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1769. Extract from the Adventures of an Atom. He knew perfe&tly well how to express the may croud the place, do not absolutely defime ideas by words that literally implied op- Aroy all regulation and decorum. But those position :-for example, a valuable conquest that are uncoupled, press in promiscuously or an invaluable conqueft ; a shameful rascal with such impetuosity and in such numbers, of a thameful villain; a hard head or'a soft that the puny master of the ceremonies is head; a large conscience or no conscience; unable to withstand the irruption; far less, immensely great or immensely little ; damno to distinguish their quality, or accommodate e high or damned low ; damned bitter, them with partners : thus they fall into the unned sweet ; damped severe, damned in- dance without order, and immediately anarfipid; and damned fulsome, He knew how chy ensues.” to lovert the sense of words by changing the II, The History of Paraguay, containing, wanaer of pronunciation : e. g. « You amonst many orber Bew, curious, and interesting ut a very pretty fellow!". to fignify, “ You Particulars of ibat Country, a full and ausbena are a very dirty scoundrel."-You have als tic Account of tbe Establishments found ibere by Days 1.oke respectfully, of the higher tbe Jejuils, from among tbe savage Natives in tbe powers !" to express, “ You have often in very Centre of Barberism. 2 vol. 8vo. Davis. fulted your betters, and even your sovereign!” This history is a translation from the ce* You have never turned tail to the prin- lebrated Father Charlevoix, and though we ciples you professed !", to declare, “You cannot assure the reader that it is translated have acted the part of an infamous apoftate." with great elegance, we can nevertheless He *at well aware that words alter their lig- venture to promise him, not only much inrification according to the circumstances of struction, but much entertajoment. tines, cuftoms, and the difference of opi Paraguay was first discovered by the zion. Thus the name of Jack, who used to Spaniards in the reign of the Emperor turn the spit and pull off his master's boots, Charles the Fifth, who named it after a river was fraasferred to an iron machine and a in the country. The following extract from wooden inftrument pow substituted for these the natural history will we doubt not be perpoles: thus a liand for the tea-kettle, highly acceptable to the public. acquired the name of footman; and the “Almost every.forest of his country abounds words Canon and Ordinance, fignifying ori. with bees, which make their hives in the giaally a rule or law, was extended to a piece hollows of trees. There are here ten diffeof artillery, which is counted che ultima lex, rent species of these useful infecte. That or ultima retio regum.-In the same manner molt esteemed for the whiteness of its wax, the words infidel, heresy, good man, and po and the delicacy of its honey, is called Opeo litical orthodoxy, imply very different lignifi- mus, but is very scaree. The Cotton-tree is cations, among different classes of people. a native of the country, and grows in thickA Murtulman is an infidel at Rome, and a ets, like what I saw in Louisiana. It bears Chriftian is diftinguished as an unbeliever at the very firft year, but must be pruned like Contantinople. A Papift by Protestantism the vine. It flowers in December and saunderstands heresy; to a Turk, the same nuary *, and its flower, which resembles the idea is conveyed by the feet of Ali. The yellow culip, fades and withers away three kerm good man, at Edinburgh, implies fana days after blowing. The pod contained in ticism; upon the Exchange of London it the flower is quite ripe in February, and fignifies calh ; and in the general acceptation, yields a wool, which is not only very white, benevolence. Political orchodoxy has diffe but very good in every other respect. The reat, Day oppofite definitions, at different Indians I spoke of, began to low hempe places in the same kingdom; at 0-- and feed; but having found it a troublesome C-; at the Cocoa-cree in Pall-mall; and task to prepare it for fpinning, moft of them at Garraway's in Exchange-alley. Our ora abandoned the enterprise. The Spaniards tot was well acquainted with all the legerde- have, on thif occasion, thewed more conmain of his own language, as well with fancy than the Indians, and make use of the nature of the beast he had to rule. He hemp in pretty large quantities. kacw when to distract its'weak brain with Besides maiz, manioc, and potatoes, which à tumult of incongruous and contradictory thrive very well in several places, and in ideas : he knew when to overwhelm its fees which the food of the Indians, who cultible faculty of thinking, by pouring in a cos vated the earth, chieflz confifted, there are rent of words without any ideas annexed. in this country many fruits and fimples, These throng in like city-milliners to a Mile not known in Europe : I shall name and ead adembly, while it happens to be under describe some of them, as 'occasion offers. tbe direction of a conductor without strength There are some fruits in particular, of which and apthority. Those that have ideas an the Spaniards niake excellent sweet-meats. nered may be compared to the females pro- Some have planted vines here, which do not vided with partneis, which, though they thrive equally in every district; but a great
• 1: is proper ibe reader should alterd ro ibe great difference between the seasons in Paraguay end Europe, occafioned by ebeir lying a: differcie fidcs of ike equinokisać line.
