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1769. A Pbilosopbical Conversation.
357 above their yet weak comprehensions. A. No, the farther it is distant from This consideracion, fir, induced me the earth, the more rarified it is, and to send this scrap to you, which I so by degrees arrives at a vacuum. have contracted as much as possible, Q. Is not air absolutely necelary to that it may take up little of your animpl life? room ; and if you apprehend it will A. Certainly; though some animals be acceptable to any of your younger will live a confiderable time without readers, it is at your service to insert. it, as is found by experiments in the The questions and answers are set air pump I. down carelesy, just as they occurred, Q. Is not too fine or rarified an air and I am sensible make but an auk unfit for human respiration? ward appearance ; however, I trust A. Yes, even the air on the tops the sense, which is all I have aimed of the high hills (as the mountains of at, will be found consistent with our Peru) has been found to have very present philosophical system. The bad effects on those who have visited reason why I chose this method of them $. question and answer, was because Q. What is the reason that frella i found it would beft fit my intended air is necessary for respiration ? brevity, and also be more familiar and A. Because the air is impregnated easy to young and ignorant readers, with a certain vivifying spirit that which it is alone calculated for. To renders it fit for respiration, which spie the more knowing it may perhaps rit is either destroyed or left behind, appear impertinent and trifling, but every time the air passes out of the such have no bufiness with it, it was lungs. never intended for their perusal, it Please to give an explanation of belongs only to the ignorant, to give wind. them fome rough ideas, which if it A. Wind is nothing more than the does, my purpole is answered.
air put in motion. I am, sir,
2. Pray can you tell me by what Your humble servant, G. E. means it is put in motion ?
A. By various causes, as heat and A port Philosophical Conversation, tend-cold, the pressure of clouds, erup
ing 10 fome Explanation of Air, Wind, tions of vapours from sea or land, and Vapours, Clouds, Rain, Snow, Hail, indeed any thing that alters the ba.
Lightning, and the Rain.bow. lance of the atmosphere. 2: PLEASE LEASE to give me a defini Q. What is the cause of the par
ticular direction of the wind, and A. Air consists of invisible particles, that come winds are warm, and others which yield to any force, and move cold ? freely among one another, and from A. The direction of the wind, I this ability of the particles to Nip one think past a doubt, is according to among another, air is called a Auid *. the degree of warmth or cold in the It has weight; may be rarified and air; so the particular course the wind condensed, but cannot be congealed. takes is to be attributed to the warmth
Q. Is not the air limited to a certain or cold of the air; and not as is com: distance from the earth ?
monly imagined, for instance, that a A. It is ; we cannot indeed tell ex- cold day is caused by the wind being actly the height, but it is most reason- northerly. ably believed to be within forty-five 2: What am I to understand by va. miles t.
pours? Q. Is the whole body of air of the 4. Watery particles, or more prosame contiftence ?
perly small bubbles, which are raised • It is a very general mifake to reckon a fluid and a liquid as the same thing. A liquid is certainly a fluid, but a Auid is not always a liquid. Fluidiry confpis in the ability of the particles to rip one among anorber by any external force, sberefore fand may be reckoned a fluid as well as water.
# Dr. Keill, by an observation of the twilight, calculates whe beigbe of ibe air to be forty-four miles. I See Mr. Derbam's Physico Tbeology, Book I. chap. 1. note f. Sue disto, book h, chap. 1, 2016 6.
July from the earth and water into the air conds in flying one mile. So by this by the heat of the sun, and carried våri. you may pretty nearly compute the ous heights, according to their weight; distance of the lightning, by obferv. for while they are lighter than the ing the space of time between the particles of air, they continue to rise, light and the report. and if you remember, I told you the Q. Pray are there not such things air is more and more rarified accord as enunder-bolts ? ing to its height; therefore the lighter A. No, not according to the valgar thele vapours, or watery bubbles, are, notion of them; what may with any the higher they will go.
propriety be called a thunder-bolt, is is not the ascention of these par. only that more solid part of lightning, ticles or bubbles into the air, the which descends rapidly to the earth, cause of clouds, rain, snow, and hail ? and is obstructed by nothing. This H. Undoubtedly lo.
kind of lightning, though it makes its A: Pray give me a definition of a way through every body it meets with, cloud.
