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1769.

Vevers's Travelling Chaise described.

409

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The conversation of the public having been so greatly taken up with a

machine to move without horses, we are persu ided the preceding plate,

with the following explanation, will be not a little agreeable to our readers. Mechanical Proje&tions of the Travelling Cbaise without Horses, pewing plainly by

Inspection the Confiitution of these Machines,
By John Vevers, Master of the Boarding-School at Rygate in Surry.
GNORANCE of

two bind wheels A Bfigure C, and appear abstruse and astonishing to those The little wheels in the box are who are not exercised in mechanical QQ,mio figure B, and B, P is a ftudies.

roller, the two ends of which are made For to find out an unknown hypo- fast to the box behind the chaise ; R thesis, required, amongst a confuled is a pulley, upon which runs the rope infinity of others, to be accustomed that faftens the end of the planks S, T, to discern the proportions, and the upon which the rootman puts his feet. force of mixtures; to take a right me. W, W is a piece of wood that thod in resolving the most intricate keeps fast the two planks at the other and perplexing propositions, is to have end, allowing them to move up and the mind well

cultivated and clear in down by the two ropes P, T, and P, S, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and tied to their two ends. mechanics, which are keys to unlock X, X are two little plates of iron the understanding and solve the great. which serve to turn the wheels Q, Q, est difficulties. Therefore, upon the that are fixed to their axletree, which above-mentioned principles, the con is likewise fixed to the two great wheels ftruction of these carriages are here de- B, B. monstrated.

Thus you will readily apprehend

that the footman putting his feet alA Defcriprior of the firf Scheme A.

ternately upon T, and S, one of the THE binder Wheels B, D must be plates will turn one of the notched

large and firmly fixed to their wheels. common axletree E, F, that one can.

For example! nor move without the other.

Put a trundle-head with strong and If he leans with his foot upon the close spindles round the middle of the plank T, it descends and raises the axletree E, F, and near to that fix plank S, which cannot rise but at the upon the beam a notched wheel G, same time the plate of iron that enters the notches of which may catch the the notches of the wheel must needs Spindles of the trundle head, and so in make it turn with its axletree, and turning with the handle H, I, K, that consequently the great wheels. wheel round its axletree K, L, which

Then the foorman leaning upon must be perpendicular to the horizon, the plank s, the weight of his body it will turn the trundle M, N, and will make it defcend and raise the other with that the axletree E, F, and the plank T, which turns the wheel again; wheels B, D, which will thereupon and to the motion will be continued. fet forward the chaise without horses, You may easily imagine, that while or any other animal. Observe the ax the two hind wheels advance, the letree must enter into the beam, in or fore wheels must likewise advance; der to turn within it.

and that there will always advance A Description of the second Scheme B.

Atraight, if the person thai fits in the

chaile manages them with reins made The contrivance of this machine is fait to the fore beam. as follows, but put in motion by a N. B. The velocity of these car. foot-man, who makes it go with his riages depends upon the aclivity of the two feet alternately, by virtue of two manager. little wheels hid in a box between the Auguft, 1769.

Fif

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410

The Regal Estate of Great Britain. Aug An Epitoine of the British Cor.ftitution, or in case of overt-aéts demonstrative

from the Fourth Volume of The Fool of such principles; or of any attempo of Quality, just published, by tbe cele to lapor overthrow a fundamental brated Henry Brooke, Ejg; Author part of that system, which he was of Guftavus Vasa.

called in, and constituied, and {worn to maintain,

Though the claim of all kings to our constitution is so much the the throne of Great Britain is a limiobject of enquiry; and at a crisis also ted and defeasible claim, yet the world when there is perhaps an uncommon

can afford no rival, in power or glory, degree of propriety in being perfectly to a constitutional lovereign of these free acquainted with its principles, the dominions. following epitome, which is written For the honour of their own body, with no less precision than candour, they have invested this their head will, we are certain, give general la. with all possible illustration. He contisfaction to our readers.

centrates the rays of many nations. The REGAL ESTATE.

