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1769. Of the Worms in the human Body. 185 Earth's center at I, all that time. In four feet, with two heads, with three, this example then the half sum of their and some with four forked tails, &c. teo durations, and angles to be as be:

But belides the worms of the intera fore 2263611, and the sun's diameter tines, there are others lodged in 1897" for angular meatures and let almost all the parts of the body: us fuppose their difference 2CO = 40' as worins of the teeth, the gums, the = 2400" of time. Now fay, as the noftrils, heart worms, chole in the time of the transit in seconds, is to blood; urinary, cutaneous, umbilical, the sum of the supposed differences of a sophagus, worms in the liver; an the spectators observed , so is tļie sun's history, and a cut of a very large and apparent diameter, to double the dif. remarkable one inay he leen in Vol. II. ference of the two observers, viz. as of Observations and Enquiries of some 72636":2400":: 1897": 2011--2C10, London Physicians; nay, and even whole half is 100"=CIO=PID; which worins in the spittle. But all there with the angle CAO, bearing the same last fort are never found, except in a proportion to this, that CA, the dis. distempered state. tance of Venus from the sun 72627, Round worms

are most common bears to CI, the distance of Venus and well known, like earth worins, from the earth 28890 = < ECI. As only a little whiter, and they are male !? à 0) 72627 : 100" :: (8 à 9) and female, and engender the comnion 28390 : 39,811 which is the angle of way, by univocal generation, and the parallax of Venus; for lo much some think then earth worms only doth the diameter of the earth appear

transferred. to an eye placed in Venus, or as being Pliny, Platerus, &c. is like a girdie,

The broad worm, called Tänia by fubtended by 6555,004 miles. this must now be increased as the

or ribbon, two or three ells long, and tarth's semidiameter 3984,58 is to

sometimes longer, divided all the 6355,0, and then we shall have Venus's length with crois joints, or knots, true parallax at that time; viz. as which grow wider, the nearer the tail 3924,53 (niles) : 6555,0 (iniles) ::

or extremity. Nicolaus Andry affirms,

that there is only one in the body, 39,8": 65", P's true parallax. Now the sun's horizontal parallax is in a re

whence it is terined folius. Bat Mr. ciprocal proportion to the diltance of Haguenot found a Tania in the to: the Sun and Veous from the earth.

mach of a cat, and another in the duo. Pide Keill's Altro. Lect. p. 265. ' As served a Txnia in a tench wo feet long

denum, or firit gut. Mr. Geoffroy ob28390 18 à 0) : 65" :: 101517 and upwards; and one has been leen foia): 18". Here comes out in a dog about three feet long. Whence 18", tor the fun's horizontal paral. we see they are bred in other creasures lax; which is 8" more than is supposed besides men, and some think they it really is, when greateft; the reason

came originally out of the waters. is, that in this work above, the angle Thore, thac have the broad worins, CIO = PID, is supposed to be 40', are troubled with too much apperite and was not actually observed ; which to their victuals ; and, except they gec angle we want to be accurately deter. fome, they feel a pain and gnawing in mined, which, I hope, it will be froin their' belly, that loinetimes becomes the ensuiog tranut.

insupportable, and requires flrong nara HENRY ANDREWS, colicks to procure a little reinition of Writing-maher and teacher of the Mathe- pain. But the most certain sign is, tvas matics al Roston, Hertfordybire. along with the excrements of the bels

ly, lome substances,like cucumber feeds, To the AUTHOR of the LONDON are discharged, which are buc pieces MAGAZINE.

of the inain and long worm, moil of SIR, Leigti, Nov, 26, 1768. wbich still remains behind, and is hard

HERE tlisée forts of to"extricate from its fait hold'atine

worms which generally infilt upper and smaller extreining to the the human body. Tie round ones, membranes of ipe intestine it clings the broad ones, and a carides. Some so close too. They are notealily kila times, but leitori, anomalous ones are led. Two draps of powder of fşin discharge 1, óvíz. horned, hairy, with 'soce is reckoned a specific by Carne, as April, 1763.

allo * The central iuration in jocerdsa

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Cause and Cure of

April also the decoction of the bark of the drank of freely, and used by way of root of the mulberry tree. It would glytter : inade by boiling two quarts o be belt to use both together.

water on four ounces of quicksilver a To bring away the broad worm, a often as you have a call for it. It may vomit of oil ought to be given, and be used by young and old as freely and salt water should be freely drank. But sately as water or beer, and will kill I shall say no more of this sort of ver worins both in man and bealt. min, as I purposely wrote a piece

Your's, J. Cook. thereon, to be seen in your useful Ma N. B. Ignotus's letter from Col. gazine for September last.

