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1769. Tbe History of Party, &c.

253 of anecdotes to the public, which did when he was almost forgotten, Lord but little credit to the consistency of T. and his adherents found him no their characters. Mr. Wilkes's pen, inconsiderable instrument, and excited though very indifferent, was neverthe- a pretty general clamour, by his means, less on this occasion very formidable. against the administration. It was The nation has almost a constant therefore the business of government, averfion to minifters, and is feldom either to render him impotent by a better pleased than when they are pardon, or to execute the laws upon loaded with abuse; without entring him with becoming fortitude the motherefore into the least examination ment he appeared in public, and apof Mr. Wilkes's motives, the public Peared too as a candidate to represent gave prodigious applause to his letter the metropolis in parliament; he was against the duke of G. they considerthen labouring under a writof outlawry, ed his invective as a proof of extraor- had been forsaken by his late friends dinary genius, and 'set down what of the T-e faction, and was bewas merely declamation, as an irre. fides no 'less distressed in his private fiftable chain of argument. The op- circumstances, than embarrased in portunity was too favourable for Lord his public character. In fact, the dis. T. and his adherents, to be neglected; tress of his private circumstances was they encouraged Mr. Wilkes to pro- the principal motive of his return to ceed in his complaints, affected an England. His debts in Paris rendered uocommon regard for his interest, and his stay in Franceany longer, impossible, endeavoured by his means to lessen and the subscription, which had been the influence of their enemies, the set on foot for his establishment abroad, rainiftry. Thus supported, he wrote being extremely ill paid, he had no on with additional eagerness, kept his resource but the expedient of trying cause continually alive by various pro- what his immediate presence, and a ductions of a political tendency from {pirited effort, would be able to effect the continent, and at last threatened in his own country. adminiftration with an history of Eng:

Actuated by motives of this nature, land, in which they were to be held Mr. Wilkes came over from France a up as objects of universal contempt to few days before the election for the

city of London, and, to the unspeakaNotwithítanding the industry which ble astonishment of every reafonable the cuts, thus incessantly exerted to man in the kingdom, declared his in. Supplant the ins, and the popularity tention of becoming a candidate. The which they laboured to acquire by only encouragement upon which he Supporting a man, whom they repre. took this resolution, was the promise lented a martyr in the glorious cause of affistance which he received from a of freedom, places were found more few merchants in the city, who possia convincing, than the utmost energy bly were defirous of rendering themof their reasoning, and pensions of felves conspicuous by an opposition to more weight than the leverest of government, or really thought that their publications. A large majority Mr. Wilkes's quarrel with the duke of constantly joined with administration G. could never be inade up, and that in the house, and the attempts of op- therefore by chooting him, they would position were always so unsuccessful, be certain of a vigilant observer upon that the very name of opposition be the conduct of the ministry. Be their gan to die away, when the unexpect. motives however what they may, they ed appearance of Mr. Wilkes as a can. proceeded very judicioully in the exedidate for the city of London at the cution of their design. They gave general election kindled a flame of po out in every place, that Mr. Wilkes pular spirit through the whole king. was certain of succeeding, that the lidom, that blazed with uncommon ve. very of London were continually of. hemence, and seemed too powerful fering him their voices, and even profor all the state engines of the ministry. pored very considerable wagers, that

In reality nothing could be more he would upon the poll have a large weak, more ridiculously weak, than majority over all the other candidates. the conduct of government in rela- Notining contributes more to the fuction to this gentleman; at a cime cels of any scheme, than a general

idea

al posterity.

254
The History of Party, &c.

May idea that it will be successful. This person of Mr. Wilkes, but they were was the case on the present occafion. convinced such a violation had no Many who at first treated the report been made by the present adminiftraof Mr. Wilkes's standing as a candi. tion. The general warrant which imdate for the city of London with the prisoned Mr. Wilkes, and seized his utmoft ridicule, now believing, from papers, was the warrant of Mr. G. the confident affertion of his friends, G.'s ministry, and the duke of G. fo that he would be inevitably.chofen, far from being concerned in supportvery seriously determined to join the ing that scandalous Atretch of authority, general voice, and prepared to support lent all his affiftance in both houses to him with their suffrages. The whole get it condemned by the solemn refometropolis echoed with his eulogium, lution of parliament. Besides this, and on the morning of election the the sober members of the livery renumber of hands in his favour at the hected, that if Mr. Wilkes had been common hall was amazingly superior injured by a perversion of the laws, to the thew for his competitors. the justice of these laws had partly