yet acts only on particular bodies: A. A cloud is a collection of these the many extraordinary effects it bas bubbles of various heights, but com (as Atriking a person dead when his monly within a mile, and seldom Jess clothes hall not even be finged, melfthan a quarter of a mile.
ing the money in a man's pocket, Q. Please to favour me with an ex and himself not hurt) proceeds fror planation of the different productions the certain quality of the lightning, of clouds; and firit rain, if you pleale. which caules it to have an ability to
A. Rain is caused by thie particles act only on particular substances. running and mixing into one another, Q: Please to tell me how the rainso becoming heavier than air, conle- bow is caused. quently fall: this mixing of the par. A. By the certain direction of the ticles is variously effected, as by wind, sun's rays on the falling drops of rais. the coldness of the air, and other A curious Method of raising Tarkies to causes. 2. Please to explain snow and hail.
Advantage. Translated from a SweÀ. Snow is cauled by the fietzing
dish Book, intitled, Rural Oeconomy. of the watery bubbles, by the great M this ingenious author, bave degree of cold in that region where they are affembled, and by their ad. long despaired of fuccess in rearing hering to one another, come down turkies, and complained, that the prein fakes. Hail is the drops of rain fit rarely indemnifies them for their congealed by the coldness of the air trouble and loss of cine: whereas, in their passage.
continues he, little more is to be done, & Pray can you tell me how lights than to plunge the chick into a vessel ning is caused ?
of cold water, the very hour, if pofliA. By sulplıureous and nitrous va ble, but at least the very day, it is pours being drawn by the fin's attrac-hatched, forcing it to swallow one tion from the earth into the air, whole pepper-corn ; after which let it · where by their close and confused be returned to its mother. Froin mixture a fermentation is cauled, that time it will become hardy, and and by this means they take fire; to fear the cold no more than a beo's produce lightning, and thunder as chick. But it must be remembered, the consequence,
that this useful species of fowls are Q. Is not the thunder produced in alio subject to one particular disorder the lame instant with the lightning? while they are young, which often
A. Yes, though we often see the carries them off in a few days. When lightning some time before we hear they begin to droop, examine carefulthe thunder, which is by reason of ly the feathers on their rump, and you the difference in the velocity of light will fiod two or three whole quill part and found. .
is filled with blood. Upon drawing Q: What is the difference? thele the chick recovers, and after A Light is computed to Ay about that requires no other care, than 380000 miles in a second of time, what is commonly bestowed on poulwhereas found cak:s about five le- trý that range the court-yard.
1769. A Batchelor's fruitlefs Pursuit of a Wife: 359
The truth of these affertions is too her whole generation of brothers, fifa well known to be denied ; and as a ters, uncles, and aunts, were ready convincing proof of the success, 'it to devour me from kindness; but still will be sufficient to mention, that it was apparent that the sweet idol of three parishes in Sweden have, for my affections felt neither the transport many years, used this method, and or gratitude of her relations. When gained several hundred pounds by I approached her she became pale, her rearing and selling turkies.
eye lost all its vivacity, and the con
fusion that accompanied our private To the AUTHOR of the LONDON interviews, at last convinced me that MAGAZINE.
there was some mystery in her fate. I $.I R,
frankly communicated my suspicions, I as
professed candidate for matriinony, friend, not destroyer of her hapbut not withstanding I have never met piness; and aflared her, that however with one repulse on my variety of ap- I might be affected by an acknow. plications, I am not only a batchelor, ledgment of prepostelfion, I would but likely to remain so to the last bour forego every ieli-consideration, and of my existence.
promote her happiness with the same To a man of your sober sentiments, ardour, as if conne&ted with my own. what I have now confessed may poffi. Thus encouraged, thus unexpectedbly be no recommendation of me- ly solicited, to confide the crers of her but allow me to prohibit all prejudg. heart, where she kindly declared, un.. ' meot; neither conftitutional nor idle der any other circumitance, she should inconltancy has been the cause; for not have heficated to trust her person, when I told the fair-ones so, I loved, I had the mortification to learn, that and it was my honesty alone, as Ri- a linendraper's journeyman, the son chard phrases it, that gave me courage of one of her father's hunible though to avow the contrary.