chester was received; but he requires Ascarides are thin worms like most wliat you jusly refused another clerpieces of thread, or white cat-g ut gyman, referring such patients to conclipped. They usually refide in the fult me privately; for indeed what has lower part of the great guts, and near the public to do with private cases; the sphincter muscle.

wherefore, if he will send me direcThe pathognomick, or distinguish. tions how to write to him, I will preing signs of such Imall worms are, an scribe for him. And let this notice he itching in the anus, scarce tolerable, observed by others, if they expect any and most frequently with a tenelmus, regard to be paid to their letters. As or straining motion to Itool; nay, it for Ainicus,' I am sorry he is not has been attended even with a fyncope, his own friend more than to spend bis or fainting. Ætius's experiment is time lo idly. He leems to be the fit. good against a carides, viz. a suppo- telt companion for his duke's dogs, fitory made of old falt fim, the fat be. and with them I leave him. ing scraped away.

These worms are truly, as Dr. Ful To the AUTHOR of the LONDON ler observes, a small generation, but

MAGAZINE, hard to be conquered : for though they SIR, Leigh, Feb. 13, 1769. fhould be all destroyed to one female by the force of glyfters, yet annet enana A Vertigo is a frightful ditemper, in

which visible objects seem to numerous offspring will be bred again turn round, and the disordered pervery foon from the eggs. laid in the fons perceive a disturbance of the anirectum. And therefore it is not e. mal lpirits in the brain, so as they nough to destroy the old ones, unless cannot flow regularly into the nerves the young ones and their feeds are as usual, whereby the faculties of feerooted out, and discharged alio. And ing and moving, in some measure, this is done belt, if after the acarides fail, so that the persons affected ftag. quite disappear, you do not directly ger, and often lule their eye-light, leave off the use of medicines, but con The seat of this disease is sometimes tinue them every three or four days at forwards, when the person scarce falls repeated turns, and then renew the at all, and aunits of a cure ; but use of coloquinula glyfters to disturb when backwards it is more dangerous, them once a week ; which no author and oiten degenerates into an apohath hitherto minded. Snake root plexy, paily, or convulfive distemper. bruised, a dram ; ulp of coloquinti After all things tried in vain, Dr. da tied up in a knot, a scruple; tansey Willis precribed the following: thred, half a handful; boil them in Take of powder of inale piony root half a pint of water to fix ounces, for two ounces; of its flowers one a glyfter to be given every new iloon, ounce ; of the white part of peaand repeated for some months, to kill, cock's dung half an ounce; loaf discharge, and quite root out the al lugar iwo ounces. carides, which lodge in the mucus of The dose is about a spoonful twice a the inieftine.

day, drinking after it a draught of a In general almost all bitters are decoction of Lige and rosemary, imgood againit worms; especially pow. pregnated with uncture of coffee. It der of orange peel; æthiops mineral'; is Icarce credible, he writes, how much tinctura facra, lweet mercury, and advantage was found by this reinedy, worin seed, with red wine, in powder. In a month's time the patient wascured. And decoction of quicksilver, buth It is ordered of the white part of pea



187 cock's dung half an ounce, but I fan- ounce; of Jesuit's bark two ounces : cy that was a mistake. For where mix them. can so much be got ?

Your's, J. Coor. But as I greatly suspect ancient and compound prescriptions, I cannot Origin of the States General of France. help thinking inolt, if not all, the vir

From Dr. Anderson. tue of tbis remedy lay in the piony root, for the leaves are futile, and only augment the inedicine. The fugar “IN the introductory part of this hir

tory we have observed, that the was only to make it palatable, and as rendezvous of the Franks in their for the white part of the peacock's canıp, or field of march, formed the dung, I doubt its efficacy, if so much original parliaments, or general af. as balf an ounce could be collected. seinblies of the nation. From the

Though a vertigo is so called from more regular and Atated conventions turning round, yet it is not always at. of them by Charlemagne, they attained tended with that symptom : for a trem the form and conititution of a supreme bling and undulatory motion is suffi. legislative body. In the reigns of lecient. There are three degrees of it, veral of his immediate succeffurs, they one inore violent than the other. This still continued to be called, and inconfufion of light lies in the retina of terposed their decisions or capitularies, the eye, for the brain itself neither to adjust the diffentions, and establish lets nor feels.

the civil and political order of the A severe and long continued vertigo kingdom, until the principles of the in old men forevoles an apoplexy, in feudal government, which had only a young men an epilepsy. It sometimes, beginning in the time of Charlemagne, I say, affiets the fore part of the head, exiended their influence, and brought and lometimes the hinder part : that the dignity of the crown and the mo. is more curable, this more dangerous, narchy to the brink of annihilation, as being at the very origin of the Then the parliament ceased altogether herres.

