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1759. Method for the Benefit of Mines.

129 To the AUTHOR of the LONDON To the AUTHOR of the LONDON MAGAZINE.

MAGAZINE. SIR,

Vita Brevis, Ars Longa.

SIR, Taipomote a free circulation of

Leigh, 1769. air'in coal mines, is a point of Sit hort for the alistance he receives very great and acknowledged utility in tse working of them: Let me then from the joint labours of his predeces. fuggeft an expedient to this purpose, fors, he could of himself alone make which appears equally plausible, and but little progress in the science and feasible to me, and perhaps may do so practice of physick : Wherefore that tə the world.

the venerable names, and useful dir. Place a large machine, something coveries of many of those worthies, ia form of a funnel, at or near the may not be utterly forgot, but be had mouth of the pit, with an aperture in respectul remembrance, we bave of fix feet diameter, or more, as oc

here made a brief collection of several cafon fhall be ; let it converge into of the most noted, and which, I doubt one or two tubes, each of one foot, not, will be agreeable enough to some or nine inches diameter in the clear; of your more curious readers ; to see let these tubes be carried down the thus at once, in one view, such a haft to the bottom of the pit, and number of able authors, and of new thence branched off into other smaller discoveries, the learned subjects of lo tubes, or air-pipes, all along the ca

many volumes. rity of the pit, much in the laine man. Vefalius, and Fallopius, discovered DEF as the air-pipes which feed the the curious fibres of the stomach, and coal-fire furnace do. In these circum- intestines, as their proper organs of fances it is obvious to conceive, that motion. Dr. Jollife the Lymphaif the aperture of the funnel at the ticks, and the motion of the lympth cop is exposed to the wind, there will to the common receptacle. Ailellius be a currency of air.(strong in pro- the lacteals ; and Pacquet the receptaportion to the velocity of the wind) cle of the chyle. Dr. Glysion, and Dr. down the pipes into the cavity of the Wharton, found out the motion of the pit, and that this current will dif- chyle, through two kinds of mefencharge itself at the extremity of these terick glands into the common cystern; pipes : Now is the current inhould do and Dr. Wharton, and Steno, the true cóis (and upon this very supposition use of the glands. Malpighius the my project is founded) and if the ca. cerebral glands, and fibrous compage of #ity of the pit does not communicate the brain, as also the glands of the with any other old work, or pi , then Jiver, spleen, and kidneys; and the the egrets of air muit be by the mouth lobules, and velicles for air in the of the pit, and fo a free circulation lungs. Batholoneus Euftachius the will eorue; and, to favour this egress, urinary ducts of the kidnies, and Dr. à screen of woord, or strong canvas,

de Graaf the seminal vellets of the may be placed on the leeward lide of teftes. lde mouth of the pit,

The Doctors Glynion, Wharton, Whether the above supposition is Ridley, and Willis, nave discovered jaft, or not, I submit to your readers the succus nervolus, and thi lalt of valeat quantum valere poteft. Certain them, its production into the corti. it is, dat in a circulation of this cal glands of the brain. Ductors Grew kind, prodoted by fire, the operation and Malpighi che vefleis of air, sap, is a kind of violence, and not lo easy milk, refine, turpenting, &c. in plants. and natural as it night be by any Dr. Croon discovered the muscles pneumatical machine. There is great called pierigoitaphylinj to belong to room for improvements in pneuma. the palate, and not the uvula, and ticks and mechanicks, and eminent hath very well explained the nacoaveniencies might accrue from thern ture and wfe of the parts of the eas; to the public, the welfare of which as has Sir George Eni difected many has long engaged the favourite paflion animals, and made new discoveries of of your's,

parts not mentioned by other anato. Dorfer, Feb.

CLERICUS.

milts, and more particularly in the 18, 1763.

rana pijcatrix. Drie jner, and Steno, March, 1769.

R

found

130

Discoverers in Medicine and Analomy. March found out the spiral fibres, and many 1550, wrote of the sweating fickness, other ranks, di'pored in great order and died 1570. George Torella, Pope in the heart. Dr. Charlion, and Sir Alexander the 6th's physician, was Thomas Millington, Dr. Lanfon, Dr. one of the firit who wrote on the lues Tyson, with many more of the col- venerea; as Leonicenus, about 1493, lege of physicians at London, have was the very firit who wrote on that been very skillul in anatomical disiec. French pox; and Jacob Carpus was tions of animals, wherein they have the first who raised a salivation by uncJaid open many lecrets of nature; and tion, 1510. there are not wanting several able We are beholden to the judicious gentlemen of the protenon, who are Keill for the glands; to the famous at prevent daily doing the same, which Glyffon, for the liver ; the ingenious good manners allows r.ot to mention. Havers, and Monro, for the bones; Bli to go on with the deceased, who, the sagacious Douglas, and Cooper, on though dead, yet every one by his the muscles. The curious Euftachi. works ftill speaketh, to whom we are us for his delicate cuts of the human beholden for a short way to come at body, and Cheselden for those of the Hieir knowledge, and a quicker me bones. To Fallopius for finding out thod of improving our own.