264 ExtraEt from the History of Paraguay. May deal of wine is made at Rioja and Corduba, after which the strongeft devour the weakeft. two towns of Tucuman. That of Corduba And were it not for this disposition of Prois greasy, Arong and heady. That of Rioja vidence, Father Anthony Ruiz de Montoya, bas none of theic faults ; but at Mendoza, who seems to credit this account, oblerva, a town in the government of Chili, and that it would be impossible to ftir out of doort fituated in the Cordilliera, at about twenty. without meeting with these terrible animals. five leagues from Corduba, they make a wine Among those who are oviparous, there are very little inferior to that of Spain. Wheat some that lay very large egos, and make use has been sown in some places ; but it is fel- of incubation to hatch them. dom made use of but for cakes and other The rattle. Inake, ro commoni in several things of that kind. There are every-where provinces of North America, is no-where renomous herbs, with which some Indians perhaps more so than in Paraguay. It has poison their arrows; but the antidotes are been observed in this country, that this rep: equally common; and among others the herb eile suffers greatly when its gums are too called sparrow's berb, which forms pretty much diftended with venom; and that, to large bushes, and was discovered, and obtained get rid of this repom, it falls upon every its oame, in the following manner.
thing in its ways, with two crooked fangs, Among the different kinds of sparrows pretty large at their root, but terminating in found in these provinces, most of which are a point, and by means of a hollow in these of the size of our black-birds, there is a very fangs, pours into the wound it makes all the pretty one, called macagua. This little crea- humour that tormented it. The effe&s of cure is very fond of the flesh of vipers, againft the bite of this, and many other species of whom, for this reason, he wages a continual serpents and snakes, are very sudden: somewar. As soon therefore as he spies one of times the blood issues violently at the eyes, these reptiles, he wbips his head under his nose, ears, gums, and roots of the nails; wing, and gathers himself op into a round but there are antidotes to be found every ball, without the least appearance of life or where against this poison. The most success. motion; he does not however cover his ful are a ftone, to which they have given the eyes lo entirely, but what he may peep name of St. Paul, bezoard, and a poultice through the feathers of his wing, and ob- of chewed garlick. The very bead of the serve the motions of his game, which he suf. anima', and its liver, which is likewise fers to approach without ftirring, until he eaten to purify the blood, are equally effi. finds it near enough to receive a Atroke of cacious: the sureft method, however, is to his bill, which he then fuodenly discharges begin by making an incision directly in the at it. The viper immediately returns the part that has been ftung, and then apply compliment with another of his congue ; but brimfone to it. Nay, this drug alone has the minute the sparrow finds himself wound been often found to make a perfect cure. ed, he fies to his herb, ears some of it, and There are here likewise some hunting is inftantly cured. He then returns to the serpents, which climb up the trees to dif. charge, and has recourse to his herb, every cover their prey, and from thence dart upon time the viper ftings him. This conflict laits it when within reach, squeeze it so tight, till the viper, deftitute of the same resource *, that it cannot stir, and then devour it alive has loft all his blood. As soon as the reptile at their leisure. But when they have tal is dead, the sparrow falls to work upon the up whole carcasses, they become lo heavy as carcass, and concludes the feast with a new not to be able to move, and, as they somedose of his antidote.
