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Treatment of the Elector of Saxony.

April his bead for her obstinacy. To convince her Charles bad communicated the true motives that this was not an empty throat, he brought of his violent proceedings againft the elec. his prisoner to an immediate trial. The tor, interceded warmly with him to spare proceedings against him were as irregular, his life. The first was prompted to do it as the fratagem was barbarous. Instead of merely by compafion for his fifter, and reconsulting the states of the empire, or re gard for big brother-in-law. The two mitting the cause to any court, which accord- other dreaded the universal reproach that ing to the German constitution might' bave they would incur, if, after having boasted so legally taken cognizance of the elector's often of the ample security which the ecrime, he subjected the greatest prince in the peror had promised them with respså to empire to the jurisdiction of a court mar their religion, the firft effe&t of their union tial composed of Spanish and Italian officeri, with him should be the public execution of and in which the unrelenting duke of Alva, a prince, who was juftly held is reverence a fit inftrument for any act of violence, pre as the most zealous protector of the protestant fided. This strange er bunal founded its cause. Maurice, in particular, foresaw ibar charge upon the ban of the empire which he must become the object of deteftation to had been issued against the prisoner, a fen the Saxons, and could never hope to govern tence pronounced by the sole authority of them with tranquillity, if he were conf. the emperor, and deftituie of every legal for dered by them as acceflary to the deatb of mality which could render it valid ; but pre- his nearest kinsman, in order that he night suming him to be thereby manifefly con obrain polle fion of his dominions. vi&ted of treason and rebellion, the courte While they from such various motives martial condemned him to suffer death by follicited Charles, with the most carpet im. being beheaded. This decree was intimated portunity, not to execute the sentence ; Sye to the elector while amusing himself in play billa and the rest of the elector's family, con• ing at chess with Ernest of Brunswick his fel jured himn by letters as well as metsengers low prisoner. He paused for a moment, though to scruple at no concellins that would exrriwithout discovering any degree either of cate him out of the prelent danger, and deSurprize or terror; and after taking notice liver them from their fears and anguish os of the irregu arity as well as injustice of the his account. The emperor, perceiving that emperor's proceedings; “ It is easy, conti- the expedient which he had tried began to nued he, to comprehend his scheme. I produce the effect he intended, fell by de muft die, because Wittemberg will not sure grees from his former rigour, and allowed render, and I shall lay down my life with himself to foften into promises of clemency pleasure, if, by that facrifice, I can preserve and forgiveness, if the ele&or wouid lex the dignity of my house, and transmit to my himself worthy of his favour by submitting to pofterity tbe inheritance which belongs to reasonable terms. The elector, on who ihem. Would to God, that this sentence the confideration of what he might futter may not affect my wife and children more himself had made no impression, was melted than it intimidates me! and that they, for by the tears of a wife whom he loved, and the lake of adding a few days to a life al couid not re hit the intreaties of his family. ready too long, may not renounce bonours in compliance with their repeated follicitaand territories which they were born to pof- tions, he agreed to articles of accommodation, Se's." He then turned to his antagonilt, which he would otherwise have rejected with whom he challenged to continue the game. disdain. The chief of them were, that he He played with his usual attention and inge tould resign the electoral dignity, as well nuity, and having beat Ernest, expressed all for himselt, as for his pofterity, into the the Catisfaction that is commonly felt on emperor's hande, to be oilposed of entirely ai gaining such victories. After this he witn- bis pieafure; that he fouid inftanily puc drew to his own apartment, that he might the imperial troop, in poffeffion of the citi s employ the rest of his time in such reli- of Wittemberg and Gotha ; that he fould gious exercises as were proper in his fituation. Set Albert of Brandenburg at liberty without

