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=;69. The Natural History of Chaco.
311 cally, the heats here should be excel- as if necessity rendered them more at1 vely intense ; especially as the air is, tentive to itudy 'nature, upon which la itself, both warm and dry; but a art Mould ground all its rules and fouth wind, which blows reguiarly principles. In fhort, they make in Chaevery day, tempers them greatly. In co, not only bread, bet very good li. the southern district, the weather is quors, with several kinds of grain and Cometimes very cold and nipping. other vegetable productions. But the Trees of the same kind with those of Indians often abuse this blessing, by Europe are pretty scarce here ; but making their liquors too strong, and there are others no way inferior to the using is too freely, so as to fall into all' beit we can boast of.
the excelles, with which drunkenaels On the banks of a little river, called is generally attended. Sinta, there are cedars surpasling, in The fur of the lions of this country height, the tallest we know of; and, is red and very long. These animals near the ancient city of Gualdalcazar, are so very gentle, or rather cowardly, which fubfifted but a short time, there that they fly at the barking of a dog, are whole forests of them, whose and suffer themselves to be taken, when trunks measure above three fathoms in they have not time to get into a tree. circumference. The Quinaquina is As to the tygers, besides the advantage very common here. It is a large tree, of making the water as well as the whose wood is red, sweet scented, and earth contribute to their subfiftence, yields an odoriferous rofin. The fruit they are as large, and at least as fierce, is a bean, larger than those of other as those of Tucuman, but they lose all trees of the fame species, very hard, their strength on being wounded in the and medicinal. There are whole fo- region of the loins. There are, in refts of palm trees, from eight to twelve this province, fix kinds of geese ; al leagues in extent. Those, which grow manner of tame fowl fit for i he table; on the Pilco Mayo, are as tall as the black and red goats as in Tucuman, tallef cedars. The pith or the heart and some white goats on the banks of of this tree, dressed with marrow, eats the Pilco Mayo į boars of two colours, very well. The Rival is a tree armed grey and black, besides hares, deer, all over with pretty large and very hard ostriches, and water wolves, the fame thoros. The leaves of it chewed are as in the adjacent provinces. deemed sovereign in all complaints of What the Spaniards call the great the eyes. Its fruit is sweet and agree- healt, is the Anta or Danta, of which able. There are two species of Gayoc. I have already faid fomething; for, The most esteemed is that called by the by Father Locano's account of it, that Spaniards Palo Santo.
of Chaco differs a little froin that of The number of simples found in which I have already given a descripChaco is, in a manner, infinite ; and tion from Father Montoya. This ani. Father Locano scruples not to affirm, mal, Father Locano tells us, has the that specifics have been discovered head of a horse, the ears of a mule, among them for every disorder. Per. and on his snout a trump, which he haps we might, without any exagge. ftretches out when threatened ; the ration, say the same thing of all ihe lips of a calf, sharp teeth, a short inhabited and habitable countries of tail, and slender feet, the fore ones the globe ; for, surely, there can be cloven in two, the hinder ones in three; no difficulty in believing, that the au- two stomachs, one of which serves thor of nature has granted every cli. him for a store house, wbere are some. mate the simple and natural remedies, times found pieces of rotten wood; which it stands in need of. Don't we and Bezoar stones, deemed the best of every where see animals, conducted by any that come from America. His mere instinct, bave recourse to them, skin, which is covered with long in their wants, and use them with brown hair, when hardened in the raore success, than man himself? And fun, and then dressed into buff, is imit is the same thing with the Indians ; penetrable, even by musket balls. As as if this inftinct, by which brutes are io his fiel, it differs in nothing froin 1o well governed in all parts of the ' beef. The hoof of the left fore foot world, came to the arrtance of men has the laine virtue with that attri. deftitute of the resources of art ; or, buted to the eike, or orignal of Cana.
June da; and, accordingly, he makes the ter, and remains in this poAure a same use of it in the fits of the epilep- whole day, will lome thirsty deer comes fy, or some other such disorder, to to drink out of his Thell; when he imwhich he is subject. We are assured, mediately seizes her by the lips, and in fine, that when he finds himself so keeps her, in spite of all her endeaoverstocked with blood, he opens one vours, till the is stifted; when he feeds of his veins with a point of a reed; upon her. Some Englithmen presented and that it is from him the Indians his Britannic majesty with two of theis have learned the use of the same ope- animals, alive, in the year 1728. The ration.
