, and learns to want for nothing, and are attendspeak the Indian language. It is even ed with that care and tenderness found requisite to have a third prieft; their condition requires. These chaas, for example, when any epidemi- ritable employments take up so great cal sickness rages in a town ; a thing a part of the day, as often to leave that often happens, and without him no time for afsifting the father cowhich this republick would be twice adjutor in the services of the church." more populous. On these occasions, The number of reductions is, at the reductions are no better than large present, thirty, of which the thirteen hospitals; and two priests would ne nearest to the Parana are within the ver be able to visit the fick, adminis. diocese of the Assumption. They ter the sacraments to them, and bury were within the government of Pathe dead. But, whatever the num raguay, till the year 1726, when, for ber of prielis may be, there reigns reasons I shall mention hereafter, Phiamong ibem the most perfect subor. lip V. directed provisionally, and till
The parish priest is con. further orders, that they should be ftantly the superior ; and, as he has under the jurisdiction of the governor always about him fix children destin. of Rio de la Plata. Some time after ed for the service of the church, his this, the governors not only gave the house looks like a little convent, Neophytes some uneasiness in regard where every thing is done by sound of to their tribure, but ftrenuously foli. bell. Himielf, though established in cited the king to increase it. But his the king's name, depends, in all majesty, far from complying with things, on the luperior of the million, their representations, illued a decree, who is constantly employed in visiting dated the 28th of December 1743, tó the parishes under his care; and on forbid any addition to be made to bis provincial, whose visits are like it. He even declared, that he forgave wise segular, so that Don Antonio de the Neoplıytes the fums they might Ullva has not said too much, in repre. then happen to owe to his treasury ; (enting all these millionaries as compo. and gave orders to inform them, that
Tbe State of the Jesuits in Paraguay. Sept, it was to acknowledge their loyalty, of these officers, they are not permite and their important fervices, he grant- ted to decide any thing of importance, ed then this indulgence.
and much less inflict any punishment, These services, which we shall like. without the approbation of their par. wise speak of as occasion offers, added tors. The punishments, after all, conto what the Spaniards are often expo fist in nothing but prayers, fafting, fed to suffer from the unconquered or confinement, and sometimes whip, revolted Indians, are a proof, which; ping; these Neophyces committing from day to day, becomes more gla. no faults that deserve any leverer ani, ring, that it was the interest of all madverfion. Before confinement, care the Europeans to treat the people of is taken to make them senable of their America' in the same manner, in faults in the mildelt manner; a tal which the Jesuits of Paraguay have no way difficult, conadering the goodtreated them, though they have been ness of their disposition. Accordingoften charged with it, and even perle- ly, not one of them has ever been cuted for it, as a capital crime. But known to prove refractory under it, what proves ftill better, the invetera. or express the least resentment against cy with which their designs have been his judges. “Indeed the love and vetraversed, is, that while the Indians, neration, says Don Antonio Ulloa, under other religious and some secular the Indians pay their paftors, are fo priests, were exempt from paying great, that could they be guilty of entythes to their bishops, the Jesuits joining an unjust punihment, the sufalone were attacked on that score. An fering party would impute it to his edi&t was even obtained, in 1694, by own demerits, being firmly persuaded which they were ordered to pay them that the priests never do any thing But the chapter of the Assumption, without a sufficient reason." To con. having represented to the council, clude, there is in every town a ca. that no tythes had ever been required cique, who is, as it were, the goverfrom the other Indians, though bet, nor in chief ; but he attends to little, ter able to pay them, the council vo. but military affairs. He is, however, ted, that it would be, perhaps, dan- exempt from tribute, as is likewise gerous to infift upon their compliance, his eldest son, In process of time, however, some It has been judged requisite to use persons were for having Don Joseph the greatest precautions, to hinder Paralta, bishop of Buenos Ayres, ex these
new Christians from having any act the tithes of the seventeen reduce correspondence with the Spaniards; fions within his diocese; but this pre. so that no Spaniards are permitted to late very prudently answered, that it enter their towns, but such as wait was impossible for him to think of on the bishop and governor. The loading them with any such burden, necessity of this precaution, besides as long as he had ocular demonftra- being proved by experience, muft ap. tion of their being no way able to fup. pear to any one who has the least opport it.