The ministry all this time appeared given him redress; he had recovered in a state of absolute ftupefaction, they damages for false imprisonment from were ashamed to pardon, and afraid to the under secretaries of state, who had punish him. In order to discover whe- been culpable in the case of his apther he was powerfully supported, prehenfion, and had at that very mothey suffered him to acquire a power, ment a prosecution depending againft ful support ; and through an absurd Lord H. for a large sum, which imagination that he was formidable, would probably be determined in his they suffered him to become so in favour. When the livery saw all this, reality; whereas, had they either par- and when they moreover saw that Mr. doned him on the one hand, or on Wilkes did not intend so much to the other vigorously executed the law, ferve the city of London as to barrass the people either would have deserted the government, they elected four his cause, or they would not have ven. members, whom they looked upon as tured to defend it. But when admi. much more eligible representatives, niftration seemed terrified, it was natu. and gave adminiftration a triumph of ral for it's enemies to be resolute; the the most splendid nature even in the more timidity therefore which was ma- metropolis of the kingdom. nifested by the first, the more spirit After Mr. Wilkes's disappointment displayed itself in the proceedings of in the city, the nation very

reafona. the latter. Like cause and effect, that bly expected that the ministry would became the parent of this, till the have recovered from their panic, and whole body of the populace imbibing tefified some little share of resolution. an enthusiastic detestation of govern- Nay, the very friends of that gentleman ment, daringly bid defiance to all or expected he would have been taken der, and gave the considerate part of up in consequence of his outlawry, their fellow subjects a sensible appre and punished with the utmost severity: hension for the very existence of the Government however was till dil

. conftitution.

mayed, undetermined, and wavering. Yet notwithstanding the popular cla. Without a man either of genius to dimour was thus artfully raised, and thus rect, or of spirit to animate their artfully kept up against the ministry, councils, they suffered every insult Mr. Wilkes, on casting up the poll for which the fury of a populace, caugko the city of London, was in number to believe the freedom of their country some hundreds lower than the low. in the most immediate danger, could est of the other candidates. The offer, and by an infamous pufillanithinking part of the livery, though mity of conduct, merited all the ob. they imagined the duke of G. had not loquy with which they were incessant. behaved altogether kindly to Mr. ly loaded by the voice of popularity, Wilkes, nevertheless saw no reason Mr. Wilkes had too much lense not why his grace's ingratitude gave Mr. to see, and too much courage not to Wilkes a claim to their fuffrages. profit by their shameful confternation. They did not deny, but that the laws He therefore, without giving them of the land had been violated in the time to deliberate, offered himself a

