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ISO The HISTORY of ibe last Session of Parliament. April effects were matters which never en: her, manifested the dread which was tered into their imagination ; they universally entertained of the rabble ; were too vehement to hear the voice on this refusal the Mansion-house was of reason, and too weak to under attacked with repeated vollies of mis. Itand it perhaps if they did ; therefore file weapons, till the lamps and the because administration had by a Ge- windows were totally demolished, and NERAL WARRANT committed an un. considerable damage done to some va. justifiable action, they committed the luable articles of interior furniture. most unjustifiable actions without any Having thus wreaked their vengeance warrant at all. Out of resentment on the residence of the first city mato the ininistry for oppressing a single gistrate, they retired for that evening, individual, they claiined a privilege and returned the second night of illuof oppressing whom they thought pro- mination, determined to thew farther per, and because the conftitution, as marks of their anger, if lights were they imagined, had received one fab not hung up in honour of Mr. Wilkes: in the perion of Mr. Wilkes, to prove but on the second night such prepa. themselves good Englishmen, they rations were made to receive them, as stabbed it again themelves in the per prevented any material violence; and fons of a thousand fellow subjects. jome were even leized, committed to

These were the outrages alluded to Newgate, and afterwards fuffered fines both by the crown and by parliament, or imprisonment for their misdemean. and notwithitanding many things may or.--Having thus explained what we be urged in extenuation of an infatu- undertook to elucidate, it is only ne. ated multitude, fill it must be acknow- ceflary to add in this place, that the Hedged, that the despotison of a mob is bill for prohibiting the exportation of of all tyrannies the most intolerable, corn, &c. togetber with the bill for the and that excefles of this nature in the importation of rye, &c. duty free, bepopulace should, for the sake of ex. ing passed, and leave being given for ample be punished with the utmost se a bill to explain, amend, and reduce yerity. - They were therefore very pro. into one act, the several laws now in per objects of parliamentary relent. being, relating to the raising and trainment; and the House of Commons ing the militia in chat part of Great, with great justice diftinguitbed the Britain called England, the parliaRight Hon. Mr. Harley the lord mayor ment was adjourned, hy his majesty's of London with thanks for having spi. de fire to the 21st day of June, and pitedly exerted himself in opposing the afterwards prorogued to the sith of sioteis, and made a compensation to Auguft. Mr. Rufiel and Mr. Capel, two magis. [To be continued in our next. ] trates of Sou:bwark, for some dania. ges they had sustained in a like lauda- To the AUTHOR of the LONDON ble endeavour to suppress difturbances

MAGAZINE. in their neighbourhood.

The rage of the populace was at this time particularly directed againt A Truperiod when whimsical infti

tutions are the fashion, will you the Lord Mayor of London, who, du- condescend to be informed of a little ring the election of members for that community of a recent establishment, city, in which he was chosen, had THE BENEVOLENT SOCIETY? been said to treat Mr. Wilkes with re. The members of The Benevolent markable neglect; on the first night of Society, in opposition to the reigning rejoicing therefore, in consequence of spirit of the age, are at all times conMr. Wilkes's fuccels in Middlesex, titent--no other qualification having the moh, in their progress through the been there insitted on, than amiable ser. city, fopped at the Manlion house, fibility of beart-a qualification indeed and intisted on an immediate illumina- veterly indispensable, where the fucrion. The Lord Major happened to ceeding meeting is to place Virtue in be at his lead in the country, but his her taireit point of view, and to give Jardy was in town, and, with a degree to Vice her proper deformity, to enof extraordinary fortitude, refused to large the judgment, awaken the long, comply, though the prodigious biaze forgotten (or at least long-neglected) of lights from every quarter round dignity of the female character, and

SIR,

1769.
The Benevolent Society.

181 to cultivate every social and moral be occafionally mentioned) before that principle, Can it now, fir, be necef beauty and that virtue obtained her a lary to proclaim it of feminine manu- man of fortune for her legal protector. facture, and feminine population ? Her husband's tenderness and ad.