times have not a sufficient degree of natural There are few countries which breed so heat to digest such enormous meals, would great a number, and so many different species inevitably become the victims of their own of serpents, and such other reptiles; but voracity, did not nature suggest to them a there are a great many of them no way poi. remedy, which reafon certainly would never sonous, or whose poison is no way dangerous, permit them to employ. On this occahon The Indians know these innocent though the monster turns up his belly to the fuo, frightful reptiles, take them up alive in whose heat makes it put ify; the worms their hands, and make girdles of them, then breed in it, and the birds, coming to without any bad consequence. There are their aflifance, feed upon : foperfluity, some of these creatures twenty-two feet long, which otherwise would most certainly kill and proportionably thick, that swallow whule him: the patient takes care not to let the Atags, if we may believe some Spaniards, birds go too great lengths, and in a mort who affure us they have been eye-witneffes time, after this extraordinary operation, to their fears this way. The Indians say, finds himself as well as ever. But it often that these monsters engender at the mouth, happens, they say, that the skin of the ferand that the young ones tear their way into pent
the branches of trees upos the world thro' che fides of their mothers, which he has been in too greit hate to fia.
* By ebis one would imagine obe Sparrow-berb ees bolbo as a Hyptic and as ar autidese,
17692 Of the Influence of Languages on Opinions. 265 tion bimself; this is a scrape, out of which to more valuable purposes, as every body is he muft find it a much more difficult matter lenfible, that language and opinion must have to extricate himself than the former. their reciprocal influence on each oner,
Mony of thele reptiles live upon fith; and without entering into a differation for the Father Montoya, from whom I have taken purpuse. However, as the prelent article almost all the le particutars, info. ms us, that he has made much noise on the continent, and one day happened to spy a huge inake, whole seems elegantly translated from its original head was as big as a calf's, tithing on the German, we lball invour the author so far, banks of a river: the first thing che monster as to give an extract from his performance to did, was tu discharge by its mouth a great our readers. quantity of foam into che river; he then
SECTION . thruft his head into the water, and kept it Of ibe advantageus Influence of Languages on very quiet, 'till a great many imail fitnes, ai
Opiniuns. tracted by the foam, had gathered about it;
HE proofs or the advantageous ini. when suddenly opening his jaws, he laid
flue ce of language on opiniocs i re. about him, and swallowed in great numbers duce o a few ciaffes, the number of which al those that were unhappy enough to lie unquestionably might be greatly augmented, within his reach. Another time, the same but i thall not so much as go about an enu. author afures us, he saw an Indian of the meration of them, the subject I well know talleft fature, who happened to be filhing up is inexhaustible. to his middle in water, swallowed alive by There are bappy etymologies, they coma huge snake, which the next day vomited prehend accurate descriptions, real definitions, bio prey ashore quite whole, all to the bones which unto.d the meanings and disperse that which were smathed to pieces, as if they had kind of mift in which they a.e to often inbeen bruised between two mill-stones.