It was not with the same indifferer.ce, or ransom, that he should subunit to the decrees composure, that the account of the Elector's or the imperial chamber, and acquiesce in danger was received in Wittemberg. Sybilla, whatever reformation the emperor Mould who had supported with such undaunred for. m-ke in the constitution of that couri; titude her husband's mi fortunes, while he that he should renounce all leagues againt imagined that they could reach no farther the emperor or king of the Romans, and enthan to diminish his power or territories, se't ter into no alliance for the future, in which all her resolution fail the moment his life they were not comprehenied. In return for was threatened. Solliciious to save that these important concessions, the emperor Dot the despised every other confideration ; and only promised to spare his life, but to settle was willing to make any sacrifice, in order to on him and his posterity the city of Gotha appeare an incensed conqueror. At the same and ito territories, together with an annual time che duke of Cleves, the elector of pension of afty thousand forins, payable que Brandenburg, and Maurice, to none of whom of the sevenues of the electorate ; and like.

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1769. Behaviour of Charles the Great in bis Retreat. 211 wise to grant him a fum in ready money to Oeber amusements and other objecto now Se applied towards the discharge of his debts. occupied bim. Sometimes he cultivated the Even these articles of grace were clogged plants in his garden with his own hands ; with the mor.iłying condition of his remain. sometimes he pode out to the neighbouring ing the emperor's prisoner during the reft of wood on a little horse, the only one that he bis life. To the whole, Charles had sub- kep', attend-d hy a fingle servant on foot. joiged, that he should submit to the decrees When his infirmities confined bim to his of the pope and council with regard to the apartment, which often happened, and de. controveried points in religion ; but the prived him of these more active recreations, elettor, though he had been perfuaded to fa. he either admitted a few gentlemen who recrifice all the obje&s which men commonly hided near the monastery ro vifit hin, and en. bold to be the dearest and moft valuable, tertained them familiarly at his table; or he was iniexible with regard to this point; and employed himseli in Audying the principles neither threats nor intreaties couli preval to and in forming curious works of mechanism, make him renounce what he deemed to be of which he had always been remarkably cruth, of persuade him to aa in opposition fond, and to which his genius was peculiarly to the dietates of his conscience."

turned. With this view he had engaged The emperor having in the decline of life Turriano, ore of the most ingenious artists of erferienced several disagreeable reverses of that age, to accompany him in his retreat. fortune, and finding that a design which he He laboured together with him in framing bad conceived of rendering Europe dependant models of the most useful machines, as well en his family was utterly impracticable, he as in making experim nts with regard to determined to withdraw himself from the their respective powers, and it was not sela world, and accordingly resigning his domi- dom that the ideas of the monarch afined or dions to his son Philip, and the imperial perfectes the inventions of the artist. He dignity to his brother Ferdinand, who had relieved his mind, at intervals, with lighter been long elected king of the Romans, here and more fantastick works of mechanism, tired to the monastery of Saint Juftus in in fashioning puppets, which, by the fruce Spain, which he had choren for the beauty ture of internal springs, mimicked the ges. of the fituation, and as it must be pleahing tures and actions of men, to the no small to know how a man, who had been for afioniliment of the ignɔrant monks, who many years the firft prince in Europe, con- beholding movements, which they could not doéted himself in such an alteration of cha comprehend, sometimes difrufted their own ra&ter, the following account cannot fail to Senses, and sometimes suspected Charles ard give general satisfaction.