As whatever has virtue for its foon- miration, contrary to all example, dation, and propriety for its support, seemed to increase with increaling conot fail of receiving encourage time-aftuence and tranquillity her ment from a gentleman whose pen has pofessions, gratitude and atfection the been many years exercised for the in- blessed in habitants of her bofom : but culcation of both, it was last night fo fleeting is human felicity, that in determined in full assembly, to solicit the instant we imagine we grasp it, it a corner in your Magazine, for every flies us for ever, and the shaft of anpublication relative to the society, all guilh is lodged beyond all power of which will be remitted under the lady extraction. She was seized with the preádent's seal, and subscribed by the small pox, and as her complexion, and leveral members.

every charm of her countenance beEight ladies are already enrolled, camé a prey to that merciless disorder, nor is the number ever to exceed a her weak minded bulband, incapable dozen, of which two are wives, two of distinguishing misfortune from ofare widows, three young unmarried fence, foon degenerated into the crudamsels, and one a virgin stricken in elelt neglect of her. But however the years. A universal correspondence will was aslected on this trying occasion, be opened, and all letters, agreeable her temper and her fortitude were in. to decorum and sentiment, duly at violably prelerved. Never was fatended to, nor can it be presumption mily regulated with more amiable deto hope ; that the histories, observa-' corum; children, for the had two litcions, ideas, and reflections of eight tle daughters, more properly educanot uninformed females, even unar ted; nor husband more universally filted by foreigo supplies, inay afford a obliged and honoured. His heart variety of entertainment, if not in would frequently reproach him, that Atruction for your fair readers. all was not right on his part.-Dil

As to the rules, method of conftitu fipation, nevertheless, seemed to exting, or detaching a member (no ex tract the iting, and he continued his pulsive clause being necessary, or prac wandering unreflecting life, until the icable with the BENEVOLENTS) they grave proved a final interruption. A are the simplest in nature, inclination, noble fortune wholly at her own disconvenience, self-fatisfaction and locis cretion, for the was the guardian of al, comprehending the whole. Having her children, did not fail to attract thus communicated all the prepara a numerous train of courtiers—it was tory circumstances, I will presume to true, they were all well convinced introduce the ladies to your acquain that Mrs. Miloham was a woman of tance.

understanding and principle, but then The presidential chair was unani. he was a woman, and under fix and moully voted to Mrs. Milnham, the twenty, therefore their devoirs must be elder of the widows-who, though grateful to her, and some one or other, Turned of forty, and inconceivably ex be the object of her election. ercised in the school of disappoint. Mrs. Milnham treated them with ment, joins the most engaging viva great civility ; to conceive herself afcity, to the most lively goodness of fronted would have been to conceive heart. Her father and mother un them rational beings, for fools and fortunately perithed, at an early period infants are secure from the charge of of her exiftence, in their passage to Ire- intentional offence.

To have proland ; and as generosity was that un claimed her resolution of never chang. fortunate father's characteristic, and ing her condition, or to have told his only provision a place under the them that he was sensible her person government, beauty and virtue be poflefled few attractions, would have came the only inheritance of his been to invite a torrent of absurdity daughter : in consequence of which and nonsense. She therefore only this daughter experienced innumerable begged they would allow her time for ditreffes (which in all probability will recollection -- that her dress, though

not

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182
The Benevolent Society.

April not sufficier.tly marking her character, ty, is the fourth lady I shall present yet was sufficient to demonstrate that to you. --After an acquaintance of five vanity had not resumed its empire in years with the inan of her choice, her heart, and that the man who pre. whole fortune was rather inferior to sumed to address her before the gaiety her own, her relations thought proof her appearance should afford him a per to consent to their union : but it sanction, Tould be the man of all was merely consenting to her obtainothers she would refuse. This honest ing a tender ianction for lamenting.finelle succeeded to her wilh---and as He lived only fix months-yet though the sign of grace was never hung out, deprived of the power of contribu. The was never disturbed by renewed ting to his happiness, the proves the applications. Her beloved children utmost honour to his memory. Her were all her felicity and care, and as youth, beauty, amiable sentiments, an additional exercise of her patience might recommend her to any suscepand resignation, they were at distant tible heart, or her fortune excite the periods required at her bands. Hea mercenary one to solicit her favour, ven had bestowed, and heaven de- but the is so uniformly collected, fo manded.-The task of humanity was consistently averse to every overture, to avoid the fin of murmuring.