the ovarian tuhes, called ever since by Basil Valentine, the chemist, dif- his name. And Van Horn, and De covered the fate use of crude antimo- Graaf, for thecvain women; to say no'ny, and the excellent virtues of the thing of Paræos, Paracelsus, Heimont, Time; as did Glauber his purging Mead, Freind, Fernelius, Fracastorius, falt; and Angelus Sala, the iuperior Riolanus, Sennertus, Sydenham, Boyle, benefit of crude tartar as a laxative, Boerhaave, and my late good friend ArIt would be almost endless to reckon buthnot, with several more moit emi. up every article that has been added nent in their profession. I thall only add to the noble Itudy of medicine, and our own iminortal Harvey, physician anatomy, by the many able Itudents, to King Charles the Fırit, who in 1628 and practitioners in these sciences; but discovered the circulation of the blood, for variety, and amusement of the and the ovarian doctrine belides ; curious, we will add as many more as which latt discovery fheus that all 2 ni. we think ma; be admitted in the rea mals, even man himself, proceeds ori. sonable limits of a Magazine: not for. ginally out of an egs, as these few gerring our indufrious Lemery, who lines do both truely and worthily exfound out that even lo lott a substance

press, with which I conclude: was a menftruum capable, * A calmer welcome this cécire in time, tuo disolve filings of Iteel into piece belall,

[duced all; an impaipable powder, by always stand. Which from freth extract hath de. ing in thein. To proceedl, Bauhinus And for beliet, bids it no longer discovered the valve of the colon, or beg,

[an eggi Varolius, as others say. Witzungius That Castor once and Pollux were the duct that leads from the pancreas That both the hen and housewife into the first intestine; as also did are to matcht,

[hatcht; Steno. Ruilch discovered lympha Ti at her son born, is only ber son ucks of the fpleen, boto on its suriace, That when her teeming hopes have and within its substance, as also in the proiperous been, Jungs; as did Bartholine, and Claus Yet to conceive is out to lay within ; Rusbech, likewise Nicholas Hoboken, Experiment, and truih, boih take and our Dr. Needhain, the alantoid thy part, [there's the art. membrane; and our Roger Bacon If thou can't scape the women! was the first introducer bere of che. Live, modern wonder, and be read mistry. Gulielmus de Saliceto in

alone,

[loins have none. 1250, profi für at Verona, was the first Thy brain bath illiue, though thy who prescribed chemical medicines. Let frail fucceflion be the vulgar Guido de Cauliaco reduced the art of

care ;

[heir. Surgery into a system. He was phy. Great genera ion's self is now thy sician to Pope Clernent the 5th, in

M. L. L. M. D. 1353. Caius John, born at Norwicii,

Your's, J. COOK, Ai!uiling 10 tbe great and many disputes, and oppositions, Harony niet zeilb againk bis 0r, covery oj the circuition of the blood at first jetting out.

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1769.
ACCOUNT OF POLAND.

131 fbort Account of Poland. From Dr. kermes-berries proluced in this Smollett's Prelent State of all Na- country are used both in dying and tions.

medicine. THIS large kingdom is bounded The inhabitants consist of nobles, Transylvania, and Hungary ; to the less great privileges, which they enjoy north by Proffia, Livonia, and Ruflia; partly by the indulgence of their kings, to the welt by Silehia, Brandenbourgh, and partly by antient custom and preand Pomerania ; and to the east by fcription. Some of them have the Russia, and Little Tartary. Its ex title of prince, count, or baron, but tent from east to weft is about eight no superiority or pre-eminence on bundred miles, and from north to

that account

over the rest, which is fouth about five hundred and lixty. Only to be obtained by some public It was antiently a part of Sarmatia- polt or dignity. They have the power Europea.

