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In the same issue of the Scotsman in which the last of these letters was published, the following telegram, dated New York, August 29th, appeared :—
The Fenian Conspirators.
Perhaps no one is better c nullified to speak for the Irish Nationalists than William Carroll. The Philadelphia Pratt to-day prints a long report of an interview with him. He says the organisation which recently sat in Convention at Chicago regards the use of dynamite with contempt and distrust. The Irish Nationalist party is certainly revolutionary in its objects and methods, but it will not sacrifice innocent human life if it can possibly perceive any other method of achieving its purpose. Nothing less than the complete independence of Ireland will content them. Their present efforts are devoted to preparation and patient waiting for England's next war.
From an account in the World, of 31st August, of an interview by one of their correspondents with the arch-Fenian, we extract the following answer by O'Dunovan Rossa :—
You were asking me about that Skirmishing Fund a while ago. Pat (Crowe) knows what he is saying. I transferred the whole thing in 1S77 to the Irish National Revolutionary Committee. Pat says that Ford, proprietor of the Irish World, used 20,000 dollars out of the 90,000 collected, on his paper; that Dr Caroll, of Philadelphia, got 7000, on his personal note, for his own uses; that 2000 were handed to Murdoch, who agitated in this country with Parnell for the purposes of founding a paper in the North of Ireland (Scotland?) ; that 5000 dollars went to Michael Davitt to start the Land League; and that 20,000 dollars went to John Holland for his torpedo.
In an advertisement inserted in the American papers last spring intimating Mr Murdoch's Lectures, wo were told "For vacant dates, address "Dr William Carroll, G17 South ICth Street, Philadelphia, Pa." Further comment to show the connection of partios with each other and with the Skirmishing Fund would be a wasto of space.
THE SCOTTISH THISTLE—This ancient emblem of Scots pugnacity, with its motto, "Nemo me irnpunc lacessit," is represented on various species of royal bearings, coins, and coats of armour, so that there is some difficulty in saying which is tho genuine original thistle. The origin of tho national badge itself is thus handed down by tradition :— When the Danes invaded Scotland, it was deemed unwarlike to attack an enemy in the pitch darkness of night, instead of a pitched battle by day; but on one occasion the invaders resolved to avail themselves of this stratagem ; and in order to prevent their tramp from being heard they inarched bare-footed. They had thus neared tho .Scottish force unobserved, when a Dane unluckily stepped with his naked fuot upon a superb, prickly thistle, and instinctively uttered a cry of pain, which discovered tho assault to the Scots, who ran to their arms, and defeated the foe with a terrible slaughter. The thistle was immediately adopted as the insignia of Scotland.
foresters in a wood, having a horse and cart evidently for removing the large trees which they had cut down with their saw, and were busy crosscutting to make them portable. But our Sheriil' summarily dismissed the case, on the ground that as there was no wood on the cart it was not clear they meant to steal it! And when our foresters detected a man cutting down branches and young trees, both the Fiscal and the Lord-Advocate refused to prosecute, saying "the value of the wood was so trilling!" I could fill a volume with somewhat similar cases constantly brought before me as Factor or as Justice of the Peace, and our keepers, getting such law, for watching the woods and g.ime, it is no wonder if one of them thought he had better either keep in his bed at night or take the law into his own hands, under the idea of "Home Eule" being desirable in this lawless land. So, a wood fancier soon summoned him before the same Sheriff for assault—and without any witness or visible mark of bodily hurt on the complainant, our forester was sent off to jail.
Now, can landlords be justly called cruel for evicting people, who keep him in such constant irritation and heavy yearly expenses, quite needless but for the people's dishonesty? The simple, but concealed, truth being that our cottars and crofters have all along been busy evicting themselves, and the reason why Clearances were all but unknown of old is that, even when I was young, game was of no value worth mentioning; no one cared much about the marches of estates or fences, and when cattle allowed trees to grow here and there, there were neither foresters nor gamekeepers employed, as now, lookingafter thieves. Further, the PoorLtw of 1845 quickly extinguished the landlord's remaining sympathy with his small people, alarmed as he was by the unexpsetcd heavy burden of poor rates which, previously, were all but entirely borne by the poor themselves. I knew a proprietor who, before 1845, used to hand .£5 to his parish minister as his yearly contribution for the poor, and since then I have known his yearly poor rates to be close on £500. Such a change awoke many to the apparent duty of expelling from the parish every family not absolutely needed to cultivate the large farms.