worthy parishoners, was my happy ri. It may not perhaps be impertinent val. I took the whole conduct of to present you with the outlines of the affair on myself, encountered all my figure and appurtenance ; as, let a the brow-beatings, the natural rehistory be long or short, we can de. proaches of apostacy, and having rise but little entertainment from the some small interest with the young hero's Transactions, unless we are ena fellow's matter, foon saw an additional bled from description to form fome curl to his wig, and his name added idea of our hero. My person ever to the copartnerthip; in a word, luch was, and in all probability will ever was the prosperity that attended my remain, chat kind of person, which is honeft endeavour, that the late dein no degree calculated either to ter. fpised lover succeeded me in the full rify, or charm its beholders. I am at approbation of my Fanny's family, this period ander thirty, and am the and received her at the hands of that uncontrouled matter of fifteen hundred very uncle, who, but three years bepounds per annum. Having a roman fore, threatened to cut his throat for tiç generosity in my nature, I re- his presumption. folved to attach myself to merit My next cnoice was the only daughwherever I found it, and according. ter of a most venerable pair, who ly, when scarcely nineteen, a pretiy knew not a felicity beyond the
promo. millener was the Dulcinea of my de- tion of her happiness, nor had a wish votions. She was daughter to one of that did not begin and terminate in those inconfiderate divines, who, lo one and the same lource ; yet notwiththat they can but behold their family Kanding thele unspeakable obligations, in afluence during their day, are notwithstanding every filial tye, noto' wholly inattentive to the miserable withstanding the beautiful reserve fo change they must experience on that inhesent in the female composition, too frequent contingency--the survi- because she was unable to inspire this ving their provision.
father and mother with the partial It is not wonderful, that for a girl sentiments of me with which I had jo situated my overture was considered inspired her; because, from abundant. as highly advantageous. Her mother, tenderness, they were extreinely
A Batchelor's fruitlefs Pursuit of a Wife. July anxious to bestow her unexceptiona- commendations, we made a mere bly, she, with a generosity that made laugh of life – but reflection was not me mudder, offered to abandon the altogether so satisfactory--the per. protectors of her infancy, the dear, fonal defects, the imbecilities of mind, the delightful roof of parental indul the common accidents, nay, the acgence, to marry a man. The had been tual calainities of our fellow-individu. acquainted with only two months, and als, were converted into ridicule. It who dared to confess, that though he is true we laughed, but it was ac wished to obtain her, he inuit not no less expence than that of our hu. forfeit his honour, by either fraudu. manity, our politeness, our social dy. lent or unworthy practices. Need I ties. I was strongly incited to make a tell you, sir, that from advances such pause, when the lady having exhauft. as I have described, I made the most ed her fund of raillery, did not with. precipitate retreat ? The mind that has hold even herself to keep up the ball. nor natural attachments, can never She gave us the 'portrait of a quonhave friendly ones ; and he that vio. dam lover in the most exquisite colares the duty of a child, gives un- lours; but le at the same time gave favourable expectations of her con but an ugly picture of ber own heart. duct in every other character. It was not the forsaken, but the fim.
The lady's pride (for I will not al.. ple maid I could approve that fim. low her sensibility or affection) was plicity that is ever the concomitant of inconceivably hurt when the perceived innocence, the concomitant of purity. I was lost : nay, to such an extrava. It must be needless to add, that by a gance did Me carry what the called rather ungenteel desertion of her, i her affliction and her resentment, that fupplied her with a new subject, which parental resolution was totally sub- I doubt not but the treated with all dued. This venerable, this ill-requi. due harmony. red father and mother, unabie longer In thort, sir, what with my primito resist the pleadings of nature, soli. tive disappointment, what with the cited me to fulfil my engagements to extravagance, the want of sentiment, that child, that would have sacrificed delicacy, and veracity, the folly, the their everlasting peace to the gratifi. vanity, the Novenly turn of a succescation of love and vanity. I made fion of females, any one of which, by the best apology I could; compliment. being tolerably perfect, would have ed the object of my absolute detefta- rendered me the happiest of mankind, tion, but declared myself wholly inca. I have from acting honestly, and with pable of making ber happy.-And an eye to the defensive, acquired so bad Thall I confels my weaknets ? Notwith. a reputation, that I now despair of standing I had behaved with so much ever becoming a husband ; yet does firmnels, the dread of consequences my conscience acquit me of all intenwas an interruption to my composure tional blame. Could I, as a man of for several months; when I was con reflection, a lover of pofterity, unite vinced of my folly and ignorance, by myself to a fool, or a girl devoid of reading in the public papers, that the principle ? Could I sit down fatisfied very lady I concluded was dying for with the pretty driveller, or the illme, had vowed to live for a little in. natured wit ? Consent to put a fword significant enlign in the guards, and in the hands of a madroan, by entruft. for him alone.
