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History and Description of Asia.

May many conquests, he married the great Naamah, Lamech's daughter, found Semiramis, by whom he had a son out the art of weaving: thus these vecalled Ninyas.

ry useful and entertaining branches o On his decease, Semiramis, who was knowledge were early communicated a woman of a most uncommon fpirit, as for the benefit and convenience of hu. her son's abilities were in no degree manity. And as it was long known bright, took potlession of the empire; that God would punish the crimes of and, during his minority, enlarged his people in that generation, either it to Æthiopia on the one hand, and by fire or water, in order to perpetuIndia on the other. She built a most ate their discoveries, they wrote them magnificent tomb to the memory of on two pillars ; one of marble, which her husband, and having a partiality will not burn, the other called later for Babylon, spared no expence in nes, which water could not deftroy finishing and beautifying it. By her nor did their generous precaution fail command it was surrounded with a to bless posterity. brick wall, which made the circuit From this beginning has the uni. of three hundred eighty-five ftadia's, verse been populated. -But before or forty-eight English miles. They I enter further into my design, I maft were só broad at the top, that two be assured of your approbation; for chariots might meet, and pass without unleís I am admitted into your Magaany bindrance, and they are said to zine free from all apprehenfion of be an hundred cubits high, and were my labours being rejected in future, deemed one of the greatelt wonders of it would be absurd to labour at all; I that and many succeeding, periods. am therefore, good Mr. Editor, for Hanging gardens of a most elegant the present, kructure were also formed on the Your most humble servant, walls; but all her greatnels was tar.

PHILOHISTORICUS. nished by the impurity of her mind, [The Editor's compliments to Phiand she was at last murdered by her lohistoricus, will not' fail to let bisa own ron,

down for a conttant correspondent] Soon after this time lived Hermes, surnamed Trismegistus, or three times to the AUTHOR of the LONDON great. He was a philosopher, priest,

MAGAZINE. and king : he first began to leave off

SIR, aftrology, and to admire the wonders Arates Teruple upon the fourth of

S the subject of the Country Cua of nature. He proved that there was but one God, creator of all things; the Thirty-nine Articles of our church and divided the day into twelve hours: (proposed in your Magazine for O&he is also imagined to have divided the ber last) is given up by the City Mi. zodiac into twelve signs. He was coun- nister (in your Magazine for March) fellor to Osyris king of Egypt, and is as absurd and untenable ; your inserte faid to have invented writing and hie. ing the following, as it is drawn fron Toglyphics, the forft laws of the Egyp- plain words of scripture, may not be tians, and divers sciences; and that inacceptable to many of your readers, he found one of the pillars left by the particularly to those whom it may per four children of Lamech, the tradi. culiarly concern. tion of which is as follows :

I Mall only just observe, that neither Jabal the son of Lamech was the in the City Minister, nor the remarker ventor of geometry, divided flocks of upon him, in your Magazine for Fe theep, and built a house of stone and bruary, seem to apprehend the scope timber; he was of the family of Cain. and force of Bishop Burnet's reasoning

His brother, Tubal Cain, was the upon the article ; but not to enlarge first that used iron and brass. He upon that, the fourth article indeed made arms, and then men began to itlelf needs no speculative or subtil difu make idols.

quifitions to evince the truth of it, and Jubal, another of Lamech's sons, new its confistency with scriptures found out the art of music, and was the design of it being not to discuis, the father of all such as handle the or determine, or even to touch upod harp.

the nature and quality of the spirie


17.69. Christ's Refurretion-Body further considered. taal and glorified body of Christ, but be swallowed up of life.” If then we fimply to affert that Christ rose from are not inclothed, the fame body ftill the dead with the same body where- subfifts, though clothed upon. So that with he conversed upon earth, and although our natural body, or simple fuffered upon the cross, as St. Paul files and blood, cannot, as St. Paul proves at large in his firit epistle to declares, inherit the kingdom of God *; the Corinthians, chap. xv. And that yet putting on, or being clothed upon he ascended into heaven with the with, incorruption and immortality, fame body wherewith he arose from (which is the change mentioned v. 526 the dead; and this surely no one can and Philip.iii. 21.) it shall by the grace make any doubt of ; else, to what end of God in Christ Jesus inherit his was it raised from the dead? And why kingdom. does the whole tenor of the gospel lay Further, Job deciares expresly, so much weight upon the belief of a (chap. xix. v. 26, 27.) “ Though after resurrection from the dead ? And par- my skin worms destroy this body, yet ticularly St. Paul, in the chapter above in my flesh shall I fee God; whom I cited, beftows so much pains to establish thall see for myself, and mine eyes a firm hope and belief thereof, by the shall behold, and not another; though referreation of Christ the first-fruits, my reins be consumed within me.” In an earnest to those that are his of their's my flesh, faith he, shall I see God : at his coming ?