of life and death over their vallals ; The air is cold in the north, but pay no taxes; are subject to none temperate in the other parts of the but the king; have a right to all mines kingdom, both in summer and widter, and salt works on their estates ; to all and the weather in both, more settled offices and employments, civil, mili. than in many other countries. The tary, and ecclefiaftic; cannot be cited face of the kingdom is, for the most or tried out of the kingdom ; may part, level, and the hills but few. The choole whom they will for their Crapack, or Carpathian mountains, king, and lay him under what reseparate it from Hungary on the south. ftraints they please by the Pacta ConThe lui! is very fruitful both in corn venta; and none but they and the and paiturage, hemp and fax. Such burghers of some particulur towns can is the luxuriance of tbe pastures in Po- purchase lan's. In thort, they are aldolia, that it is said one can hardly see inost entirely independent, t'njoying the catde that are grazing in the mea many other privileges and prerogatives dors. Vaft quantities of corn bolides thole we have specified ; but if yearly sent down the Vistula to Dant they engage in trade, they forteit their zic, from all parts of Poland, and nobility. bought up chiefly by the Dutch. The The Polith tongue is a dialect of eastern part of the country is full of the Sciavonic: it is neither copious woods, forests, lakes, marshes, and nor harmonious. Many of the words rivers, of the last of which the most have not a fiagle vowel in tliem; but considerable in Poland are, the Vistula, the High Dutch and Latin are underNieper, Niester, Duna, Bog, Warta, stood and spoken pretty commonly, and Memel. The metals found in tho incorrectly. The language in this kingdom are iron and lead, with Lithuania differs much from that toine tin, gold, and filver; but there of the other provinces. True learnare no mines of the two lait wrought ing and the Itudy of the arts and at present. The other products of sciences have been linie attended to in Poland are, most sorts of precious Poland, till of late they begail to be tones, oker of all kinds, fine rock. regarded with a favourable eye; and ctryftal, Muscovy glass, talc, alum, to be not only patronized, but culti. laltpetre, amber, pit-coal, quick-silver, vated by several of the nobles and fpar, lal gem, lapis calaminaris, and others, both lay men and ecclefiaftics. vitriol. In lesier Poland are salt-mines, There are two archbishops in the which are the chief riches of the kingdom, viz. thole of Gnerna and country, and bring most money into Leopol, and about a dozen bithops. the exchequer. In the woods, which The archbishop of Gnesna is always a conlit molily of oak, beech, pine, cardinal, and prinate of the kingdom, and fir trees, besides the more com- of which, during an interregnung man wild beasts, are elks, wild afles, and in the king's absence he is alío rewild oxen, or uri, lynxes, wild horles, gent. The prevailing religion is Powild theep with one horn, bisons, pery; but there are great numbers of hyænai, wild goats, and buftsloes. In Lutherans, Calvinills, and Greeks, the meadows and fenny ground is ga who are called Disidents, and by the thered : kiod of manna; and the laws of the kingdom were intitled to

toleraiion ;

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132

INSTRUCTIONS March toleration ; but were much opprefied Efq; came foon after, in consequence tilt very lately, that by the powerful of a mesiage for that purpose. Sir Jointercession of the empreísof Rusia, and seph Mawbey defended the propriety the protestant powers, they have ob- and necesity of instructions at this tained a confirmation of all their religi- critical period, in terms that met with ous rights, with additional privileges, the general approbation of the meetunder the guaranty of the said powers. ing, and declared his intention of sup. In consequence, however, of the con porting the conftitutional liberty of federacies that have been formed by this country without place, pension, the mal content party, who opposed or emolument whatever, unawed by the elevation of Count Poniatowski to power, and influenced only, not by the throne, and the resolutions of the men, but measures; and avowed his lalt Diet in regard to the Dillidents, strong attachment to his majesty's perthe kingdom is now a scene of anar- fon and family, and the principles of chy, bloodshed, and confusion. These the glorious revolution. A question calamities are, in a great mealure, was put, and the sense of the company owing to the perfecuting intolerant taken, whether instructions fiould be spirit of the Popim clergy, joined to given ? When there appeared many the bigotry of their blind deluded hundreds for the propolition ; against followers, who plunder and destroy all about a dozen of a contrary opinion. who are not of their party, especially The following inttructions were afthe Dissidents. These confederaies have terwards twice read, and almoit unaalso prevailed upon the Turks to declare nim.ously agreed to : war against the Russians; so that there is no likelyhood that the troubles and ca- To Sir Joreph Mawber, Bart. an. lami'ies of this unhappy kingdom wild

Henry Thrale, Ejg; Reprefenatives foon be at an end. The Jews are in in Parliament for ibe Boroug bof Southdulged with great privileges, and are

wark. very numerous in Poland, and in Li “We, the electors of the borough thuania, it is said, there are a multi. of Southwark, this day assembled in tude of Mahometan Tartars. We the Town-hall, think ourselves indismay judge of the numbers of Jews in pensibly obliged by the duty and loythis country by the produce of their alty we owe to the beit of kings, as annual poll tax, which amounts to well as by our love for the conftitu. near fifty-seven thousand rixdollars. tion, to exercise, at this time of pati.