ing my poffeffions to the direction of I determined now to be less tenaci. extravagance ? Could I mix conversa. ous of the beauty than understanding tion with the unsentimental? or heas of my mistress, for seeing that though expressions from my wife, that I would one was only the pageant of a day, not allow my bett friend to utter in the other was the thadow of a shade. her presence 1 Could I patiently perIt was not long before I attached my. mit a vain puppet to preside at my taself on this new principle: the lady ble, or a half-bred dattern to disgust had wit and vivacity in abundance'; my acquaintance? If the women but wit and vivacity, according to my would but persuade themselves that sentiments, can never constitute un. their lovers and their husbands are the derstanding. Well received by all Jalt people on earth that thould be her family, from my accultoined re- witness to their foibles, and those de
Easy Methods of making Salt-Water fresh. licacies they have not from nature be procured every three hours, which adopt from pride, the matrimonial is a pint for each man. ftate would weara very different aspect : File off the handle of the tea-ket. but unmindful of Solomon's admoni- tle, and fix the head of it, when intion, that familiarity will breed con verted, into a hole made for that purtempt, they grow negligent and un pose in the cover of the pot. Take guarded, and that man, whose esteem the barrel of the musket out of the and approbation is of the first impor- ftock, and, after unskrewing the tance, is the last they think of culti- breeching pin, put it through two sating. If you can now condemn holes bored for its reception in the me, I can only say you are not the cask, with a proper descent. Insert person I took you for. I am
the spout of the tea-kettle into the Your humble servant. upper eod of the barrel, and after
stopping up the holes in the cask, Proposals, by Dr. Lind, for preventing and filling it with lea water, there
& Want of fresh Water, and a Scar will be a complete still, and a refri. city of Provisions at Sea.
geratory, or cooler, to condense the IN N the year 1961, the doctor was iteam. . All the joinings and places
so fortunate as to discover, that from whence the steam could escape, sea water, simply distilled, without the ought to be luted or stopped up with addition of any ingredient, afforded a a parte composed of equal parts of water as pure and wholesome as that chalk and meal, moistened with a litobtained from the best springs. tle salt water; and the tea-kettle, with
This, like many other uteful disco. the cover of the pot, thould be kept veries, was claimed from the auchor down by weights, to prevent the by another person, was also said to steam from forcing them up. have been formerly known, and met If the calk should be thought too with various objections. The two first
near the fire, the tube may be prothe doctor clears up, and, having re- longed by the barrel of another inuro moved the objection, endeavours to ķet, or by a wooden pipe. If the point out a few simple contrivances barrel of another musket be used, for distilling of lea water, for the be whole bore is not large enough to renefit of those who may be in want of ceive the extremity of the former, fresh water at sea, and who fallim. one end of it should be heated in the prudently neglect to carry out a itill- fire, and dilated with a marline-spike. bead.
If a wooden pipe be used, it should When sea water is boiled in a close not be bored with a hot iron, as I covered pot or vessel, it may be ob. have found by experience, that the ferved, that the fteam arising from it burnt wood would impart a permanent is converted into fresh water on the disagreeable taste to the distilled wainside of the cover of the pot. From ter. a pot of thirteen inches diameter, by If we may suppose a chip at rea to frequently removing the cover, and have no tea-kettle on board, then let pouring off the water collected upon the wooden hand-pump, with which it, a quarter of a pint of fresh water the water or beer is pumped out of may be procured in an hour. The the casks, be cut through obliquely, cover of the pot Mouid be at least five and joined fo as to form an acute an. or fix inches above the surface of the gle.' One end of this tube should fea water, to prevent its boiling up be fixed in the hole made in the cover to it.
of the pot, the other thould be faltLet us suppose a thip at sea to be ened to the gun-barrel. From this in diftreis for want of water, having apparatus, nearly the same quantity eight men on board, and that the of water may be procured as from the pue for boiling their provisions can former, by means of the tea-kettle. contain five gallons and a half, It may justly be supposed that the being twelve inches in diameter; by coppers used for boiling the provithe following simple contrivance, with fions will, in every thip, contain the only a tea-kettle, a muiket, and proportion of above two qua 'of caík, one gallon of fresh water may water for every person on board, July, 1769.