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Journal of the OUTDOOR LIFE

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To make the meaning of the double-barred busy surveying and outlining plans to be put tuberculosis cross known to nearly forty into execution by provincial committees ormillion people is a task of no small magni- ganized for the purpose. These committees tude, as years of anti-tuberculosis work in were composed entirely of Italian personnel America have proved. But to make its mean- but were assisted by the staff of the Tubering clear to a people, largely composed of the culosis Unit. First application of the final peasant class, a people just emerging from a working plan was undertaken simultaneously desperate participation in the world war is a in the province of Liguria, with headquarters problem even more bewildering in magnitude in Genoa; in Umbria, with headquarters in and one bristling with difficulties.

Perugia; Sardegna, with headquarters in SasThat, however, was the task which con- sari, and in Sicily with headquarters in fronted the American Red Cross Tuberculosis Palermo. To acquaint the people with the Unit to Italy when, in October, 1918, it under- undertaking and to arouse them to united took the launching of an educational program cooperation an intensive educational program for the prevention of tuberculosis in the latter was launched. Posters, pamphlets, folders and country in cooperation with Italian authorities. newspaper publicity were used to supplement

The Commission _headed by Dr. William the efforts of lecturers and the use of AmerCharles White, of Pittsburgh and Dr. R. H. ican motion pictures dealing with health subBishop, Jr., of Cleveland, was not the first jects. These last were exhibited by means of to introduce the tuberculosis cross to Italy. portable projection machines operated on the It had been used for some years by several roofs of motor-truck dispensaries, ten of Italian organizations interested, in some de- which completely equipped, had been taken gree, in anti-tuberculosis work and to some to Italy by the Unit. Almost a million pieces extent by the Italian Red Cross. As a symbol, of printed matter were prepared. however, it was known only to the compara- To herald the Italian committees operating tively small group of workers actively engaged under the guidance of the American health in caring for and attempting to cure those experts an official or symbolical poster was actually suffering from the disease. It did first prepared from a painting by Professor not shine before the masses as a sign of pre- Emilio Lazzaro, a Roman artist of note. This vention. In other words it had not been poster, printed on opposite page, was lithopopularized. This the American Unit under- graphed in eight colors. The figure used is a took to do.

reproduction of the bronze statue of the Entering Italy during what proved to be archangel Michael which crowns the Castle the last few weeks of the war and at a time of St. Angelo in Rome. A legend concerning when the general commission of the American this angel figure is as follows: Red Cross in Italy was already beginning to “In the year 590, while a votive procession curtail its work, the Tuberculosis Unit had for the staying of a great plague then sweepto undertake to set in motion within a few ing Italy was being led by Pope Gregory the months' time a popular public health cam- Great, across the Aelian bridge which spans paign which, it is hoped, will develop into a the Tiber in front of the Castle, the archpermanent national movement.

angel Michael was seen hovering on the sumIn the weeks immediately, preceding and mit of Hadrian's tomb. The angel was in the following the armistice, field workers were act of returning his sword to the scabbard

a sign that the heavenly wrath was appeased. * Mr. Halliday served as director of Publicity with the American Red Cross Tuberculosis Unit in Italy.

Soon after this the plague miraculously -THE EDITOR.



WITH THESE WEAPONS WE CONQUER! An educational poster, in four colors, appealing to the Italian people's appreciation of the dramatic. Designed and distributed by the American Red Cross

Tuberculosis Unit in Italy.

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MORE DANGEROUS THAN ENEMY AEROPLANES! An anti-fly poster, in two colors, which takes advantage of war terrors to drive home the truth about the disease-bearing fly. Designed and distributed by the

American Red Cross Tuberculosis Unit in Italy.

This legend is known the length and breadth of Italy. Even to those who cannot read, the angel figure stands for the stopping of the plague. For these reasons, as well as for its artistic merit, the figure was chosen to represent and interpret the meaning of the tuberculosis cross as used in the program for the control of Italy's modern day plaguetuberculosis. On the poster the figure is silhouetted against a brilliant, yellow sky with swirling clouds, which gives a wonderfully effective feeling of sunshine and fresh air. Across the top of the poster is the declaration, “In Hygiene is Victory." The line across the bottom calls for “War on Tuberculosis.” On the first printing two hundred thousand copies of this poster, in various sizes, were struck off for distribution. The Italian government cooperated in this distribution through its Bureau of Internal Propaganda. The Italian people as a

race relish the dramatic and this trend of mind was catered to in the educational poster, reproduced on page 162, a lithograph in four colors. In it tuberculosis is represented by a figure of death, broken sword in hand. It has been beaten back by the combined onslaught of swords representing "Fresh Air," "Sunlight,” "Rest,” “Temperance," "Good Food," "Cleanliness," "Perseverance,” and “Hygiene.” Across the bottom one reads the declaration, “With These Weapons We Conquer Tuberculosis."

The picture dramatizes the fight against the disease and with the aid of a very few words conveys all the fundamental principles of prevention.

The anti-fly poster, reproduced on page 163, was designed to take advantage of the impressions left by the terrors of war. In it the fly is represented as an aeroplane driven by death. From it drop germ-filled bombs which upon bursting, scatter disease among the people.