Beth of the Quinquinchon has a pretty The Guanaco, or Huanaco, known disagreeable scent. in England, whither two of them There is another species of this aniwere brought from Buenos Ayres in mal, called in Paraguay Tatou, and the year 1723, by the name of Wa. in Tucuman Mulica, or Bulica, which notra, which, it is probable, some is, they tell us, when folded up withother people of America give it, is in bis mell, as round as a ball, wità common in Chaco, and yields Bezoar all the scales so curioully united, that stones, that weigh three pounds and not a single seam can be discerned bea half. The Indian, who first made tween them. The Tatou has no hair. the Spaniards acquainted with this His fich differs in nothing from that animal, was for his pains, it is said, of a fucking pig. There are likewise put to death hy his countrymen. This some of these creatures in Brazil, and animal is a kind of diminutive camel; the island of Granada. In fine, there he has nothing amiss about him but is in the vallies leading to Chaco, a his saliva, which gives the itch, and species of sheep called Llamatz, which which he casts upon his purluers. one would take for little camels, had The Guanacoes are never seen but in they any lump on their backs. The flocks, unless perhaps in derart places. Indians make use of them to carry When they graze thus together, one burthens, tho' their march is to flow, of them always stands sentry upon an that it is imposible to make them traeminence, to alarm the rest, by a kind vel more than three leagues a day; of neighing, of the approach of the and if once they lie down with wearihunters; when they all fly to places ness, they permit themselves to be surrounded with precipices; the te- killed rather than get up again with males with their young ones march- their burthen. ing before them. The flesh of the Some authors have affirmed, that Guanaco is white, and though a little Chaco does not produce any venomous dry, tolerably well tasted.
animals. Yet it is certain that several The other animals found in Chaco have been found there ; but then anare the Zorillo, which does not appear tidotes are still more common. The to differ from the stinking beast of Ca. molt sovereign are viper's herb, and nada; the Capivara, an amphibious the contrayerva, both male and fecreature thaped like a hog, the Indi- male. Father Locano imagines, that ans are very fond of its feth, as well the viper's herb is the trifjago of Dioras that of the Otter, which is very com corides. The other antidotes are the mon in this country, and has a very colmillo de vibora, or the Solimon de la fine fur ; the Iguana, which refeinbles tiolja, tobacco leaves, the stalk and greatly that of Hispaniola ; the Quin ear of maiz, the thank bone of a cow quinchon, which is shaped like a log, broiled and applied to the wound, and with his paws and his snout digs from which it falls of itself when it himself a hole in the earth of between has imbibed all the venom. The effthree and four feet diameter, in which cacy of this bone is greatly encreased he hides himself. On his back he car. by bathing it in milk and wine. ries a very hard Mell by way of house, It would be very surprizing, if, in into which he occasionally folds himself, fo fine a country, there were no bees. and his belly is armed with scales, The forefs are all so full of them, from which there grows very long and that in several there is scarce a fingle very thick hair. It is said, that the tree without a colony of these precious Quinquinchon sometimes lies down inte&ts; fo that though the walps carry upon his back to receive the rain wa. on a constant and cruel war againit
1769. Customs, &c. of the Chaconese and the Guaranis.
313 them, this province alone could fup. furniture, which consists of nothing ply great part of America with wax but a mat, a bammock, and a calea and honey, of a superior kind to those bath. The cabins of those, who live of any other country we know of. in towns, are, among several nations, Authors say nothing of the birds of no better than wretched hovels made Chaco, which probably are the same with branches of trees, and covered with those in the adjacent provinces. with straw, or rather grass. Those The filence of historians, in regard who live nearest to Tucumen are, it to their notes, leaves room to be. it seems, better lodged and better lieve, that here, as well as in every clothed. other part of the new world, this Their favourite liquor is the chica, tribe of the animal creation does not of which, I have already made mena tharm the ears with its music, as much tion. They assemble to drink it, and as it does the eyes by the vivacity and to dance and fing; and in these exervariety of its plumage.
cises they perfift, till they are all drunk.