There are few or no manufactures onal discontent and danger, our unin the kingdom, if we except some doubted right to intruct you, our relinen and woollen cloths and hard. presentatives in parliament: And we wares; and the whole trade is con do therefore earnestly reconimend to fined to the city of Dantzic, and you, the other towns on the Vistula or 1. That you endeavour to continue Baltic.

to us, and to confirm our old condi. The gold ducat of Poland is tutional rights of juries, to the exclu. worth about

4 3 fion of all proceedings by information, The old silver dollar of Dantzic Ő attachmeni, and interrogatories. The old rixdoilar Of Thorn

5 2. That you carefully watch over The rixdollar of Sigilmund III. that great bulwark of our liberties,

and Uladillaus IV. kings of the Habeas Corpus act; and that you Poland

4 6 enquire into, and punith, any attempt

that may have beou made to evade the N March was held, at the force of the law.

3. That you preserve inviolate the most numerous and most respectable privileges of parliament, as well as the meeting of the electors of that bo- rights of the electors; and for that rough, that was ever known in the purpose, that you use your utmoft enmemory of man; Edward Stevens,

deavours to prevent the expulsion of Efq; by general consent, was 3ppoini any man, that shall appear to you so ed chairman. Sir Joseph Mawbey, have been elected by a majority of lebart. one of the members, attended, gal votes. and the other member, llenry Tbrale, 4. That you encourage applications

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1769: Of the Borougb of Southwark.

133 for redress of the grievances of the sube and for preventing the peers of Great ject, by promoting a strict enquiry into Britain from interfering in the elecevery illegality committed against tions for members of parliament. any petitioner that may appeal to par 11. That you endeavour to quiet liament ; and that you oppose the fe- the apprehensions of the public, arisle&ing such parts only for proof, as ing from the idea of an intended exmay iend, not to relieve, but to cri- ertion of the obsolete claims of the minate the petitioner.

crown, by supporting a bill for fe. 5. That you promote such mea- curing the possessions of the subjects. fures, as may have a tendency to se. 12. That you use your utmost en. cure every British subject the full deavours to obtain an act to shorten and entire possession of every liberty the duration of parliaments, as one of derived to him from the principles of the best and most likely methods of our excellent constitution.

putting a stop to the bribery and cor. 6. That as the trade and commerce to ruption so universally complained of. our American possessions is of the ut.

March 1.

EDWARD STEVENS, molt importance to the manufacturers

Chairman." of Great Britain, you use your ut. After this a motion was made, semoft endeavours to reconcile the un- conded, and unanimously agreed to, bappy differences subfifting betwixt That the thanks of this meeting be the mother country and the colonies, given to Sir Joseph Mawbey, bart. to the total exclusion of the manufac- for his spirited and unbiased conduct tures of other nations.

in parliament, and for his services to 7. That you strictly enquire into this borough.' the use which has lately been made Mr. Thrale afterwards addresied the of the military power ; and particu- company, asserted the integrity and larly, whether many innocent lives the purity of his intentions and conwere not taken away, and much blood duct, and promised the utmost impar{pilt, by the soldiery, in the most in. tiality and disinterestedness in his bebuman and wanton manner, in St. haviour in discharge of his duty in parGeorge's Fields, within this borough, liament; and the thanks of the comin tbe month of May lait ; and to re- pany, after some oppofition, were move every pretence for calling in a given him for the declaration then military force: that you endeavour to made by him.-The thanks of the put the civil magistracy on a more re- meeting were then given to Edward spectable footing, by restoring the of. Stevens, Esq; for his great candour fice of constable, or conservator of and impartiality in the chair; and et the peace, to its ancient power and company separated in the greatest authoriry.

good humour and teinper. &. That you use your best endeaFours for having a standing commit. Tbe Case of Mr. John Adams, lumbly tee appointed for the regular exami

submitted to the Confideration of nation of the public accompts.

the independent Freeholders of Mida 9. A requisition baving been laid dlesex, at this critical Period. before parliament for payment of the OHN ADAMS, Esq; a member of civil lix debts, tbx¢ you enquire how the House of Alembly in the island those debts have been incurred; and of Barbadoes, in the year 1762, had if any of theia suuld appear to be armed his Naves to oppose the sheriff in oring to the creation of new and un the execution of his duty. This act cellary places, the augmentation of was attended with flagrant circum. the salaries of old ones, the defence of Atances. He was prosecuted, convier. illegal attacks on the liberties of the ed, fined, and imprisoned. The subje&, or the grant of pensions to the house thought Mr. Adans unworthy members of both, or either House of of holding a seat in it; and a motion Parliameni, that you oppose the giv being made to expel him, lie was ex. ing of public monies for such pur. pelled accordingly. A wrie was istued poses.

for the election of a representative for 19. That you promote a bill for the parish of Christ Church, which limiting the number of placemen and Mr. Adams had represented. Tire penGoners in the House of Commons, electors taid, the crime or crimes for 3

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