volved. Thele etymologies, besides preventThis monstrous species of reptiles never quit ing many errors and altercations about words, the water; and in the rapids, which are pretty
make known to him whose happiness it is common in the Parana, they are often feen: to meet with such in his largiige, I say swimming with a huge tail, and their head, they immediately make known to him truha which is likewise very large, above water. of which, philosophers, less favoured by The Indians say, that they engender in the their language, purchase the attainment by fame manner with land-animals, and that laborious studv. the males often attack women, as it is pre
When we either pronounce, or hear the teaded monkeys do in some countries. One word glory, we all think fomething, and in thing however is certain, and that is, that Some meaiure the same thing. We under. Father Montoya was one day called upon to
ftand the word but as to its etymology we Eear the confeffion of an Indian woman, are totally in the dark, it conveys no more whom, while she was washing some linen on instruction to us than if we had made use of the banks of a river, one of these animais at. an algebraic character, for instance expreftacked, and, as the said, offered violence to fing glory by 2. This word does not make ber: the miffionary found her ftretched on the known to us in what glory contiits, it rectie very spot, where the said the thing had hap. fies no error, it does not undeecive either the pened; she told him the was sure she had hair-brained hero, iofacuated with the chanbat a few minutes to live, and in fact expir. tom of glory, nor the saturnine moral' ft who edo almoft as soon as the had finished her afreets a contempt of it. The very philofoconfeffion."
pher, mised by an arbitrary sourd which Not being able in this place to give a longer costom has annexed to so many confuextract at present, we have inferred, in the sed ideza, and otten to very tale ideas, more forward part of our Magazine, (les will give us falle definitions. This has been pages 229-232) (wo others.
the cale more than once. Glory has been III. A Differiation on obe Trfluence of Opi cor:Junded with the cause productive of it, rices on Language and of Language on Opi. I mean with internal perfection ; it has been
; wbicb gained the Pruthan Royal rica defined i be sum of all our perfections, aad, in diery's Prize on Ibar Subject, tcgerber with an conformity to that notion, we have been Erquiry into ibe Advantages and Practicabi, taughe that the glory of God does not depend lity of an univirjal learned Larguage. By on his creatures, nor the glory of the wise Mr. Michaelis, Count Counjeilur io bis Britan. man on what others think of him. Those nic Majesty, and Director of obe Royal sicademy doctrines wbich, in the main, turn only on at Gottingen.
5$. Owen. 92 pages 4to. an ambiguity, are with many become so faMost academical Quiettions prove exercises c!ed and reipectable that their zeal would be for the ingenious, not masters of any great extremely ostended again any who should consequence to the public. The present is take into their heads to contest them. If one of the performances which may be this definition, however, be just, either the ranked under the titie of an elaborate bage philcopher from whom we received it, or our helle; it displays much reading, without language must be without a word for exprefmuch utility, and gives us room to wish, ling the favourable opinion the world enie:that ebe author's abilities had been directed taing of our good actions. May, 1769.
Of ibe Influence of Languages on Opinions. The Greek language has a great advantage From the foregoing specimen the reader in this point. The word séta, which fig. will be enabled to judge of our author's m
man. nifies glory, is, at the same time, a real defi- ner, as to the practicability of establishing nition of it, and a definition pregnant with an universal learned language, that is, as be consequences. This word properly means himself exprelles it, a language in wbich opinion, and is made use of to denote glory, each idea ihould have its ditinæ type and as confifting in the good opinion the world character, he thinks it utterly impoffible, bas of us. 'Er din size is to be in obe good though he owns a friend of his has contri opinion of orbers, and someone, is one of whom ved an alphabet, by means of which he can the public has a good opinion.