Lastly, I would notice tho heart-hardening separation between Highland landlords and tenants, caused by almost every proprietor having now dosortod the national Church. When I was young almost every landlord and landlady in the north resided all the year round at home among their people, and, attending the parish church regularly, met there, after service, with all their great and small friends, with such handshaking and health enquiries as drew all hearts together, and bettered every one concerned. But now a landlord or landlady who, in the north, thus meets their people in and after church would be quite a surprise—a sad loss to high and low, without any visible gain to either—and thus, the natural, feudal, proper attachment of the people to their proprietors has been all but entirely destroyed.
In a future number of your Magazine I propose, if you will allow me, to show that the so-called discomfort and poverty of our crofters has little or no connection with our Iligliland soil or climate.
JOHN MACKENZIE, M.D. Eileanach, Inverness, Sept. 5tb, 1881.
HISTOKY OF THE MACDONALD S.
THE FAMILY OF CLANEANALD.
XXII. Donald Macdonald, third of Benbecula, fourteenth of Clanranald, Tutor of Allan, the hero of Killiecrankie and Sheriffmuir. We have already noticed the prominent share which he took in the militaryannals of the nation during the wars of Dundee. After Killiecrankie he returned to his Island home in Benbecula, and took no part in the rebellion of 1715. Donald, eleventh of Clanranald, had granted him a charter of nova-damus of all his lands, dated 16th of March 1680. A considerable sura of money was lodged with Alexander Mackenzie, Principal Clerk of Session, Edinburgh, with the view of procuring a pardon for Eanald, the late chief, and purchasing and conveying the estates to him. This money was obtained by Mrs Penelope Macdonald, widow of Allan, killed at Sheriffmuir, whose attachment to the clan and fond recollection of her distinguished husband cannot be better expressed than in the words of the disposition by which Mr Mackenzie afterwards conveyed the estates to Donald by her instructions. After narrating the debts, the document proceeds :—" Seeing it was at the earnest desire and request of Mrs Penelope Mackenzie, dowager of the deceased Allan Macdonald of Moydart, Captain of Clinranald, that I did purchase the several debts abovenarrated, affecting the estate of Moydart, and thereupon obtained a decree and charter of adjudication in my favour; and that it hath all along been in her view, as it was still her constant care, from the tender regard which she bore to the memory of her said deceased husband, to have the estate of Moydart settled upon, and conveyed to the said Donald, elder of Benbecula, who (by the failure of the said Allan Macdonald, and of Eanald Macdonald, late of Moydart, both now deceased, without heirs-male lawfully procreate of their, or either of their bodies) is now the nearest and lawful heir-male of tho family of Moydart, and the undoubted Chief and Captain of Clanranald." For these reasons Mr Mackenzie, by this disposition, conveyed over the whole estates to Donald in life-rent; after hini to Eanald, his son, in life-rent; and thereafter, in fee, to Eanald, grandson of Donald, who afterwards succeeded, in due course, as fifteenth Chief of tho family, and who became so well known, during his father's life-time, in connection with Prince Charley Flora Macdonald, and the Bebellion of 1745. Tho disposition is dated 5th of December 172G, and infeftmont followed thereon on 28th of September, and 7th,'13th, 17th, 18th, and 19th of October 1727.
Donald married, first, Margaret, eldest and only surviving daughter of Donald, eleventh, and sister of Allan and Eanald, respectively twelfth and thirteenth of Clanranald; and by this marriage he became heir to his brother-in-law, through his wife, as well as heir-male of the family, on the death of Allan, twelfth chief, in 1725. By this lady he had an only son—
1. Eanald, his heir.
He married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of George Mackenzie of Kildun, by whom he had—