Turriano of being in compact with invisible * When Charles en ered this retreat, he powers. He was particularly curious with formed such a plan of life for himself, as regard to the confruction of clocks and would have suited the condition of a priya:e waiches, and having found, after repeated gentleman of a moderate fortune. His ta trials, that he could not bring any two of ble was neat, but plain; his domefticks few, them to go exa&tly alike, he reficited, it is bis intercourse with them familiar; all the said, with a mixture of surprize and regret canbersome and ceremonious forms of ar on his own folly, in having bestowed so much tendance on his person were entirely abo- time and labour on the more vain attempe lished, as deftructive of that social ease and of bringing mankind to a precise uniformity tranquillity which be courted, in o:der to of sent ment concerning the intricate and footh the remainder of his days. As the mysterious doctrines of religion, mildness of the climate, together with his But in what manner foever Charles dife deliverance from the burdens and cares of posed of the rest of his time, he constantly government, procured him at firft a consider. Leserved a considerable portion of it for seli. able remifion from the acute pains with 'pious exercises. He regularly attended di. which he had been long tormented, he en vine service in the chapel of the monaftry, joyed, perbaps, more comp!ce fatisfaction every morning and evening; he took great in this humble solitude, than all his gran- pleasure in reading books of devotion, parri. deur had ever yielded him. The ambitious cularly the works of S. Augustine and St. thoughts and projects which had so long en. Bernard ; and conversed much with his con. grossed and disquieted him, wore quite effac. feffor, and the prior of the monaftry on ed from his mind : far from taking any part pious subjects. Thus did Charles pass in the political transactions of the princes of the first year of his retreat, in a manger not Earope, he reftrained his curiolity even unbecoming a man perfe&iy disengaged from from any enquiry concerning them; and he the affairs of the present life, and standseemed to view the busy scene which he had ing on the confines of a future world; either abandoned, with all the contempt and indine. in innocent amusements, which loothed his sence arising from his thorougbo experience of pains, and relieved a mind worn out with its vanity, as well as from the pleasing re. exceflive application to busines; o: in de Hedioos of having disentangled himself from vout occuparions, which he deemed pecefits carea,

fary in preparing for another fate.


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Death and CharaEter of Charles. April But about fix months before his death, variety, or the cuccess of his undertakings, the gout, after a longer interrifion than was the mot conspicuous. It is from al usual, returned with a pri portional increase a:teative observation of his conduct, not of violence. His thattered conftitution had from the exaggerated praises of the Spanish scarce vigour enough remaining to withstand historians, or the undistinguishing censure of foch a truck. It enie, nied his mind as much the French, chat a just idea of Charles's ge. as his body, and from that period we scarce niu and abilities is to be coilected. He pora diicera any traces of tha: sound and mascus Sulled qualities lo peculiar, as strongly mark line understanding, which diftinguithed his character, and nut only distinguish bim Charles among his contemporaries. An il from the princes who were his contemporas liberal and timid supersti:ion depressed his rics, but account for that superiority over fpirit. He had no relish for amulements of them which he so long maintained, la any kind. He endeavoured to conform, in forming his schemes, he was, by nature as bis manner of living, 10 all the rigour of well as by habit, cautious and confiderate. monaftick auflerity. He defired no other so. Born with talenis which unfolded themselves ciety than that of monks, and was almost nowly, and were late in atiaising maturity, continually employed with them in chart. he was accustomed to ponder every subject ing the hymns in the milial. As an expia- that deinanded his confideration with care tion for his fios, he gave himself the disci and deliberare attention. He bent the whole pline in secret with such severity, that the force of his mind towards it, and dwelling whip of cords which he employed as the in- upon it with a serious application, undivert. trument of his puninment, was found afier ed by pleasure, and har ly relaxed by any his decease tinged with his blood. Nor was