They then quarrel; and from words Cuftoms and Manners of the Chaconese foon proceed to blows, so that their and the Guaranis.
merry makings seldom terminate (N general, the inhabitants of Chaco without blood-thed, if not in the
are all of an advantageous stature; and death of some of the guests. Several. there have been found men among them take advantage of the confusion to be above seven feet high. Their features revenged of their enemies. Thero differ greatly from ours; and the co- excesies are almost peculiar to the, lours, with which they paint them.
men. The women generally withfelves
, give them an' aspect, with draw the moment they perceive the which ftrangers cannot, at fir At fight, liquor begins to get the better of the help being terrified a little. And, men, and carry off with them all the accordingly, they pretend by this means arms they can lay their hands upon. to Atrike a terror into their enemies.' A small matter is fufficient to breed a A Spanish captain, who had served war between these nations, but their with reputation in Europe, having unconquerable inveteracy against the been commanded against some Indi. Spaniards easily unites them again, ans of Chaco, that lived pretty near
on the first alarm from that quarter. Santafé, was so thunder.ftruck with Almost all these Indians are antheir appearance, that he fainted away. tropophagous, or men.eaters; have , Most of the men go quite naked, all no other occupation but war and pilto a parcel of seatbers, of different lage, which they exercise with such colours, banging to a string about craft and obstinacy, that they have their waist. But, at their publick so rendered themselves formidable to lemaities, they wear caps made of the their neighbours, particularly the Spafame feathers. In very cold weather, niards, who don't chuse to engage they wrap themselves up in a kind of them, even when surprized, with cap, and cloak made of skins pretty equal arms; their courage, in that well dressed, and adorned with painted cale, changing to fury. Nay, many kgures. Among fome nations the of their women have been known, on women are not better covered than such ocafions, to sell their lives at a
very dear rare, rather than surrender The bad qualities common to all
to the best-armed foldiers. When these people are ferocity, inconstancy, once they have resolved to plunder a perfidy, and drunkenness. They are country seat, or village, there is no all sprightly, though very dull of ap art they don't practice to lull the inprehenfion in every thing that does habitants into a fatal security, or not fall immediately under the senses. get out of their way when they have There is, properly speaking, no form itruck their blow. They will watch, of
government among them; every for whole years, the opportunity of town, indeed, has its Cacique ; but surprizing them without running any these chiefs have no authority, but in risk. For this purpose, they have al. proportion to the esteem they have ways spies abroad, who never march acquired. Several do nothing but but by night; when they make notove from place to place with their thing of crawling along, if requifite, June, 1769.
314 Cuftoms, &c. of the Chaconese and the Guaranis. June on their elbows, which, for this reae enemy, especially of a Spaniard, it son, are always covered with a callus. they can get one. They then remore Some Spaniards have been weak from the place; and even avoid parenough to think, that these spies, by fing by it, till the deceased is totally fome magic power, assumed the forms forgotten. of domeitic animals, in order to exa
The inhabitants of Paraguay, upon mine what was doing in their houses. the eastern Guayra, at the first arrival
Their arms are bows and arrows; of the Spaniards in that part of Amethe mancana; and a kind of a well- sica, lived in towns that were pretty wrought lance or javelin, made of a populace, and the Caciques of wbich, very hard and very heavy wood, by being hereditary and independent pretty thick, fifteen palms long, and one on the other, had a great deal of terminating in a deer's horn, with a authority over their subjects. Sorebeard to it. This weapon they use times, however, as it happens in all with great strength and dexterity; and riations more addicted to the arts of by means of a rope, to which it is war than those of peace, private perfástened, draw in the man it has sons acquired this rank by their sawounded, unless he has resolution lour; and not seldom by a bogulas enough to pull it out. They gene- facility in speaking well the language rally law the necks of their priloners. of the country, which, according to with the jaw bone of a filh; and then Father Montoya, who was perfect pull of his fcalp, which they preserve master of it, yields, in nothing, to a's a monument of their victory, and any of the fineft we are acquainted display in all their entertainments. with. The chief prerogatives enjoyed
They are such bold and able horse. by the Caciques confifted in a right to men, that the Spaniards will repent the labour of their subject, for the but once, their having so well stocked purposes of agriculture ; and the vie with horses all these parts of the conti-, of their daughters when they renent. Swift as these animals are, the quired it. Indians of Chaco stop them in full At the death of a Cacique, it was Speed; and vault upon them, no mat. lawful for one of his brothers to marry ter whether sideways or from behind, the widow; but this seldom happenwithout any affistance but that of ed. In general, there Iudians did their javelins, upon which they (pring. not approve such marriages betweta
They then, without stirrups or bri. near relations; and the men among dles, without any thing, in short, but them who have embraced the chriftian a halter, not only keep their seat, but religion, never marry any of their turn the proud animal which way they relations, even within those degrees please, and make him Ay at such a with which the church readily dilrate, as to leave behind them the best penses. But the Caciques could have mounted Spaniards. As most of them more wives than one. As to their gó always naked, their skin is very religion, they acknowledge but one liard. Father Locano assures us, be God; for if they expressed any venehas seen the head of a Mocovi, the ration for the bones of their jugglers tkin of which was half an inch thick. whom they had seen perform such things
The women of Chaco prick their in their life time, as, in their opinion, faces, breasts and arms, like the Moo. furpassed the strength of nature, they by
i women of Africa and Spain; they no means considered them as divinities, are very robuft; bring forth with though the species of worship they paid great eale; and, as soon as delivered, them, differed but little from that, which bathe themselves and their children in other nations pay their idols. They the next lake or river. They are never, however, offered any facrifices treated by their husbands with great to God, nor could any regular form feverity, because, perhaps, they are of worship be discovered among them. very much addicted to jealouly, and They reckoned their years by winhave no manner of tenderness for ters, but seldom went beyond ten with. their children, They bury their out committing a miitake. They dead on the very spot where ihey ex- judged of its being time to rise when pire; and plant a javelin over the the pleiades began to make their apgrave, fastening to it the skull of an pearance above the horizon. They