to be national assemblies. The inde. A vertigo often lappen by consent pendent rights of the fiefs created from the fault of the stomach, or of à disunion, and, in many respects, the prime via, when vomits,' itona an opposition of the different memcbick and nervous medicines Thould be bers of the monarchy to each other, vsed. Eight or ten grains of calomel

, which was inconsistent with them. otherwise called sweet mercury, by From Hugh Capet's acceffion, and way of a bolus, at bed time, in any for a coui le of various reigns after conserve, and purged off next day that period, what are named parliawith any gentle phylic, as rhubarb, ments, were in reality no more than is proper.

If the perion be plethoric, congresses held among parties of the bleed, not else. Sneezing hould be feudal lords, who had differences to ayoided. Mustard seed, eat every accommodate, or fome proposals for morning, is good, as are all spices, their common safety and interest to Salt of amber, volatile falts, cinnabar, make, which required a parley or and antimony. Çalamus aromaticus, discussion. Such were many parli. or sweet smelling reed, in powder or

held about the Croisades, decoction, is esteemed a recret. Dr. which the bishops and monks convenGlition, phyfic profeffor at Cambridge ed; and others, where the lords in lait century, told Dr. Bate, that apier different provinces met by consent, to trying ali other medicines in vain, he defend their jurisdictions against the cured hini self of a vertigo he had had invasions of the clergy. When the for three weeks with only a plaiiter of kings interposed the authority of their flour of brimstone beat up with white's name for lummoning general aftem. of eggs, applied to the crown of his blies of the grandees and barons of head thaved. A caustic, or a seton, on the kingdom, it mide no alteration the back part of the neck, or a cay. in the natuse of those conventions. tery to the bregma, would be of fer ot even the immediate vallals of the vice. And let the patient take a tea crown, who owed fealty and homage spoonful of the following powder for to the king, counted themselves obli. a month, or more. Piony root one ged to give attendance in those parlise

mei in


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183 Origin of the States-General of France. Å pril snents, which were only voluntary ar. ders of the kingdom; which aftergociations, and no part of the feudal wards obtained the name of the staies. policy. The agreeinents or deterini general. viations formed in them, were so far This remarkable convocation of the from being the acts or laws of a public first states general of France was held hody, that they bound only such a in the cathedral church of Paris, in number of those present, as concur-, March 1301. Philip's Terters patent, ad. red in them, and affixed their signa. diefied to the three orders, which would tures to the scrolls of the transa&tions, have been a curiosity, are not preferi We find Philip the August, in the ti- yed. Tlie Chronicle of St. Denis, tle to what is called the Ordinance of and the Continuator of Nungis, are Villeneuve le Roy, mentioned by the chief avihorities for the form and Boulainvilliers, affociating to bis royal import of their deliberations. To authority the lords, who passed it in make the transition from the parliaconjunction with him. The ityle is, ments of the feudal lords, to a gene

Philip, by the grace of God, king ral convention of the nobility, clergy, of France, Eudes duke of Burgundy, and comnions, was a novelty, of whichi, Hervé count of Nevers, and several perhaps, the idea bad nor occurred others, who have unanimously agreed, to any of the predeceffors of Philip&c.". The same prince, instead of an le-bel. If it liad not proceeded from arred in the pårliament of Melun, de St. Lewis, the great design, worthy of livers to the countess of Champagne his character, might have been ascribed leveral written inltruments copied from to nobler and more generous views of each other, and sealed by himself and public and national policy, than his. the other lords. Such were the parlia- tory allows to be attributed to Philip. ments of the times when the feudal le-bel. That prince's perplexed fitu. fyttem preserved its stubborn power. aiion, into which his reftlels ambition, In none of them was a general or his avidity of wealth, and his artifipublic authority owned, and from ćial genius hád thrown him, appears them hardly could any idea of their to have prompted him to foron this antieni national allemblies be revived new and extraordinary project. He among ile French. In the reign of St. had more success in it than there was Lewis, we begin to find some light in. ground to expect, from the first expe. timations given in the decrees publitta- ment of such an assembly. Even ihe ed of his lovereign power, tu compel introduction of the deputies of the the refractory lords to accept or obey principal cities into it, and the associ: ibem. By the frequency of appeals to ation of the commons with the clergy the courts of his domains, and other and nobles, in the deliberations, pared relaxations of the feudal principles and without opposition or disgust. Since maxims, which iben took place, some before this period there was no exams impressions of a legisative authority ple or precedent of the commons apwould gradually be communicated. pearir.g in the general parliaments, it The regular and fixed ailizes of the might liave created' a quarrel. Some king's feudal court, or that of the historians have alledged; indeed, that peers, which were occalionally turned St.' Lewis, towards the end of his into general parliaments, for the lake reign, liad brought up to them some of levying pecuniary aids and other of the bailiffs or popular officers from purposes, also contributed to recover the towns, that thiey might consent to the nation out of its disjointed state, bear a thare of the sublidies that were and accustom the jarring members of wanted. In the speech made by Phi. jhe monarchy to combine in the same lip's chancellor, éhis consideration is public councils and measures. At alligned as the reason for 'lummoning length, when onder Philip.le bel, the the third etate. The commons 'now royalty had acquired several supports, holding their goods and effects in proa bolder effort was made by that mo. perly, it was not supposed they could march, to reconcile or ratier subject be taxed in an arbitrary manner, o the feudal to the political fyítem,' by without their voluntary concurrence. ecovening, a's from his sovereign au By this honourable usage of them, only, an alenibly of the thite or the king, without doubt, conceived