that she secures herself from those de. The second in etteem is a lady Ma- voirs, every beholder confesies he is ry Bristow, whose husband went out intitled to receive. a commodore in the late war, accom Miss Sophia Bristow is what all her panied by two sons, the one ñfteen, young acquaintance call a prude at ihe other twenty years old. In a eighteen-ihat is, she will not be treatwarm and vigorous attack on a well ed like a fool because the is bandlome, fortified garrison, it was the compo nor suffer the smallest infringement of dore's misfortune to receive many delicacy, because the may be converdangerous wounds, and to see his el- ling with a rake or a coxcomb-her dert son expire at his feet, in the mo- liveliness is the opposite to levity, ment he was endeavouring to relieve her reserve to affectation, and her his father. The surviving boy lost his whole conduct under the regulation right arm, an unhappiness, which in of the most amiable principles. Every conjunction with the uncommon me tender, benevolent, and filial inclinarits of his disposition and character, tion, glow warmly in her heart, and frequently procure him the indulgence all friends behold her with unspeaka. of attending his mother and filter som ble delight. phia to the society.

The Miss Middletons are particular Mrs. Stanley, who possesses the third favourites with Lady Briltow, not rank, if such a distinction can be pro- that they can by any means boast the per where all disclaim superiority, is perfections of her daughter, but that the wife of a West India merchant, she knows them unfortunate, and be. a man of large fortune, but most ca lieves them delerving. Their mother pricious temper---the turns and ebul. died when they were very young, and Jitions of which are invariably sustain their father foon united himself to a ed by her with the dignity of good gay and inconsiderate creature. The sense, and the uncontending contide, nursery and the boarding school by ration of good nature, though ap- concealing thein from his fight, and probation and gratitude are her's in preventing them praving the smallest ihe most lively degree, when reason interruption to this fluttering compa: predominates, but as the flightest con- nion, so abundantly alienated his af. tradiction, or the minuttit interrup- fections, that except the remitting tion by whatever means derived, pro them the interest of fifteen thousand duce a torrent of frenzy, and subside pounds for their provision (the priu. into dilhumour, consequenily the hour ciple of which, by their grandfather's of approbation is too short lived to will, is to be divided between them atone for days and weeks of unmanly on the day of mariage, or at the age reproaches and complaints.

of twenty) he hecame utterly neglectThe willow of the honourable Mr. ful of oneni. On their leaving Ichool, Lloyd, juit eurned of three and I wen. Lady Briltow prevailed on Mrs. Mon

183

1769.

The Benevolent Suciety. ham to take them under her protece and accept the best compliments of tjon, with whom it was sufficient to the society. I am, tir, ensure them her friendship. The eld

Your humble servant, eft, on the verge of twenty, has a ve

SOPHRONIA. Ty agreeable person ; the youngest, barely seventeen, promises to be a To tbe AUTHOR of the LONDON handiome woman.

MAGAZINE, The last lady, though not least in

SIR, love, is a Mrs. Seymour, whose heart, in the early part of her life, became

S there have been divers calculaA

tions presented to the public infenfibly attached to a most amiable view, of the ensuing tranfit of Venus relation. This relation, formed in a over the disk of the sun; several of peculiar manner for pleasing, had no which bave made mention of the suspicion of the favourable sentiments great use it will be of in astronomy, with which he had inspired his cousin, &c. (should the several observers be nor had he an idea of enquiring by favoured with a clear tky) yet no wriwbat rye, but that of conianguinity, ter has gone so far as to thew the curi. he was so abundantly united to her. ous part of mankind bow, or after To know her happy was to be so bim- what manner this use is to be obtainfell

, and to obtain marks of her, appro. ed, and the nature thereof; therefore bation his highest ambition. He I do not doubt but some of your readdanced with her one evening at a ball, ers, would be glad to know, in a plain, and from too great attention to her easy manner, something tending that safety, was negligent of his own, and way, whereby they may see more that her chair might not escape his clearly into the nature and import of watchful eye, let down the front glass its real use. In explaining of which, of the one in which he was conveyed. I shall follow the iteps of our late ceA cold a fever was the consequence lebrated Dr. Edmund Halley, and from he died-confefling her the mis- whom also I fall beg leave to borrow trels of his best affections, and the my plan. And first, the use and ad. Survived to weep his love. Many of- vantage this transit is to be of to us, is fers were made her, but she was neia this; by it we can determine the Sun's ther inclined nor capable of persua- horizontal parallax *, to a greater ding herielf that the ought to bestow nicety than has ever yet been attempiher person where the could not give ed; and from that we can also deterher heart. She is now turned of fifty, mine the Sun's true distance from the and it is very possible the reader may earth; knowing which, we can also derive as inuch entertainment from find all the planets distances both from little anecdotes Ine is poffefied of, as the sun and from the earth ; thereby from any one person in the whole giving the astronomers an opportunity afte mbiy.