1769. Customs, &c. of the Chaconese and the Guaranis.
315 imagined there was a tyger and a great entertained him in the bett manner dog in the heavens, which devoured they were able. the moon and the fun, as often as these The women, on the death of their luminaries happened to be eclipsed; husbands, used to throw themselves and such events greatly alarmed them. from some eminence high enough to The' husbands, on their wives being cripple them for the remainder of brought to bed, observed, for the their lives. The Indians believed, space of fifteen days, a rigorous falt; that the soul, on its leaving the body, and neither hunted nor conversed never wandered at any great distance with any one during that time, firmly from it, but kept it company in the believing, that the child's life depend- grave, where they, accordingly, left ed on their punctual complying with a vacancy for it to reside in. The this custom." They used a kind of first who embraced the gospel could baptism ; but authors have not given scarce be prevailed upon to renounce us any satisfactory account of it. But this practice; and christian women the ceremonies they observed, in give have been pretty often discovered going names to their new born children, ing privately to the graves of their will best serve to give us a juft idea of children or husbands, in order to lift the savagene is of this nation. Think, the mould over them, as their fouls, ing it unlawful to perform this cere- they said, would be too much bura mony, without the death of a priso. thened without this precaution. ner of war, they deferred it till they When a girl was old enougli to be could make one. After entertaining married, they put her into the hands kim plentifully for several days, and of a woman, who, for eight days toeven giving him his choice of as many gether, employed her in the moit layoung girls or grown-up women as he borious talks ; fed her very ill; and, thought proper, they cut his throat, withal, never give her a moinert's on the day appointed for that purpose, rest. By her manner of bearing this with great ceremony. As soon as he tryal, they judged if she was laboriwas dead, every one touched his body, ous, and otherwise qualified to underor truck it with a stick; and during take the care of a family. At the exthis operation, they gave names to ali piration of this term, they cut off her the children that had not as yet re- hair ; decked her out with all the orceived any. This done, the body naments the sex is so fond of; and was cut up; and every family took declared her marriageable. It would bome a piece of it to make into broth, have been criminal in a young woof which every one took a mouthful, man to keep company with a man benot excepting children at the breast, fore he had passed through this tryal ; wbom their mothers took care to or, at least, the must have done it very make partakers of this hellish repast. privately to escape punishment.
Their manner of receiving persons The Guaranis placed great faith in returned from a long journey had certain men, who, at once, acted the Something very odd in it. The tra. part of fortune tellers and physicians, veller, cn entering his cabin, imme- pretending to draw certain informadiately leated himself, without utter tions of what was to happen from ing a single syllable; and, the next the tinging of birds, and to have remoment, the women began to walk ceived from heaven the power of cur. round and round him, observing, all ing all manner of diseases.
Their the time, the fame filence, till, at whole quackery, however, confiftet lait
, they suddenly burit out into ex- in fucking the part afilicted, and then clamations, which were followed by a pretending to extract from it loinelong relation of all the disagreeable thing which they had the precauevents that had happened in his family tion of taking into their mouihs beduring his absence; the men covering fore they went to work, but produced their faces, repeated the same things with the greatest assurance, as the with a low voice; and this ceremony cause of all the patient's illness, whore lated a longer or shorter time, in pro- imagination they greatly calmed by portion to the efteen they had for the this stratagem. This, no doubt, was traveller. At last, they'all congratu. doing a great deal. Besides, they lated hiin on his happy arrival, and never worried their patients with