Other types of posters also were used to emphasize the pleasanter side of health. One reproduced in ten colors shows a mother and her children silhouetted against an open window through which one glimpses a bit of picturesque Italian landscape flooded in brilliant sunshine. This bears the proverb, (popular in Italy although rarely put into practice), which reads, "where sunshine and fresh air enter the doctor does not."

In so far as the program of the American Red Cross Tuberculosis Unit to Italy has progressed to date the types of posters used seem to be accomplishing their purpose. Posted in the public square of small towns as well as on the walls of cities as busy as Genoa, they caught the eye and held the attention of a people who have shunned the disease for ages more from superstitious fear than from any knowledge of the scientific facts concerning it.


He would very often choose to get filled right

up with booze And he made the doctors wish he'd never

come, He would stay out half the night, and, get

mixed up in a fight, And that sort of thing puts lungers on the


Here's the tale of Lanky Joe, who, a month

or two ago, Put his dunnage in his grip and went away, And I hate to have to tell, it was maybe just

as well, For, he wasted every moment of his stay. He came in among the first but he wasn't quite

the worst And it seemed as if his chance to win was

good, And he stuck around a year, tho' I very greatly

fear, That he didn't "take the cure," the way

he should. When he didn't get ahead, after many months

in bed, He insisted, that “the doctors didn't know,” And he said that he was sure just a model on

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the cure,

Lanky Joe has only got himself to blame. Now, it really seems to me, (and I think that

you'll agree), That a fool will find a weaker one to lure; So we really couldn't grieve, when the young

ster took his leave, For he kept so many others from the cure.

But that's one remark of his that wasn't so. For he loved to run around, tho' he mostly

always found That his coughing would not stop, or temp.

come down And at night when all was still, he'd crawl o'er

the window sill, And quite foolishly go sneaking off to town.

From "Lines of a Lunger," a pamphlet prepared for distribution to Canadian tuberculous soldiers by Sgt. W. M. Mounfield, Hamilton, Canada.

Yet, I often wonder how Joe is getting on

just now, And my heart goes out to him where'er he

be; For the Sermon of the San is the Brotherhood

of Man, And we pray for foolish lungers such as he. From a physical point of view the animal body is a mechanism of extreme complexity yet exquisitely adjusted for the performance of certain functions. Several--one or twoof these functions are elementary and fundamental: indeed, it has been patly said that in the scheme of nature the basic and primal business of an animal is “to get and beget." Like all other things in the universe animals also have their place. Exactly what may be the place or the purpose of man or any other animal species we must leave to the philosophers to dispute. But over and above all controversy one fact stands out. This is, that whatever may be our ideas of first causes, whatever may be the interpretation that anyone of us puts upon the riddle of creation, the cycle of life is uninterruptedly maintained in the animal kingdom by and through the act of the individual yet by and through no design on the part of the individual. Thoroughly conscious of a relatively few exceptions to this rule, all of which occur among the human species, we would nevertheless lay it down as a general proposition.





EDITORIAL NOTE At the close of the May essay, Dr. Krause announced his intention of making Koch's observations on tuberculous reinfection of the guinea pig the theme of the present essay. Upon further reflection it has seemed best to him to lead up to this discussion by a presentation of some fundamental data that pertain to our concept of resistance,-data which apply directly to an interpretation of the "Koch phenomenonand which may contribute to a better appreciation of its significance. This phase of the subject will be developed through the next two or three essays of the series.

When it comes to breaking the threads of the continuity and perpetuity of their own species volitionally, man in general and every animal are helpless. In the plan of the universe the individual may "bulk" large or he may shrink to insignificance. Again we shall leave the matter of his relative size to the theologians and philosophers. Yet no matter what dimensions they shall finally hit upon as fitting the individual, we can at once proceed and safely affirm that these measurements must be vastly smaller than those that bound the individual's species. This reflection must surely be platitudinous, yet it allows us a peep into the universal plan. It teaches anew

what has so often been said, namely, that Nature is comparatively "careless of the individual.” To the point of every expense to the latter it lays insistence on a perpetuation of life-a burden that at his inception the individual was mercifully spared in the sense of exhibiting immortality in his own person; and it does this by endowing the animal with the power of reproduction. To make certain that this capacity will be exercised nature makes it instinctive in the individual. More as we proceed higher in the animal scale we find that it has become appetitive until at the apex, in man, it makes up a remarkably large part of emotional or passional life. As we go into the matter further and further, as we proceed upwards from the amoeba and paramoecium to man, we are continually struck by the fact that checks and balances to the fulfilment of reproduction are continually being met by an intensification of the springs of action.

To reproduce, therefore, to beget, must surely be an animal's primal, basic and highest function. But between the birth of an animal and the time that it is capable of transmitting the spark of life there is in most cases a longer or shorter interval. During this period it cannot support its existence on materials that were stored up in its tissues at its birth. It maintains the integrity of its tissues and provides for their growth and orderly development only by the ingestion of proper foodstuffs. This necessity at once demands that the individual's first duty is to acquire to itself everything that may be requisite to its physical upkeep. Thus comes into being the fundamental function of "getting.” To get becomes as imperious and as much bevond the individual's volition as to

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