where by his flesh he must intend his And whereas the City Minister, in body. And here his emphatical way. your Magazine for March, seems to of expression deserves our particular distinguish between the resurrection- attention. He exclaims with earnest.. body and the ascension-body, it is al. ness and precision, whom I shall fee together without foundation ; " for the for myself, I in my own person ; and dead hall be raised incorruptible," mine own eyes hall behold; I myself, 1 Cor. xv. 52. and more fully in the and not another, shall fee : not at all verses before, v. 42, 43, 44.' “ It is respecting or surmising any superinducfown in corruption, it is raised in in- tion of a spiritual clothing, with the corruption; it is sown in dishonour, more clear knowledge of which the it is raised in glory ; it is sown in apostle St. Paul was especially favoured. weakness, it is raised in power; it Now if Job, by the spirit of God, spoke is fown a natural body, it is raised truth, the article mul speak truth. a spiritual body." The resurrection.

W. S. body therefore is a body incorruptible, glorious, powerful, and spiritual; Remarks on the City Minister's second than which nothing further either is, Letter concerning Christ's Afcenfion-Body. or can be imagined, either from rea

SIR, son or scripture. Now as to the difficulty arising to

ERMIT me, by the channel of PE

your impartial Magazine, to rethe Country Curate from those words turn my sincerest thanks to the worthy of St. Paul in the above cited chapter, author of the thoughts on Christ's al1:50. “ That flesh and blood cannot cension-body, for his endeavours 10 inherit the kingdom of God;" a rational satisfy my doubts in regard to the fourth folution thereof may, I think, be de- of the thirty-nine articles. duced from the subsequent words, As the author seems to be a man }. 53. “This corruptible must put on of candor and temper, he cannot incorruption, and this mortal muft surely be offended, that I am not

yet put on immortality," compared with satisfied by his reasonings on the subwhat he says in his second epistle, ject. To say nothing at present of chap. y. ver. 4. We that are in this the author's first letter the two fol. tabernacle do groan, being burdened ; lowing passages in his second letter, not for that we would be unclothed, to wit, that where he says, that when but clothed upon, that mortality might he (Christ) had quitted his personal

This gives a reason of God's words to Moses, Exod. xxxiii. 20. Thou canst not See my face ; for there hall no man see me, and live;" i. e. a life upon this eartb : And of tbase words of St. Paul, 1 Tim, vi. 16. Whom no man kaih feen, nor can see.


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On the Natural Liberty of Mankind,

May converse with his disciples, and did they delegate, is the preservation of actually ascend into heaven, he had liberty. No government, which is with him no natural nor terrestrial not constituted for, or does not act body, but a spiritual and celestial one to that end, is lawful. For the law of and again that other, where he says, nature being that men should be free, that one of the negative ideas he has nothing can be clearer, than that they formed of the resurrection-body is, have not a lawful power to put them. that it cannot be a body composed of felves under an arbitrary government, lesh and bones; of which he has af- fhould they be so weak and base as to furance, because neither flesh nor endeavour it. That government which blood can inherit the kingdom of God, is arbitrary, is fundamentally unlawful. 1 Cor. xv. 50. These two passages, I When communities delegated the say, seem to me at present quite irre- power inherent in them by chat law, concileable to the following one, viz. (the power they had to concert where he says, that the notion, that means for the more effectual security he (Christ) ascended into heaven with of liberty) the power given was not aba body that had neither fleth and bones, folute, the delegates were not to do or fenh and blood, is a notion that is what they would, but it was given neither found in holy scripture, nor can

with this express intent, That the be countenanced by it; adding, the delegates should employ that power notion is absurd and untenable. I only to the end for which it was given, hope I may here - take the liberty namely, securing liberty. without any offence, I am sure I in The community could give it to no tend none, to ask the worthy author other end, not having a right to subthe following questions : How can ject themselves to the arbitrary will of Chrift be laid, when he ascended in any man, or number of men. The to heaven, to have taken no natural power delegated therefore was a truft, nor terrestrial-body, but a spiritual not an absolute gift, and the wisdom and celestial one, if he ascended into of our ancestors, is manifested in the heaven with flesh and bones, or fleth model of our constitution. The right and blood? Who ever heard of spiri- of the people to choose their own tual and celestial feíh and blood, or representatives, is the pre-eminent refpiritual and celestial flesh and bones ? curity provided by our ancestors for And how could the apostle say Atth the liberty of their pofterity, there and blood cannot inherit the king- cannot exist on earth a lawful power dom of God, if Christ ascended into to deprive the people of it. In ibatheaven with flesh and blood ? However, ever form the people choose to dele. I think it would have been of very gate the legislative power, in that it little importance in itself, whether must remain till that legislative power Christ ascended into heaven with na: comes back to the centre from which tural flesh and blood, or whether he it first proceeded. When the people ascended with a spiritual body, had not thus delegated, they put out of their the scripture seemed to afert the latter. own hands, by their own voluntary act,