portunity of considering the wide dif. It is not to be doubted, but that the ference hetween these Neophytes, and interior government of the reductions those in whose favour it has not been depends chiefly upon the missionaries. observed. The missionary fathers The limited understanding of their will not now allow, fays Don Antonio Neophytes requires, that they should de Ulloa, any of the inhabitants of enter into all their affairs, and direct Peru to converse with their Indians, them in their temporal as well as in the decline of some of the latter, their spiritual concerns. Every town, from their primitive happiness and however, has the fame officers of jus- piety, being found to proceed entirely tice and of police with the Spanish from too open an intercourse between towns; a corregidor, regidors, and them and the latter. alcades, all cholen by the Indians Nay, their pastors have, as yet, in theniselves with the assistance of their a manner, hindered them from speak. millionaries; but afterwards confirm. ing Spanish, barely teaching the chil. ed by the supreme governor of the dren, in general,' to read and write province. As, however, there is no in that language ; and those alone are laying any great stress on the capacity taught to read and write the Latin,
769. The State of the Jesuits in Paraguay. ho are destined to sing in the chur- heart the most noble and elevated fenzes; but, whatever they are applied timents, it proportionably opens and » they take it up in a surprizing improves the understanding. anner. To hear them read these They succeed, as it were by inftinét, nguages, one would imagine they in all the arts, to which they are apnderstood them perfectly well; and plied; but, then, they have been apa to writing them, they copy manu- plied to such only, as were trought ripts in them without a single fault, requisite to exempt them from the nend in a very fine band. There is ac- cellity of having recourse to foreign sally a very large one of their copy- alistance. As yet, they have not dilo ig a Madrid, which would do ho. covered any talent for invention; but our to the best copiers of Europe, they were soon observed to posiels that oth in point of beauty and exact ness. of imitacion in a sovereign degree. It The motive which hindered the mission is enough, for example, to thew them a ries from going greater lengths with crucifix, a candlestick, a censer; and hem, was, that they never left home, give them materials for making others. on any military expedition, or to car. They copy them so well, that it is no y on the king's works, without a ealy matter to distinguish their work millionary to serve them, not only as from the pattern. They have been chaplain, but likewise as interpreter. known to make, on bare inspection, Befides, their manners could hardly the most intricate organs; as also afo escape corruption, were they to com tronomical spheres, Turkey carpets, municate with the Spaniards. Philip V. and other most curious manufactures. however, fearing that this reserve They engrave upon brass, after giving might be interpreted to the disadvan- it a due polish, all the figures Traced tage of the Jesuits, ordered, by his before them. They have naturally a decree of the 20th of December 1743, just air, and an uncommon talte for that they mould be all taught to speak mulick; and touch, as well as make, Spanish. But, confidering their great to admiration, all sorts of musical inreluctance to learn this language, the struments. Father Cattaneo, whom I execution of his majesty's orders will, have already cited, assures us, that he it is probable, be attended with very has seen a child not more than twelve great difficulties.
perform on the harp, with a sure and We have already often observed, that easy hand, the molt difficult anthems these Indians are, by nature, of a very of Bologna. They have, besides, a limited capacity, and understand no sweet and sonorous pipe, which, acthing, but what immediately falls under cording to what I have already faid, the lenses. This dulness of apprehen: is attributed to the waters of their lion appeared to the first missionaries, rivers. These uncommon talents for to fall little fort of downright stupi- music engaged the missionaries to efdity; and they accordingly remained tablish choirs in all their churches; in suspense for some time, whether it experience having thewn, that nothing was proper to administer to them any contributes more to inspire them facrament, but that of baptism. But, with devotion; give them a strong being too wife to decide for themselves liking to divine service; and make in an affair of 1o much consequence, them more readily comprehend the they consulted the bishops of Peru af- inttructions proper for them, which, sembled in council at Lima; and rea for this purpose, have been all set to ceived for answer, that they Mould be music. very cautious how they admitted them This natural taste for mufić was, to the other facraments. It foon, likewise, of great service in helping to however, plainly appeared, that the people the first reductions. For the interior master, who gives understand. Jesuirs, having observed in their jouring when he pleases to infants, com neys by water, that, as soon as, to re. municated hiin self in a sensible man. create themselves in an innocent and Rer to these new Christians. And, per- holy manner, they began to sing any baps, there never appeared a more spiritual canticle, crowds of Indians convincing proof, that our holy reli. Aocked to the banks, and seemed to gion is the only true one; lince, at take a particular liking to their mu. she same time that it implants in the 'fic; they improved the opportunity Sept. 1769.