perfectly represent on paper all the imagina. Thus, the Greeks could not but know in ble forms of all languages. what glory confifts; this etymology was con IV. Considerations on Ebe Dependencies of tinually putting them in mind of it; and to Great-Britain, wirb Observations on a Pare imagine that there could be any such thing pblet entitled The Preseni State of tbe Natisz, a glory independently of the high opinion 28. 8vo. Almon. entertained of our talents and virtues, they “ The state of Great-Britain, says our aumust have forgotten their very mother thor, is this. The peace eftabliment, with tongue. As for the metaphysician, it was a little reformation, may be re 6 scarce poffible for him to deviate from the duced to
3.300,000 common mode of thinking, so far as to pre. The national debt
141,000,000 tend, that God enjoys glory amidst the foli. The interest of which is 4,500,000 tude of eternity; and if an affectation of paridox, or a want of attending to the language,
€ 7,800,000 had carried him to that absurdity, there was This 7,800,000 ). is the sum to be provi. no Greek so void of fense, as not to be that ded annually for the expences of England. God's perfections could not be acknowledg- To the accomplishment of which the ad. ed, or celebrated, whild God alone exifted. thor of the State of the Nation proposes,
This idea of glory which the Greek ex that Ireland should contribute 100,000 l. pression conveyed, farther thewed, that it and the colonies 200,00ol. making together was not to be attained by guilt, violence, 300,oool, which is just the difference beand devastation, but by virtues, by generosity (ween 7,800,000 l. and 7,500,000 l. per 63and benevolence; this, in consequence, made glory to be a real good ; for, if we consider This extra-British contribution to the how much our prosperity or adversity, our British establishment, is the principal obje& happinoss or unhappiness, depend on others, which I propose to consider. their good or bad opinion certainly will not First, then, as to Ireland, let us enquire, be a matter of indifference to us; and that whether this would be reasonable or practi. misanthropical doctor, who represents glory cable; and examine how far the relative to us as an airy vapour, as a chimera, condition and abilities of Ireland have been teaches a doctrine not les diffonant from hu- juftly stated by this author; even fuppofing man nature, and to the situation we are pla- this 100,000 l. per annum an object of ced in here below, than as if he was to exhort weight enough in the scale of Britila er. us to be independant like the Deity, and, pence to demand such congderation, or jufti. like him, to stand in po need of the affift- fy such an expedient. ance and good offices of another. In this I have this moment before me the national view the desire of glory, that defire ro vili- accounts of Ireland, which were laid before fied, becomes a commendable disposition, parliament tbe last session, and thall from tending to make of all mankind a fociety of them ftate the annual sum raised on that brethren, prompting every one to seek the kingdom in taxes; and then examine into its approbation of his fellow creatures, and to means, its resources, and the proportion it acquire it by a decent and virtuous behaviour. bears to Great Britain, in its ability and its
To give a clear notion of glory to the four exertion. bigot, who professes the moft supercilious con In the year ending Lady day 1766, the tempt ve#.is, I own, no caly matter; and produce of the
1. veie it poslible to bring him to better Hereditary revenue was 671,649 33 5. thoughts, it would be effected in Greek soon. The additional duties 245,954 er than in any other language. You are obli. The loan and other apged, would I say to him, to seek that glory propriated duties
73,141 which conhits in a good reputation : the most natural punishment annexed to bad ac
990,745 4 31 tions is the loss of honour : to make light The amount of the whole is nearly one of this, is shaking off the only curb wbich, million of money, a&ually raised every humanly speaking, can keep you to your du. year on Ireland. And when I add to this, ty: you will gradually become a profigate, chat on comparing the expences of governhardened in guil', and then to be dealt with ment with this produce of the revenues, only by bodily punishment."