1969. Error of Reaumur corrected.

189 that they would he more readily en. win battles, save your country, and saged to contribute to the exigencies facrifice your interest; and, after all, of the state, and the lords and the if your merit is not fet off by the glit. Sergy would be contented to find the ter of fashionable expence, you will common people required to relieve fink into obscurity and contempt. Even them of a part of the public burdens, those who are without money, will In this manner the admiflion of the not appear to want it; they live at the representatives of the citizens into the same expence, as if they had it; they fates-general, was coeval with the borrow, they cheat, and practise a Crigin of those assemblies in France.” thousand scandalous expedients, to

procure it: and who mall apply a reA E following extract from Dr. medy' to these evils ? New laws must be

Hawkesworth's Telemachu's, will instituted, and the taste and habit of tot be improper at this period. the whole nation must be changed :

" As the prince is corrupted by an and who is equal to such an underécess of power, the people are cor. taking, but he who is at once a philo. fupted by luxury. It has been said, fopher and a prince; who, by the exindeed, that luxury feeds the poor at ample of his own decency and moderathe expence of the rich : but, certain- tion, can Mame the fools that are fond ly, the poor may'be subsisted by useful of ostentation and parade, and keep employments; if they apply themselves the wise in courtenance, who would to mulnply the products of the earth, rejoice to be encouraged in an honest they will be under no neceflity to frugality ?" corrupt the rich by the refinements of luxury. A déviation from the fimplic of the Torporific Eel in Guiana. From city of nature, is sometimes so gene

Bancrofi's Natural History of that ral, that a whole nation considers the Country.

1Ο OME faries of life : these factitious necer Mons. de Reaumurcominuvicatfaries multiply every day; and people to the royal academy of Sciences at can no longer sublift without things, Paris, a paper, in which he undertook which, thirty years before, had never to demonstrate, that the shock of the been in being. This luxúry is called torpedo was the effect of a stroke given tafte, improvement, and politeness; with great quickness to the limbo that and though a vice, whicli superinduces touched it, by muscles of a peculiar almolt every other, it is cultivated and structure. To this hypothesis all Eutommended as a cirrue. Its conta- rope have yielded an implicit aflent, gion spreads from the prince to the and M. de Reaumur has hitherto enmeanest of the people : ite royal fa- joyed the honour of having developed mily imitates the magnificence of the the latent cause of this my Iterious ef: king ; 'the nobles that of the royal fe&t. But if we may be allowed to family; the middle class that of ile suppose, what is undoubtedly true nobles; for who makes'a just

' eitima- that the mock of the torpedo, and tion of himself? and the poor would that of the torporific eel, are both intrude upon the class above them. communicated in a similar manner, Every one lives above his condition; and by fimilar means, it will be no lomme from oftentation, and to glory in ways lifficult to demonstrate, that the their wealth ; some from a false shame, whole of M. de Reaumur's pretended and to conceal their poverty. Even discovery is a perfect non-entity. You those, who discover the mischief of may, perhaps, think it an act of prethis general folly, want fortitude to fumption in me, to dispute the authoTat the first examples of reformation rity of a man, whose literary merit is al condicions are confounded, and the fos universally acknowledged; but I Barion is ándone. A defire of gain to am convinced, that an implicit faith fupport this idle expence, taints, by in whatever is honoured with the fanc: degrees, the purest minds; wealth is tion of a great name, has proved a the only object of defire, and poverty fruitful source of error in philosophical the only mark of disgrace. You may researches; and whilft I have fense and bave learning, talents, and virtue; faculties of my own, am resolved to you may diffüle knowledge; you may use them with that freedom for which


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