Dr. Musgrave's Address to the Sept. to explain to them the subject of their the way of open and impartiates fongs i when, as if the melody had quiry. changed their hearts, and rendered I need not remind you, gentlemne them susceptible of the sentiments, of the universal indignation and with which the fathers longed to in- horrence, with which the conditioer spire them, they easily prevailed on of the late peace were received by the poor creatures to follow them; the independent part of the nation. and gradually infinuated into their Yet such is the candid, unsuspecting hearts the most elevated sentiments nature of Englishmen, that even thoie of religion : thus realizing, in these who condemned the measure did na favage countries, what fable relates of attribute it to any worse motive, than Amphion and Orpheus.
an unmanly impatience under the Every reduction has two schools. burdens of the war, and a blind, heada In one, the children learn to read strong desire to be relieved from the. and write ; in the other, to dance; They did not conceive, that persons Ang; and play upon all the instru- of high rank and unbounded Fealtia ments permitted to be used in divine could be seduced by gold to betray the service, which they do, like the birds, interests of their country, and fur as it were by instinct. Don Antonio render advantages, which the lives of de Ulloa says, that some of them are so many heroes had been willingly taught Latin, and learn it very well; Sacrificed to purchase. Such a fuppo. but, I believe, all their knowledge of fition, unhappily for us, is at present it consists in reading and pronoun- far from incredible. The importadt cing it corre&tly. Father Cattaneo was secret was disclosed to me in the year furprised, at bis arrival at Buenos 1764 during my residence at Paris. ! Ayres, to see a young Neophyte afcend will not trouble you with a detail of the pulpit in the refectory of the col. the intermediate steps I took in te lege there, in order to read in meal affair, which however in proper time time; but more so, to hear him read I shall moft fully and readily discover, both the Latin and Spanish languages, It is sufficient to say that on the retk as well as if he was perfectly well ac of May 1765, by the direction of Dr. quainted with both.
Blackstone, I waited on Lord Halifax,
then secretary of state, and delivered An Address to the Gentlemen, Clergy, and to him an exact narrative of the intel
Freeholders of tbe County of Devon, ligence I had received at Paris, with preparatory to the General Meeting copies of four letters to and from Lord 'ar Exeter on Thursday the 5th of Hertford. The behaviour of Lord O&tober, 1769. By Dr. Musgrave, Halifax was polite, but evafive. When Physician at Plymouth.
I pressed him in a second interview to Gentlemen,
enquire into the truth of the charge,
de meeting of the county, in order might give an alarm, and asked me to consider of a petition for redress whetber I could point out to him any of grievances, I think it incumbent way of prosecuting the enquiry in seupon me, as a lover di my country in cret, and whether in so doing there general, to lay before you a transac. was any probability of his obtaining tion, which, I apprehend, gives juster positive proof of the fact. I was not grounds of complaint and apprehenfion lo much the dupe of his artifice, as than any thing hitherto made public. to believe that he had any serious inHaving long had reason to imagine, tention of tollowing the clue I had that the nation has been cruelly and given him, though bis discourse fatally injured in a way which they plainly pointed that way. It appear. Jittle fufpect, I have ardently wished ed. by the sequel that I had judged for the day, when my imperfect in- right. For having four days after formations should be superseded by given a direct and satisfactory answer evidence and certainty. That day, to both his questions, he then put an I Aatter myself, is at last approaching, end to my solicitations by a perempand that the spirit which now appears tery refusal to take any iteps whatever among the freeholders will bear down in the affair. every obstacle that may be thrown in It is here necessary to explain what