candidate

255

1769. Magna Charta, wben granted. candidate for the county of Middle.

For the LONDOR MAGAZINE, sex, at the very hour in which he was rejected by the city of London, and AS production of many references to in a speech admirably adapted to his parpole, ascribed his defect not to the origin of our conftitution, or any dilike which was entertained Magna Charta, the reader is here against him by the livery, but to the prefented with the first institution of lateness of his application for their that noble pillar of our freedom. fuffrages. Mr. Wilkes's conduct on Magna Charta, the great basis of this occafion gave new life to the our laws and privileges, may properdrooping adherents of the Tely be said to derive its origin from faction, and they now thought it of Edward the Confeffor-as be granted consequence to renew their profef. many privileges both to church and fions of attachment for a man whom state by particular charter ; which li. they had meanly abandoned to the berties and privileges were confirmed complicated distress of a judicial sen- by Henry, the First, on a celebrated tence, and a desperate fortune. The plan now loft; but which was revived friends of America too, who looked and enacted by Henry the Second and upon the present crisis as a favourable King John. opportunity for their cause, and were Henry the Third, the successor of indifferent by what means the minis- this last prince, after having caused try were hunted out of office, so that twelve men to make enquiry into the they were actually discarded, fupport. liberties of England in the reign of ed Mr. Wilkes with the utmost cor. Henry the First, granted a new char. diality; they represented him in the ter, the same as our present Magna moft Aattering colours to the view of Charta; this he feveral times broke, the populace, mentioned him as a man and as often confirmed; till in the solely persecuted for his exalted attach- thirty-seventh year of his reigo he ment to his country, and painted the went to Westminster-Hall, and there trembling adminiftration, as a junto in the presence of the nobility and of tyrants, who wanted to destroy the bishops, who held lighted candles in conftitution of the kingdom, though their hands, Magna Charta was read; it required but little penetration to the king all the while holding his fee that they were a cluster of spirit. hand to his breast : at length having less disgraces upon government, that folemnly sworn faithfully and inviola. evidently wanted soul to support the bly to observe all the things therein maintenance even of legal authority. contained, the bishops extinguished Reflection however is seldom the dire the candles, and, throwing them uptinguishing characteristic of the multi. on the ground, they all cried out, tude; the people were therefore fired « Thus let him be extinguilhed, and to an actual pitch of phrenzy; they stink in hell, who violates this char. every where declared a readiness to ter." die for the support of their rights, But notwithstanding the solemnity though these rights had been in no fine of this confirmation, King Henry, the gle instance violated by their present very next year, again invaded the rulers ; and they universally prepared rights of his people, till the barons to resilt the despotism of a ministry, entered into a war againf him. When who fo far from withing to encroach after various success, he meconfirmed upon the freedom of the public, were this charter, and the charter of the foreally unable to exa&t a necessary obe- reft, in the fifty-second year of his reign. dience to the laws. Thus ftuated, This excellent charter, so equitable defied by Mr. Wilkes's friends, and and beneficial to the subje&,' is the despised by his enemies, all their efforts most ancient written law in the kingto prevent that gentleman's election dom. By the 23d of Edward the for Middlesex proved abortive, and First, it was ordained, that it should he was chosen with a degree of accla. be taken as the common law; and by raation, that possibly never appeared the forty-third of Edward the Third, at any period in any country,

all Itatutes made against it are declared (To be continued.) void.

The

May 2

23 hours.

256 Tallow Tree.- Planet Venus described. The Tallow Tree.

her motion round her own axis in T HIS very remarkable tree grows

Venus is easily distinguished by her in great plenty in China; and brightness and whiteness, which ex. is so called from its producing a sub- ceeds that of all the other planets, and ftance of the nature, and answering which is so considerable, that in a the purposes, of tallow. It is about dulky place the presents a sensible Ma. the height of a cherry tree: its leaves dow. She constantly attends the Sun, are in the form of a heart, of a deep and never departs from him above 47o. fhining red colour, and its bark very When Ae goes before the Sun, that finooth.

is, rises before him, she is called Phol. Its fruit is enclosed in a kind of phorus, Lucifer, or the Morning Star; pod, or cover like a chesnut, and con- and when the follows him, that is, sets sists of three round white grains, of after him, Hesperus, Vesper, or the the size and form of a small nut, each Evening Star. having its peculiar capsula, and with Venus, when viewed through a tele. in a little stone. This stone is en- ' scope, is rarely seen to shine with a full compassed by a white pulp, which face ; but has phases like those of the has all the properties of troe tallow, moon, gibbous, horned, &c. &c. both as to consistence, colour, and Her illumined part is constanly turn. even smell ; and accordingly the Chi. ed towards the Sun, or, in other words, nese make their candies of it, which looks towards the ealt when Phor. would doubtless be as good as those phorus, and towards the west when in Europe, if they knew how to purify Hesperus. She sometimes appears in their vegetable, as well as we do our the disk of the Sun, in the form of a animal tallow.

dark round spot, where the aftrone. All the preparation they give it, is, mers and the learned are now prepa. to melt it down, and mix å little oil ring to find her; nor does her vibble with it, to make it softer and more transit fail of its utility. The parti. pliant. It is true, their candles yield culars of which have been too recent. a thicker Smoke and a dimmer light ly published to be mentioned on this than ours : but those defects are ow occasion. ing in a great measure to the wicks, which are not cotton, but only a lit. To the AUTHOR of the LONDON tle rod of dry light wood, covered

MAGAZINE. with the pith of a rush wound round SIR, it, which, by being very porous, serves to hltrate the minute parts of the tal the wiseft of mankind, a great low attracted by the burning stick, evil.—May not then that general dif

. which by this means is kept alive. inclination for the perusal of volumi.

nous productions, lo remarkable in the A Description of the Planet Venus. ladies, have something better for its

S the planet Venus is the present foundation than what is commonly curious, the following account of her attendant good, is most undeniable.-is much at the service of such of our A knowledge of men and things can readers, who, without any trouble, alone be obtained by clofe application, would chuse to be somewhat acquaint- and alone communicated in a succesed with her.'