amusement, he revolved it, in Glesce, in he satisfied with these acts of mortification, his own breast. He then communicated tbe which, however severe, were not unexam. matter to his ministers, and after hearing pld. The imorous and diftruftful solicitude their opinions, took his resolution with which alwa's accoop Dies fuperftition fill decisive firmness, which seldom follows such continued o disqu et him, anj depreciating now consuliations. In consequence of this, a!! that he ad cone, prompted him to aim Charles's measures, instead of resembling at lomching extra vidinary, at some new and the delultory and irregular fallies of Henry fingular act of piety that would d'Iplay his VIII, or Francis I. had the appearance of a zeal, and merit che favour of heaven. The confitent system, in wich all the parts act on which he fixed was as wild and un Wire arranged, the etřects were foreleen, common, as any that superitilion ever fug- and the accidents were provided for. His gested to a weak and disordered fancy. He promptitude in execution was no less reresolved 10 celerrare his own obsequies be markable than his patience in deliberation, fore h s death. He ordered his comb to be He consuired with phlegm, but he acted built in the chapel or the monariy. His do. with vigour ; and did not discover greater fameslicks marched thither in funeral proceso gacity in his choice of the measures which fion, with black capers in their hands. He it was proper to pursue, then fertility of gehimself followed in his throud. He was nius in binding out the means for readering laid in his cofin, with much folemnity. his pursuit of them successful. Though he The service for the dead was chanted, and had naturally so little of the martial furn, Chrles joined in the prayers which were of that during the most ardent and bustling pefered up for the rest of bis soul, mingling riod of life, he remained in the cabinet inhis tears with those which his attendants active, yet when he chose at length to apined, as if they had been celebrating a real pear at the head of his armice, his mind funeral. The ceremony ciosed with sprink was so formed for vigorous exertions in every ling holy water on the coffa ia the usual direction, that he acquired luch knowledge form, and all the assistants retiring, the doors in the art of war, and such talents for comof the chapel were fhur. Then Charles roie mand, as rendered him equal in reputation out of the coffin and withdiew in his apart- and succeis to the mot able generals of the ment, fuil of tbeíe awiul sentiments, which age. But Charles poilelfed, in the most such a lingular folemniiy was calculared to eur.inext degree, the science which is of inlpire. But either ihe fatiguing lengih of grcatest importance to a monarch, that of the ceremony, or the impreffion which this knowing men, and of adapting their talents į nage of death left on his mind, affected to the various departments which he allotted him so much, that next day he was leized to them. From the death of Chievres to the with a fever. His feeble frame could not end of bis reign, he employed so general long refiit its violence, and be expired on in the field, no minister in the cabinet, no the 'wenty first of September, after a life ambasador to a foreign court, no governor of · of fifty-eight years, fix months, and twenty a province, whose abilities were inadequate five days.

to the truft which he repoled in them. As Charles was the fire prince of the age Though deftitute of that bewitching affobiin rank and dirritv, the part wbich he act. bity of manners, which gained Francis the ed, whcthcr we coalider the greatneis, the hearts of all wbo approached bis person, be



213 was no stranger to the vircues which secure terly or even a decent produ&ion ; notwithiselity and attachment. He placed un• ftanding it is ushered in by the name of a bounded confidence in his generals ; be re counselior in two of the French parliaments. warded their services with munificence; he VII. The History of Emily Montague, lo seither envied their fame, nor discovered 4 vols. 12 mo Dodsley. 20jealousy of their power. Almost all The principal scene of this novel is Ca. be generals who conducted bis armies may nada, and it is in consequence of this be placed on a level with those illuitrious per- circumstance dedicated to Mr. Carleton the Laages who bave attained the highest emin governor of Quebec. -The author is Peace of mi'itary glory; and his advantages the ingenious Mrs. Brooke, already known eter his rivals are to be ascribed so manifently in the literary world by the pretty little No. to the superior abilities of the commanters vel of Julia Mandeville, and those who have whom he see in opposition to them, that read that performance will not meet with this might seem to detract, in fome degree, 'less entertainment in the present publication. from his own merit, if the talent of disco VIII. Outlines of the natural History of vering and employing such inftruments were Great-Britain and Ireland, &c. By John war the most undoubted proof of a capacity Berkenbout, MD 3 Vol. Vol. I. containing for gore: ameat."

the animal Kingdom. 8vo. 45. Elmsey. II. The Hiftory of Miss Somerville, 2 vols. Dr. Berkenhout purpofes to give a syftemaI 200. 6s. Newbery.

tic arrangement and concise description of This work is the produ&ion of a lady; all the animals, vegetables, and foffils, which and we could with that all female writers have hitherto been discovered in these kingWert equally remarkable for their good sense doms. He has adopted Linnæus's mode of azd their delicacy—any parent may safely arrangement, and from the present specimea put it in the hands of a daughter, and reft we have some reason to expect an useful pubadlared that it the is not the better, the will lica'ion. be 80 way the worse for perusing it.