to settle their theories, to a greater May I now, fir, presume to tell you degree of exactnets, than ever before that next to the favour of giving there could be done; which will open a way particulars a place in your Magazine, for improving not only every part of will be the indulgence of promising all altronomy, but geography, and naviLetters to the society, polt paid, to pass gation ; and hence all must allow it through your hands? There is a vacan to be advantageous even to the whole cy for four members, and those who world. The reason why nothing else bave proposals to make, or matter to could serve for this great purpose, is communicate, may, with your leave, because the horizontal parallax of the direct to the Benevolent Society, un- sun being fo small, that all other me. der cover, for the Editors of the thods that have, or could be invento London Magazine.

ed, proved upon trial to be in fufficient I will no longer crespass on your for lo nice a point; for all the obler. patience, than to beg you will adjust vations requisite could not be made. the little prelimininaries of the corre. accurate enough to deterinine it; an fpondence to your own satisfaction, error in oblerving being scarcely to be

Which is the angle that the semidiameter of the earth appears to have at the fun, antiche Sir Isaac Newton suppojed when greatest nct 10 exceed 10“.

avoided,

184
Use of the Transit of Venus.

Aprit avoided, which is not equal, or great. taining this parallax of the son ; in er, than the sun's parallax, really is. order to which the following requiVide Keill's Aftro. Lect. p. 258. The sites are necessary, viz. as in ibis reason why this great and important scheme, let AB be the sun's diameter, point in astronomy, was not truly de. = 31' 37", CD the visible way of termined before now, by any of these Venus over the fun, whose duration is tranfits, (fince all other methods are (i.e. the central) 6 h. 17' 16"I; EF infufficient) is this; the antient altro- the earth's diameter, = 7969,16 Engnomers knew nothing at all of them, lith miles. Let KLNM be the paral(and if some of them had, they had lel of any place, we will say London not proper instruments for observing (by way of exemplifying it) in which them to the purpose). The first that latitude we muft find how many miles was ever seen by inortal eyes, was but make one degree of longitude, which in the year 1639 *; and the second is thus : As radius : the miles in one that has since happened, which was in degree under the equator :: CS la. the year 1761, could not be observed, titude : miles in one degree in that with any accurateness, by reason of parallel, viz. 43, 23; hence, by this ! clouds, and several other circum: tind, tha: 43,23 miles (true measure) ftances which then took place; and as this is one degree of longirude in the paralis the only tranfit of Venus + that will lel of London, whole radius is 2476,89 happen for above a century, and per- miles, . found thus; 43,23 x 360 = haps not then to answer fo valuable an 15562,80; then if 3,14159:12:15562,80 end as this is hoped to do; it is the : 4953,79 diameter, half of which is the very reason why this transit is so much radius. Let KL and MN be chords, talked of, and looked for by every each of 6h. 17' 16" the central duralearned astronomer. And now I lhall: tion of the transit, which reduced into endeavour to shew, and make plain, degrees of the equator, are 94' 19'= the method that is to be used for ob-. 6555,004 miles.

Τ Η Ε

SC H E M E.

Now from this diagram it is plain, A

that if there were two fpectators at E and F, without any diurnal motion, they would have the same angle for the sun's diaineter seen to each of them : and to a spectator at the earth's center AIB = 31' 3", and the same

duration of the transit from 0 to P= D 6 h. 17' 1617 of time ; but fince the

fpectator at M to the west of London, after he has seen the ingress at q, du. ring the time of the transit be carried to N by the rotation of the earth, and there will see the egress at r; and he, at I, under the same meridian, in the east, that saw the ingress at i, will be thereby arrived in contrary direction to K, to see the egress at S. Here will be a double parallax, answerable to the time and angle of the transit, along qt and rs ; the one in excels the other in defect, and both the very

jame, as if a single spectator bad seen L

the ingress when he was at E, at the F

point C; and the other when he was

ät F, at the point Di as compared M N

with a spectator that continued in the • Sre a further account by me in the Appendix ta the Lond. Mag. for 1963. + Venus being nearer the Earth ihan Mercury, therefore is the bej for ibe Pierpofi. I Parallaxes not considered.

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