They have clothed himn in royal robes,

and circled his head with a diadem, THE king, in the constitution and inthroned him on high. And of Great Britain, is more proper- they bow down before the mirror of ly the king of than a king over the their own majesty. people, united to them, one of them, Neither are his the mere en signs or and contained in them. At the fame external thews of regency. He is intime that he is acknowledged the head vefted also with powers much more of their body, he is their principal ser- real than if they were absolute. vant or minifter, being the deputee of There are three capital prerogation their executive power.

with which the king is intruited, His claim to the throne is not a which, at first light, appear of fearful claim as of some matter of property and dangerous tendency; and which or personal right; he doth not claim, muft infallibly and quickly end in arbut is claimed by the people in their bitrary dominiou, if they were not parliament; and he is claimed or counterpoiled and counteracted. called upon, not to the investiture of His principal prerogative is to pofleffions, but the performance of make war or peace, as also treaties, duties. He is called upon to govern leagues, and alliances, with foreign the people according to the laws by potentates. which they themselves have consented Ilis second prerogrative is to nomito be governed; to cause justice and nate and appoint ail ministers and ter. mercy to be dispensed throughout the vauts of state, all judges and admini, realm; and, to his utmost, to execute, strators of justice, and officers, civil protect, and maintain the laivs of the or military, throughout these realms. Gospel of God, and the rights and li His third capital prerogative is, that berties of all the people without dif- he should have the whole executive tinction. And this he fwears on the power of the government of theie naGospel of God to perform. And thus, iions, by his said ministers and cficers, as all others owe allegiance to the king, both civil and military. - the king kimself oweth allegiance to the I might here allo' have added a consiitution.

fourth prerogative, which must have The existence of a king, as one of Geen capitally everlive of the conftituthe three estates, is immutable, in- tion, had it not been limited in the dispensable, and indefeatible. The original truit, I mean a power

of constitution cannot fublilt without a granting pardon to criminals. Hadi king. But then his personal claim of this power been unrestrained, all ob. poflefiion, and of hereditary succession ligations to justice might be abfolved to the throne, is, in several instances, at the king $ pleasure. An evil king precarions and defe:tible. As in care might even encourage the breach of of any natural incapacity to govern ; law. He muit, unquestionably, have or of an open avowal of principles dispensed with all illicit acts that were incompatible with the constitution; perpetrated by his own orders; and

to

1769. The Regal Ejiate of Great-Britain.

411 this assurance of pardon must as un. the Norman, as by the limited kings, questionably have encouraged all his or leaders, of our Gothic ancestors., ministers and officers to execute his Hence it comes to pass that all will as the only rule of their obedience. lands, to which no subject can prove a

But, God and our glorious ancestor's title, are lupposed to be in their oribe praised ! be is restrained from pro: ginal owner, and are therefore, by tecting his best beloved ministers, the constitution, vested in the crown. when they have effected, or even ima. On the same principle also the king gined, the damage of the constitution. is intitled to the lands of all persons He is also limited in appeals brought who die without, heirs; as also to the by the subject for murder or robbery. posesions of all who are convicted of Bot, on indictments in his own name, crimes subversive of the conftitution for offences againt his proper person or public weal. and government, such as rebellion, His person, while he is king, or ininsurrection, riot, and breaches of the clusive of the first estate, is constitupeace, by murder, maim, or robbery, tionally sacred, and exempted from all &c. here he is at liberty to extend the acts of violence or constraint. As arm of his mercy; foraímuch as there one of the estates also he is constituare many cases ro circumftanced, so ted a corporation, and his tefie-meipso, admiflive of pitiable and palliating or written testimony, amounts to a considerations, that summum jus, or matter of record. He also exercises, ftrict justice, might prove fumma inju- at present, the independent province ria, or extreme injustice.

of supplying members to the second All pardonable offences are distin. estate by a new creation, a very large guished by the title of crimina lase ma. acceflion his original power's. jeftatis, fins against tbe king. All un Bishops also are now appointed and pardonable offences are distinguished nominated by the king, another conby the title of crimina laf& libertatis, fiderable addition to the royal prerofins against tbe conflitution. In the first gative. His is the sole prerogative to case the injury is presumed io extend coin or impress money, and to specify, no further than to one or a few india change, or determine the current vaviduals; in the second it is charged as lue thereof; and for this purpose he a iin against the public, againit the is supposed to have reserved, from his collective body of the whole people. original grants of lands, a property in of the latter kind are nuisances that mines of gold and liver, which are may indanger the lives of travellers therefore called royalties. on the highway; but, more capitally, As be is one of the three constitu. any imagination, proved by overt.act tional estates, no action can lie against or evil advice, tending to change the him in any court; neither can he be nature or form of any one of the barred of his title by length of time or three estates; or tending to vest the entry. And these illustrations o! his government, or the administration dignity cast rays of anfwerable privi. thereof, in any one or any two of leges on liis royal consort, heir appathe said estates independent of the rent, and eldest daughter. other; or tending to raise armies, or The king bath alio tome other in10 contine then in tiine of peace ferior and conditional powers, such as without the content of parliament ; of instituting fairs and markets; and or tending to give any foreign state of issuing patents for special or peran advantage over these realms by feà fonal purposes, provided they shall or by land, &c.