IX. Matrimonial Ceremonies displayed, &c. 10. Margaret Countess of Rainsford. 2 vols. 15. Sergeant. 12.04. Johnson.

This is a despicable composition of dulness Sach readers as can put up with an unna. and obscenity, and, being utterly below the tæal ilory, will find entertainment in these public notice, cannot be entitled to any farvalames—ine Are is pretty-the detign is ther observation. moral—but the fable is in our opinion wholly X. An universal Dictionary of the Marine, improbable.

&c. By William Falconer, 4to. il, is. Ca. IV.Tb: Exemplary Morber, or Letters between dell Mr. Villars and ber Family. Published by a It is impoffible to say enough on the utiLady. 2 rol, 12mo. B-cket,

lity of this work, in wbich the young reaThe exemplary mother is a very amiable man will not only find every thing necessary pattern for her sex, though we think the for infruction in his profession, but every author, in order to make her character con. thing requifite to make him respeited as an fpicuous, has lefsened her children rather in: officer. Those, however, who have no conjudiciously in the opinion of the reader nexion with the sea, will find great entertainthey are rendered generally weak, that he ment in the Marine Dictionary, and we cansay have an opportunity of correcting their not but express great obligations to the au. trrers—but though this may be a critical thor for the pleasure we received in his excelsrection to the book, it by no means lel lent performance. less the utility of it.

XI. An Appeal to the Pub'ic, fowebing the V. Tbe delicate Embarrassments. 2 vol. 12mo. Dearb of Mr. George Clarke, wbo received a Robinsoa and Roberts.

blow at Brentford, on Thursday tbe 8.b of DeThis novel is written by a benevolent cember laft, of wbicb be languished and died on eboegh not by a very accurate pen- the cha- Wednesday be 1446 of the Jame Monib. By racters are no way new-nor is there any John Foot Surgeon, 8vo. is. Davis. tatag extraordinary in the incidents-yet This pamphlet has been very much the tiere is good fesse' in general tbrough the fubject of public conversation, and our readers performance, and the author is to the utmost will naturally expeat a confiderable extract; r' bis abilities an advocate for the cause of as it relates rather to facts than to reasonings,

the literary merit is not an object of much VI. The mistakes of tebe Heart: or Memoirs confideration, and we thall theretore proceed

Lady Ca olioa Peiham, and Lady Victoria at once to the author's narrative.
Suvil, in a series of Letters, published by M . " On Thursday the 15th of December,
Treytt de Vergy, Counsellor in the Parlia- 1768, says Mr. Foot, I was called in by the

I of Paris and Bourdeaux, 2 vol. 12mo. coroner's jury, to examine the dead body of Mestock.

Mr. George Clarke, at the White-Hart, Thue publication before us is very happy Welbeck-Areet, Cavendish-Square. Mr. In a title, as it is actually a mistake of the Walker, furgeon, had likewise been sent tart to give it to the world cither'as a maj- for, bu!, for:unately for bim, was not at home.

I at


Foote's Appeal about Clarke.

April I attended, and enquired who had taken care to his death. He was not free from some of the deceased in his illness? I was an. one of these complaints from the time of bis fwered that he had been visited by Mr. Star. receiving the blow till he expired. At the line, apothecary, and by Mr. Bromfield, same time I was told, that Mr. Brofeld fuigeon. Mr. Starling had already given his was called in only on the day that Clarke pridence. I defired Mr. Bromfield might died, when he ordered his head to be thared; be present. I was informed be had been but did not even examine the wound. M;. feni for twice, and had refused to come, be- Bromfield law him no more, for he died the cause he appreberded it might be an Old Same night. Bailey business, and for the same reason The coroner then proceeded to take the de. would not permit any of his affiftants to positions, of which the following is a copy :