In thort, the article seemed to me all power and pretence to making of to contradict the fcripture. I should laws. But then the power given behave been glad to have the thing ing limited, and not absolute; the lecleared up ; if it cannot, I must itili gislative cannot transgress the limit, continue a country curate, which I which is the good of the people, and shall very contentedly do, rather than confifts most emphatically in the preSubscribe to an affertion I take to be un servation of liberty. The people will scriptural. I am, Sir,

not always be nice to question inferior Your constant reader transactions, but when the delegated

A Country Curate, power assumes an authority to destroy An ESSAY on NATURAL LIBERTY.

ihe primitive constituting power, it Salus populi, fuprema lex.

cannot be expected that the people

will look quietly on. Legislation is a The fecurity of liberty is the founda

derived power, therefore the whole letion of lawful goveșnment; gillative is subordinate to the end for N all communities delegating a le. which the power was given, namely, gillative power, the end, for which preservation of liberty. To preserve


April 25.



1769. With Observations on a late Violation thereof. 26i that, it is absolutely necessary that lution, founded on the basis of the law tbey mould not depart out of the in: of nature, can be sewn to be tundą. ftrument, the frame that the people mentally bad, I am bold to affirm that when they laft seuled the legislative no shadow of reason can be brought ordained. To say that they may, takes to vindicate such a proceeding. : kt is avay at once the idea of a trust, and the most flagrant violation of freedom makes them absolute, which they can that ever Kewed itself in a country Rot be, for the reason before assign- where there was a spark of liberty re. ed. To preserve the form the people maining. have delegated the legislative in, is the The contefts in this country, prior primary duty of those who are called to the revolution, ever arose upon the their representatives ; it is, in other illegal exertion of the crown's prero: words, to preserve the constitution; gative upon the sovereign rights of the the wbole legislative cannot alter or people. These exertions had ever some change it in the essential parts. Can plausible reason, real or pretended. then that part which is the temporary, Ship-money (to instance one particuimmediate representative of the people lar) precedents were bought to vindi. alter the conftitution?. Can a part cate. Neceffity, public danger, was bave greater power than the whole ? urged to support apparent illegality. Can the representatives of the people The crown lawyers never dared, in destroy the very thing that gives them any times that I have read of, to adbirth, the only thing by which they vile a measure which had not some can be made?' It is morally impoli. coloor of law, some obsolete maxim ble. They cannot be the representa- for its ground. gives of the people when they attempt

From the revolution to the accession to do it, they disclaim in the Itrong- of the present molt illustrious, family, eft language that can be spoken every the prerogative was feldonItretched; relation, fruft, representation of, or since that accession more rarely, and connection with, the persons that fent never, that I recollect, in matters of them. :

great importance ; though the freeIt will be asked, why all this endea. dom of the subject has often been ato vour to demonstrate propofitions felf. tempted to be abridged by corrupt mia evident? Did ever any body doubt nisters, excise laws, in creating new that liberty was enjoined by the law jurisdictions, with

to inflict of nature, and that it mult' therefore punithwents on the subject without be criminal in the higheft degree to benefit of tryal by his peers, in manifest violate that law? It is answered, the contradiction of the spirit of laws, and writer of this letter never doubted even contrary to the letter of Magna any of the propositions. And that he Charta. Yet in all these, the consent rever in all likelihood would bave of the people by their representatives troubled the prels with any of his was asked, and if the people by their opinions, but that a late transaction reprefentatives had agreed to impose appears to him a mystery, so deep, those mischiefs on their country, the impenetrable, and dark, that he can blame must have refted wholly on account for it no way but by reversing themselves ; whereas the recent atthe propofitions, and taking it for tempt on the constitution is utterly regranted that the machinators of this pugnant to the sense of the people, great action would have it understood, and no less pregnant with absurdity that the people of England, ever since than with danger to the kingdom. the landing of the Saxons (who

I am your's, brought over that licentious, unlaruful A devoted friend to the constitution thing election) in the year 427, have as it was sertlid at the revolution. misconceived the true principle of go We hope che author of the fore. vernment entirely, and that the peo. going essay will excuse the freedom we ple ought to be flaves.