it was apprehended by the Irish parliament,
1769. Considerations on the Dependencies of Great Britain. 267 that this fom might turn out inadequate to of the former are only eight times as great as the expences, and therefore they passed a those of the latter. As for lhe personal proclasle of credit in the bill of supply, em perty of England, it exceeds that of Ireland powering government to borrow 100,000 l. fill in a much greater proportion, including if it should be found necessary, in the inter- many articles, which that country either hus val between that and the next session of par not at all, or in a proportion below all comliament ;—and this, though some additional parison with the superior country ; such as taxes were granted, and all the old ones con- plate, jewels, furniture, ships of war, mer. tinued; though Ireland already owes a debt chant ships, &c. &c. fo that at the lowest of near 700,000 l. which not only has not computation of the wealch of England by any been diminished fince the peace commenced, political arithmetician, it will, I believe, be bat bas been every session increaning in con- 'universally admitted, that the real and persosequence of votes and acts of credit, besides nal property of Great Britain united, are paying a penfion lift equal to the interest of a fixteen times as much as those of Ireland ; and debt of 2,275,000l. All this being confi- yet it pays but eigbe times as much. There is dered, I thall not be accused of sacrificing another method of comparing the wealth of much of acccuracy, if, for the sake of per- the two countries, namely, by the expences spicuity and facility of comparison, I ftate che of each individual. The expences of every anaual supply raised on the kingdom of Ire- inhabitant of Great Britain, from the king to laod ci ene Million; and when we take into the beggar, are estimated at 10l. per head, our calculation the new tax on absentees, and Those of Ireland do not exceed 21. 10 s.probable increase of the revenue from the re. Computing then Great Britain at eight milliduction of duty on tea, by which that com ons of inhabitants, and Ireland at two, the modity will be restored to the Custom-house, consumption of the one is eighty millions, of from wbence it has been banilhed by excessive the other only five; so that Great Britain doties, I am convinced, if I fate the revenues spends (and consequently has) fixteen times at a million, I do not exceed the actual pro- as much as Ireland. Thus there results a reduce of this present year,
ciprocal confirmation from the agreement of It appears from the full calculation of this these two mediums of computation ; each indiauthor, that the sum to be raised annually vidual of England baving four times as much as in England is 7,800,000 l, which for expence each person in Ireland, ought to pay four times of management, and ease of calculation, Í 'as much ; otherwise they are not taxed propor• fall call 8,000,000 l.
tionably. But, as England pays only eight millie Thus we see Great Britain pays eigbt times ons, whilA Ireland paysone, each person in Engy much in taxes as Ireland.
land pays only ewice as much as each person Let us now examine, whether England has in Ireland, and consequently but half as more or less iban eigbe times the ability of Ireo much as he ought. And here I cannot avoid land to pay ; then we shall be able to judge, subjoining an observation on this subject, whether Ireland pays more or less than her made by a person of the greatest eloquence proportion to the general cause. England and abilities : “ Bread and bear are the necess contains thirty-fix million of acres ; nf which faries of life in England, milk and salt the those who have taken the laceft surveys, ad- luxuries of Ireland; and it is their luxmit twenty millions to be in perfe& cultiva. ury, and not their poverty, that disables the tion, and well worth one pound per acre ; people of England to bear more taxes; for, if which with the other 16,000,000 under par- they would live but as the inhabitants of Ireture, sheep, wood, &c. valued only at 8s. land, and reduce their annual expence from 101. per acre, make a rental of 26,400,0001. to to 21. 10s. each, their annual expence would which, in confideration of the infinitely ad- decrease from eighty millions to twenty ; vanced value of land and ground-rent in and which would make a saving of fixty millions about London, York, Bristol, and all the each year. So that the whole national debc other cities and trading towns of England, of England would be paid off, if the people we muft at the lowest computation add would consent to live but two years and a balf, as 3,600,000 l, more; and this brings the ren the people of Ireland are condemned to live tal of England to thirty millions.
perbaps for ever." I have frequently known it ftated at forty, There are many farewd observations in and sometimes at Axty millions; therefore this pamphlet, and it is upon the whole well I am certain of not exceeding in my valua, worth a perusal, at least from the dependention at thirty millions.
cies of this kingdom. As for Ireland, it is by nature in so great V. Constantia and ber Daughter Julia. a proportion marshy and mountainous, and An Italian History; wirb a Discourse on Roso far deficient in culture and population, mances. 2 vol. 12 mo. Robinson and Roberts. that the eleven millions of Irish plantation In an advertisement prefixed to this little acres which it contains cannot possibly bę work we are informed, that the Aory is eftimated at more than three millions. founded upon fact, and that Constantia was
Thus England is in this respect ton times daughter to the marquis of Spinola, a nobleas great as Ireland ; notwithlandiag the taxes man of a very illustrious family in Italy.