At the coroner's requeft I went up fairs into the room where the body lay, ex MIDDLESEX. Margbore, Dec. 15, 1768. prelied my defie that Mr. Underwood, a

Wbiie-Har?, Welbeck-firett, furgeon, (who had been sent for by Mro.

touching tbe Death of George Talbor, the aunt of the deceased) would be

Ciark, eben and ibere lying present, waited some time for him, and was

dead. informed that he was gone away. I then Solomon Starling, of Princes-street, near proceeded to examine the body, in the pre- Hanover square, apothecary, faith, Laft Monsence of the jury, affifted by Mr. Bearcrofr, day he was called in to attend the deceased, a furgeon in bis majefy's 'ervice, who had that be went and found the deceased in a formerly lived with me for his improves violent fever in bed; that he applied proper ment, and was at this time accidentally in remedies ; trat he attended him the next day, towo.

and found him not better, aufd deGred fur. I examined the body very carefully all ther advice ; upon which Mr. Bromfield the over, it was not disco oured in any part, nor surgeon was sent for, but the witoefs was had appearance of hurt or disorder of any not present when he came, but adminiftered kind, except a contured wound on the top the remedies Mr. Bromfield advised, and arof the head. by the side of the fagittal fue tended the decealed the evening of the fame Pure upon the right parietal bone ; the scalp day, but found him no better ; says the de. was elevated for a confiderablc space round ceased's ó ain was atfected, for he found a the wound, the pericranium, which naturally absence of mind and frequent flutterings, adheres firmly to the bone, was much in which a violent fever will cause ; tbac be tlamed, and separated from the scull. A called the next morning, and was informed ter clearing this part I searched for a hio the deceased was dead of the fever, but wbat Suse or fructure, but found neither ; I then was the cause of the fever he cannot say. raised the whole of the scalp and pericranium,

SOLOMON STARLING. and as fractures are not always to be found William Beale, of Marybone, says, That under the part where there are marks of ex on the 8th of December, 1768, he was a terda) violence, I continued my examination, the ele&tion at Brentford, and the deceased ana fnught for what has been called a con food next to him close to the rail at tbe tra fiffure or fracture : I met with neither. hustings; that about half after two a mob I then proceeded to saw the bone circular- arose and a riot ensued, and the witness relv, beeinding at the forehead; after careful ceived a blow on the left wrist, and another ly s:ifog the up, er part of the scull, I found on the head, by a thort Stick or bludgeon ; the dura mater (which is the external mem that the deceased nood next to him, but the brane of the brain) greatly inflamed, partie witness being afraid of being kilied, made colarly under ibe part where the blow was the beit of his way out of the croud, and did given, and here detached from the bone, to not see the deceased ftruck; but in a very which in a lound hate it is closely connect. Short time after, about a minute, the deceases ed. Upon removing this membrane, I saw came to the witness in the yard of the Three a quantity of extravalated coagulated blood Pigeons, all of a gore blood from the head herween it and the pia mater. The pia and neck; that then they went together to

or interior covering of the brain, the Rev. Mr. Horne's, at Brentford, and was iniell inflamed, and some of its veftels with Richard Beale went thro' che yard of Judined on the right hemisphere of the his house into the church-yard, and go: over brain. From these appearances I was led the wall to save them!elves, being atraid of to enquire into the symptoms that attended their lives, and from thence went to bfie. the doccared during his illness. I was in. worth, the deceased being still bleeding; formed by the several deponents, belore the that when they got to fleworth the deceafed carener and jury, That at first the deceased pulled off his bat and stock, and the witeers complained of pain in the wounded part of lent him his handkerchief to bide che blond bois head, this ir.creased, and was succeeded which came from a wound near the top of by faininelo, stupidity, chilliness, fickness, the head, the witness then bathed the de. ronilings, teves, celisium, and conyullions, : ceased's head and wound, and likewise bis



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