have taken in abridging his perforWithout the wisdom of our ances. mance, as without a liberty of that tors, as we have always esteemed it, nature, we could not have obliged him can be proved folly, without the revo. with a publication.






involve them in all the quarrels of Tartary : THE Hiftory and Adventures of an Atome that it was to be preserved at all bazards

; 2 vol, 12mo, Robinson and Roberts. because it was not worth preserving: that all This very threwd and very entertaining the power and opulence of Japan ought to history of the present times, is attributed to be exerted and employed in iis defence, bethe ingenious Dr. Smollett. Under the fiétion cause, by the nature of its ftuation, it could of a Japonese Memoir the people of Eng- not possibly be defended : that Brutan-timi land are characterised, and such an account is was the great protector of the religion of the given of parties and connexions, as must give Bonzas, because he had never thewn the much amusentent to the public. The fol- least regard to any religion at all : that he lowing picture of a great minifler in the was the fast friend of Japan, because he bad late war who changed his opinion in regard more than once acted as a rancorous enemy to contioental connexions, and the disposition to this empire, and never let rip the leaft op. of the nation after our first succeflee, will, we portunity of expressing his contempt for the think, be agreeable to our readers. We must subjects of Niphon : that he was an invincihowever premise, that Japan means Em, ble hero, because he had been thrice beaten, China - Ofrog Auf-a, Taycho Mr, P. and once compelled to raise a fiege in the Dacro the late K. Fika-kaka the late course of two campaigns : that he was a duke of N. and Mura-clami Lord M, prince of consummate honous, because he

ios Success of any kind is apt to pertu; b ad, in the time of profound peace, usurped the weak brain of a Japonese; but the ac the dominions and ravaged the countries of quisition of any m litaty trophy, produces an his neighbours, in defiance of common beactual delirium.-The ftreets of Meaco were nefty; in violation of the moft solemn treafilled with the multitudes who fouted, ties: that he was the moft honourable and whooped, and hollowed. They made pro- important ally that the empire of a Japan ceßions with flags and banners; they illumi. could choose, because his alliance was to be nated their houses; they extolled lan-on-i, purchased with an enormous annual tribete, a provincial captain of Fatfilio, who had by for which he was bound to perform no earthly accident repulled a body of the enemy, and office of friendship or affiftance; because conreduced an old barn which they had forti- nexion with him effe&tually deprived Japan fied. They magnified Brut-an-tiffi ; they of the friendship of all the other princes and deified orator Taycho; they drank, they states of Tartary; and the utmof exertion of damned, they squabbled, and acted a thou- his power could never conduce, in the smallest fand extravagancies which I shall not pretend degree, to the interest or advantage of the Ja-,

or particularize. Taycho, ponese empire. who knew their trim, seized this opportunity Such were the propoGtions orator Tacho to ftrike while the iron was kot. - He forth- undertook to demonstrate ; and the success with mounted an old tub, which was his justified his undertaking. After a weak public rostrum, and waving his hand in an mind has been duly prepared, and turned as oratorial atsitede, was immediately furround- it were, by opening a luice or torrent of ed with the thronging populace.--I have ale high-sounding words, the greater the contra ready given you a specimen of his manner, diētion proposed the ftronger impression it and therefore shall not repeat the tropes and makes, because it increases the puzzle, and figures of his barangue: but only sketch out lays fast hold on the admiration; depoliting the plan of his address, and specify the the small proportion of reason with which chain of bis argument alone. He affailed it was before impregnated, like the vitrid them in the way of paradox, which never acid in the copper-mines of Wicklow, into fails to produce a wonderful efect upon a which if you immerse iron, it immediately heated imagination and a shallow under- quits the copper which it had before dilitapding. Having, in his exordium, artfully folved, and 'unites with the other metal, to fascinated their faculties, like a juggler in which it has a stronger attraction.-Orator Bartholomew-fair, by means of an affemblage Taycho was not so well filled in logic as to of words without meaning or import; he amuse his audience with definitions of conproceeded to demonftrate, that a wife and crete and abftract terms; or expatiate upon 200d man ought to discard his maxims the the genus and che difference; or fate promoment he finds they are certainly establish- pofitions by the subject, the predicate, and ed on the foundation of eternal truth. That the copula; or form fyllogisms by mood and the people of Japan ought to preserve the figure : but he was perfectly well acquainte form of Yesto, as the apple of their eye, ed with all the equivocal or synonymous because nature had disjoined it from their words in his own language, and could ring empire; and the maiatenance of it would the changes on them with great dexterity.



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