sion of pages. Those ladies therefore, She is one of the inferior planets, who would not be uninformed, or and revolves round the Sun in an or wish to render themselves agreeable bit between Mercury and the Earth. comparions, as well as objects of ad

According to the best calculations, miration, must feel it necessary to the greatest distance of Venus from the forego their more sprightiv ftudies, Earth is 38415, the mean distance and exchange the hackney'd love tale, 22000, and the least distance 5585 fe- for the historic author, midiameters of the Earth. Her femi. The advantages to be derived from diameter is to that of the Earth as the study of history, are, of all others, 10 to 19; her periodical course round the mot valuable. For, besides the the Sun is performed in 224 days; and pleasure that naturally results from the

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1769. History and Description of Asia.

257 contemplation of past events, it lays washed on three fides by the vast ocean: a foundation not only for general pru. that on the east is called the Eastern, dence, but for that particular kind, or Pacific Ocean; on the north, the which the circumstances and situation Tartarian Ocean, or Mer del Morte; of every individual requires.

on the west, the Æthiopian, or Red To become acquainted with the cha. Sea, and it is divided from Europe by racters of men, the marks, the sources, the Mediterranean, or Black Sea, and and effects of their passions and preju- the rivers of Janias (Don or Tana) dices – the power and changes of their Ehu and Ohb. It is only parted from customs, together with a variety of Europe by the space of three hundred interesting particulars is an essential, German miles. It is connected to and bappy step towards wisdom. And Africa by a neck of land of about does not hiftory teach us to make thirty miles in length; and whether other men's experience our own, to the north-east part of it is not united avoid their errors, and be wise from with the north west part of America, their misfortunes ? insensibly leading could never be truly ascertained. us on to approve, and next to practise Many attempts have been made of virtue—those greatest of all virtues, late years to discover a pallige by fortitude, resignation, and morality. Hudson's Bay into the Pacific Ocean,

Now, fir, you cannot be surprized, but without success.Many greatly as I acknowledge myself a peculiar doubt, whether such an enterprize is friend to the ladies, if I strike out a in any degree practicable, and think plan of instruction for them, which the observations made by the Russians, may fit lightly on their minds, yet give us (mall hopes; but as they have leave an ufeful and lasting impression. not yet publiMed the particulars of

My plan is this (provided you con- their discoveries, little can be said sent to receive me for a constant cor. about them. Some general things respondent) I will present them, each have transpired; as, that the Russians succeeding month, with the properties passed between the land of Nova Zemand productions of all the known cli. bla and the coast of Alia; and as the mates - the dispositions and manners Dutch did formerly discover the norof their several inhabitants—the in- thern coasts of Nova Zembla, we may troduction and cultivation of lan now be pretty well assured, that the guages-the improvement and encou. country is an island. ragement of arts – the characters, the Babylon, one of the most famous conduct of conquerors, and the rise cities of the ancient world, and celeand declenfion of empires.

brated both in sacred and prophane In such a variety, may not the most history, was built hy Belus soon after diffipated mind find some entertain. the deluge, and is supposed to be a ment? And though the fir At periods of continuation of Babel, that presumpCreation may be deemed of little con. tuous attempt of our forefathers to cern to the polite of this generation, defeat the purposes of their Creator, fet I must beg leave, in order to avoid even at the moment when his power confusion, to recal the infancy of the and mercy had been most conspicuous. world to the remembrance of your fair It is seated upon the river Euphrates, Teaders.

was the capital of Chaldea, and about A SI A

forty-two miles from Bagdat to the the first of the four parts of the south-east, and about five hundred world, the mother, and, for a long, miles from Damafcus to the west, in time, the nurse and mistress of man. 790 of longitude, and 34° of norih lakind: for on this spot was man called titude.

into existence; and, after the deluge, Belus was succeeded by Ninus, who this was again the place, in which built the city of Nineveh on the river God chose to give a second being to Tigris, where the seat of the empire

was held. The walls, edifices, and The owo firit of the general monar. extent of Nineveh, were almost incre. Achies, the AfTyrian and Persian, were dible. This Ninus was the first to likewise in Alía; boch of which will make war on the other nations, to en. be confide.ed in due order. It is large his own dominions, aod after May, 1769.

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many

his creatures.

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