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To the Same. , DEAR SIR, Passy, March 29, 1780. IT is some time since I have written to you, having nothing material to communicate : but I received duly your several letters of Feb. 1, 18, 25; March 2, 11, 13, 17, and 23, and thank you for the intelligence they contain. The last this minute come to hand, and I shall answer it separately. I pray you to assure M F L X O P B N L Z P A A P C of my respect, and that it was only on one packet for him that I put my name, when I thought to have sent it by a friend. The baseness of the post-office in opening it, surprises me. No other letter for him has since past through my hands. If any others come to me for him, I shall send them under cover to you. The suite you mentioned is not a North American, but a West Indian; i.e. a native of one of the English sugar islands. 17 is not 21 of 196. X. P. acts only for 824 Ca. I forwarded your letter to captain Jones. I do not know which of his English pilots it was that is mentioned in yours to the 647. I know he has been generous to an excess with them. Explain to me, if you please, the fact that is the subject of that letter, and who Mr. Gordon is. I am curious to know what the States will do about the confiscation of the goods taken in Byland's convoy. I received your large packets. That for captain Jones shall be carefully sent him. I thank you for the philosophical pieces, which I will read attentively as soon as I have a little time. The original acts of confederation are very curious, and will be acceptable to congress. Please to present my thanks to Mr. Enschédé for his curious specimen of characters; and request him to send me the price of the following articles by the pound weight, and what is the proportion between the Holland and the English pound weight. Nonparel (Fr. Mignonne) Romein and Curef. Caractere de Finance. Debbelde Descendiaan Geschreeven Schrift. Debbelde Gamond Geschreeven Schrift. Descendiaan Duits, No. I.

Garmont Duits.-Brevier Duits.

To the Same.

Passy, March 29, 1780. DEAR SIR,

I DID receive the letter you mentioned to have enclosed for Mr. Carmichael, in yours of the 25th February. I had before received a letter from him dated at Cadiz, acquainting me that he was just setting out for Madrid, and desiring I would send him a credit there for 200 louis. Mr. F. Grande our banker here, had undertaken to do this with his correspondent, a banker there. I not knowing how to address your letter to Mr. Carmichael at Madrid; sent it to Mr. Grand's to be put under his cover to his banker, who might deliver it to Mr. Carmichael, as he would necessarily find out his lodging to acquaint him with the credit. The day after Sir George Grand was gone for Holland his brother came to me, and expressing a great deal of concern and vexation, told me, that Sir George seeing that letter on his desk, said this superscription is M. Dumas's handwriting ; and some time afterwards came to him with the letter in his hand open, saying, this letter is full of ingratitude, (or some words to that purpose) and I will carry it to Holland and show it to the ambassador; and that he had accordingly carried it away with him, notwithstanding all that was or could be said to the contrary. That it gave him infinite pain to acquaint me with this action of his brother, but he thought it right I should know the truth. I did not mention this to you before, hoping that upon reflection, Sir George would not shew the letter to the ambassador, but seal it up again and send it forward ; and I was desirous to avoid increasing the misunderstanding between you and Sir G. But as I understood by yours to M. Boudoin, that he has actually done it, I see no reason to keep it longer a secret from you.-If I had known it to be a letter of consequence, I should nevertheless have taken the same me. thod of forwarding it, not having the least suspicion that any person in that house would have taken so unwarrantable aliberty with it. But I am now exceedingly sorry that I did not rather send it to the Spanish ambassador’s. Let me

know in your next what you may think proper to communicate to me of the contents of it. I am, with great regard, dear Sir, &c. B. FRANKLIN.

w Passy, March 30, 1780. DEAR SIR, I WROTE to you yesterday, relating to the affair of your letter to Mr. Carmichael, that you might know exactly the truth of the transaction. On reflection I think it proper to add, that what I wrote was for your satisfaction only; and that as the making it public would give infinite pain to a very worthy man, Mr. F. Grand who would then appear in the light of délateur de son frère; and it can serve no other purpose but that of vengeance on Sir George, and be of no advantage to you, I must insist on your generosity in keeping it a secret to yourself—In this you will also very much oblige me, who would by no means have my name publicly mentioned on this occasion; and I depend on your compliance.