not be found to infringe on the rights The king hath also annexed to his of others. He is also intrusted with cignity many further very important the guardianship of the persons and powers and prerogatives ; though they post-ilions of idiots avd lunatics withdo not o incimately interfere with the constitution as the capital prerogatives I leave his majesty's prerogative of above recited.

a negative voice in the legislature; as He is firft congidered as the original allo his prerogative (or rather duty) proprietor of all the lands in these frequently to call the two other estates king loms; and he founds this claim, to parliament, and duly to continue, as well on the conquest by William prorogus, and diffolve the same; till

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I come

out account.

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412 The Aristocratical Eftate of Great-Britain. Aug. I come to speak of the three estates, wish to break and weaken that of the when in such parliament allembled. nobility, who had distinguished them.

Here then we find that a king of seves by so many glorious Atands for Great Britain is constitutionally in-, maintenance of liberty and the confti. velted with every power that can por- tution, more particularly during the sibly be exerted in acts of benefi- reigns of John, Henry II, Edward II, cence. And that, while he continues and Richard II. to move within the sphere of his be Till Henry VII. the nobles were vign appointment, he continues to be looked upon as so many pillars conftituted the moft worthy, molt whereon the people rested their rights. mighty, and most glorious represen. Accordingly we find that, in the coatative of omnipotence upon earth. lition or grand compact between John · IN creacing of the second and third, and the collective body of the nation, estate, I come naturally to conlider the king and people jointly agree to what those restraints are, which, confide to the nobles the superinten. while they are preserved inviolate, dance of the execution of the great have lo happy a tendency to the mu- charter, with authority to them, and tual prosperity of prince and people, their successors, to enforce the due

performance of the covenants therein The ARISTOCRATICAL, or SECOND comprized. ESTATE.

What an illustrating diftin&ion HE nobility, or second estate, must it have been, when patriot-ex

in the constitution of Great cellence alone (approved before the Britain, is originally representative. country in the field or the council) The members were ennobled by tenure, could give a claim to nobility, and and not by writ or patent ; and they compel, as it were, the united estates were hulden in service to the crown of kings, lords, and commons, to and kingdom, for the respective pro. call a man up to the second seat in the vinces, counties, or baronies, whose government and Iteerage of the naname they bore, and which they re tion ! presented.

Such a preference must have proA title to be a member of this se- ved an unremitting incitement to the cond estate was from the beginning culiivation and exercises of every virhereditary: The king could not an tue, and to such exertions, archiere. cierely either create or defeat a title inents, and acts of public beneficence, to nobility. Their cities were not for as Mould draw a man forth to fo thi. feirable, fave by the judgment of ping a point of light, and fet him like their peers upon legal trial; and, a gem in the gold of the conftitution. . when any were lo deprived, or hap Tie crown did not at once affume pened ip die without heirs, the succer- the independent right of conferring sion was deemed too important to be nobility. Henry III. first omitted to otherwise filled, than by the concur call fome of the barons to parliament rence of the three etates, by the joint who were personallyobnoxious to him, and solemn act of the Parliament, or and he islued his wrirs, or written let. commune concilium regni.

ters to some others who were not ba. These truths are attested by many rons, but from whom he expected ancient records and parliamentary acts. greater conformity to arbitrary meaAnd although this most highly enno. Tures. These writs, bowever, did bling custom was, at particular times, not ennoble the party till he was ad. infringed by particular tyrants, it was mitted, by the second estate, to a seat inviolably adhered to by the best of in parliament;, neither was such nobi. our English kings, and was observed lity, by writ, hereditary. even by the wortt, excepting a few in. To supply these defects, the arbi. Stances, till the reign of Henry VII. trary ministry of Richard II. invented who withed to give consequence to the the method of ennobling by letters shird efiate, by deducing from the patent, at the king's pleasure, wbe. honours and powers of the second. iner for years or for life, or in special

In truth, it is not to be wondered or general tail, or in fee simple to a that any kings, who were ambitious man and his heirs at large. Thiş of exsending their own power, should prerogative, lowever, was thereafter,

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