With great esteem, &c.

Passy, April 23, 1780. DEAR SIR,

I AM much pleased with the account you give me of the disposition with which the proposals from the empress of Russia have been received, and desire to be informed, from time to time, of the progress of that interesting busi116 SS,

I shall be glad to hear of your reconciliation with the ambassador because a continuance of your difference will be extremely inconvenient. Permit me to tell you frankly, what I formerly hinted to you, that I apprehend you suffer yourself too easily to be led into personal prejudices by interested people, who would engross all our confidence to themselves. From this source have arisen, I imagine, the charges and suspicions you have insinuated to me against

several who have always declared a friendship for us, in Holland. It is right that you should have an opportunity of giving the carte du pais to Mr. Laurens, when he arrives in Holland. But if, in order to serve your particular friends, you fill his head with these prejudices, you will hurt him and them, and perhaps yourself. There does not appear to me the least probability, in your supposition, that the ambassador is an enemy to America. Here has been with me a gentleman from Holland, who was charged, as he said, with a verbal commission from divers cities, to enquire whether it was true that Amsterdam had, as they heard, made a treaty of commerce with the United States, and to express, in that case, their willingness to enter into a similar treaty. Do you know anything of this? What is become, or likely to become, of the plan of a treaty, formerly under consideration? By a letter from Middlebourg, to which the enclosed is an answer, a cargo seized and sent to America, as English property, is reclaimed, partly on the supposition that free ships make free goods. They ought to do so between England and Holland, because there is a treaty which stipulates it; but there being yet no treaty between Holland and America to that purpose, I apprehend that the goods being declared by the captain to be English, a neutral ship will not protect them, the law of nations governing in this case, as it did before the treaty above mentioned. Tell me if you please your opinion. I am ever, dear Sir, &c. B. FRANKLIN.

Mr. Adams, to M. Dumas. Paris, Hotel de Valois, Rue de Richelieu, May 21, 1780. SIR, HIS Excellency Dr. Franklin lent me the enclosed letter from sir Henry Clinton to lord George Germaine, upon condition, that I would send a copy of it to you.-A privateer from Boston, had the good fortune to take the packet, bound to London, and the mails, in which, among others, this letter was found. It was sent from Boston to Philadelphia, and there published in a newspaper of the 8th of April. One of these papers arrived, within a few days, at L'Orient, in a vessel from Philadelphia. It is a pity but it should be published in every newspaper in the world, in an opposite column to a late speech of lord George Germaine in the house of commons, as his document in support of his assertions. I have the honor to be, with great respect, &c. JOHN ADAMS.

To M. Dumas.

Passy, june 5, 1780. DEAR SIR,

THE gentleman whose name you wished to know, in one of your late letters, is M. Westhuysen, €chévin et conseiller de la Ville de Harlem. I shall probably send an order to that place for some of the types, of which you have sent me the prices, before I leave Europe. I think them very good and not dear. -

A Dutch ship belonging to Messrs. Little, Dale, and Co. of Rotterdam, being brought into France as having an English cargo on board, I have followed your opinion with regard to the condemnation of the cargo, which I think the more right, as the English have in the West Indies confiscated several of our cargoes found in Dutch ships. But to shew respect to the declaration of the empress of Russia, I have written to the owners of our privateers, a letter of which I enclose a copy, together with a copy of the judgment, for your use, if you hear of any complaint. I approve much of the principles of the confederacy of the neutral powers, and am not only for respecting the ships as the house of a friend, though containing the goods of an enemy, but I even wish for the sake of humanity, that the law of nations may be farther improved, by determining that even in time of war, all those kinds of people who are employed in procuring subsistence for the species, or in exchanging the necessaries or conveniences of life, which is for the common benefit of mankind; such as husbandmen on their lands, fishermen in their barques, and traders in unarmed vessels, shall be permitted to prosecute their se

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