2. Alexander, who obtained the estate and became progenitor of tho Macdonalds of Boisdale, which see.
3. Ann, who married John, second son of Lachlan Mackinnon of Strathardale.
Ho died in 1730, and was succeeded by his son,
XXIII. Ranald Macdonald, fifteenth of Clanranald, who, born in 1692, was then in the 39th year of his age. He refused to take any part in the Rebellion of 1745, though earnestly pressed to do so by Prince Charles, who called upon him immediately on his first arrival in the Long Island. He, however, offered no resistance to his son to join in that unfortunate enterprise; indeed, once the Prince did embark he extended to him every support and encouragement in his power. The particulars of his life are so well known to tho reader of the papers on Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles, which have recently passed through these pages from the pen of the Rev. Alexander Macgregor, that it would be quite superfluous to go into lengthy details here, but we may quote Home's interesting account of the arrival of the Prince in South Uist, his visit to, and reception by, Clanranald. After describing the voyage and arrival of the Doutelle with his Royal Highness ou board, Home proceeds to say that "she came to an anchor between South Uist and Eriska, which is the largest of a cluster of small rocky islands that lie off South Uist. Charles immediately went ashore on Eriska. His attendants giving out that he was a young Irish priest, conducted him to the house of the tacksman, who rented all the small island; of him tlioy learned that Clanranald, and his brother Boisdale, were upon tho Island of South Uist; that young Clanranald was at Moydart, upon the mainland A messenger was immediately despatched to Boisdale, who is said to have had great influence with his brother. Charles staid all night on the Island of Eriska, and in the morning returned to his ship. Boisdale came aboard soon after. Charles proposed that he should go with him to the mainland; assist in engaging his nephew to take arms, and then go as his ambassador to Sir Alexander Macdonald and Macleod. To every one of these proposals Boisdale gave a flat negative, declaring that he would do his utmost to prevent his brother and his nephew from engaging in so desperate an enterprise, assuring Charles that it was needless to send anybody to Skye; for that he had seen Sir Alexander Macdonald and Macleod very lately, and was desired by them to acquaint him (if he should come to South Uist, on his way to tho Highlands), that they were determined not to join him, unless he brought over with him a body of regular troops. Charles replied in the bast manner he could, and, ordering tho ship to be unmoored, carried Boisdale (whose boat hung at the stern) several miles outward to the mainland, pressing him to relent, and give a bettor answer. Boisdale was inexorable, and, getting into his boat, left Charles to pursue his course, which he did, directly for the coast of Scotland, and, coming to an anchor in tho bay of Loclmanuagh, between Moydart and Arasaig, sent a boat ashore with a letter to young Clanranald."* Ranald married Margaret, daughter of William Macleod of Bcrnera, by whom he had issue—
* History of the Rebellion.
1. Itanald, his heir.
2. Donald, an officer in the British army, who greatly distinguished himself, and was killed with General Wolf before Quebec in 1760.
3. Margaret, who died unmarried. He was succeeded by his eldest son,
XXIV. Ranald Macdonald, sixteenth of Clanranald, who was, with Macdonald of Kinlochmoidart, and his brother, and young Glenaladale, the first to join the Prince in 1745. We cannot do better than continue the account from Home of how young Clanranald finally consented to join His Royal Highness. Continuing the previous quotation, he proceeds— "In a very little time, Clanranald, with his relative Kinlochmoidart, came aboard the Doutelle. Charles, almost reduced to despair in his interview with Boisdale, addressed the two Highlanders with great emotion, and, summing his arguments for taking arms, conjured them to assist their Prince, their countryman, in his utmost need. Clanranald and his friend, though well-inclined to the cause, positively refused, and told him (one after the other) that to take arms without concert or support, was to pull down certain destruction on their own heads. Charles persisted, argued, and implored. During this conversation, the parties walked backwards and forwards upon the duck; a Highlander stood near them, armed at all points, as was the fashion of his country. He was a younger brother of Kinlochmoidart, and had come off to the ship to inquire for news, not knowing who was on board. When he gathered from their discourse that the stranger was the Prince of Wales; when he heard his chief and his brother refuse to take arms with their Prince, his colour went and came, his eyes sparkled, he shifted his place, and grasped his sword. Charles observed his demeanour, and, turning briskly towards him, called out, 'Will not you assist me!' 'I will, I will,' said Ranald, 'though no other man in the Highlands should draw a sword; I am ready to die for you.' Charles, with a profusion of thanks and acknowledgments, extolled his champion to the skies, saying he only wished that all the Highlanders were like him." Without further deliberation the two Macdonalds declared that they also would join, and use their utmost endeavours to engage their countrymen to take arms. Immediately Charles, with his company, went ashore, and was conducted to Borrodale, a farm which belonged to the estate of Clanranald. Having once decided to join he proceeded at once to raise his vassals and command those of Arasaig and Moydart to attend him, and bring their arms. These amounted to about 250 men. A list of their names and arms is still preserved.* The standard being, a few days after, raised at Glenfinnan, they proceeded to Perth, from whence Clanranald, at the head of 500 men, was despatched to Dundee, where he arrived on the 7th of September, and next day, Sunday, the 8th, proclaimed James VIII. as King. He then threw open the prison, took possession of all the public arms and ammunition he could find, and allowed all the prisoners their liberty. On the following day he searched several private houses for arms, and in all cases where ho found any, he took possession and gave a receipt for them. On the 10th, by special command, he returned and joined the Prince at Perth. From that day he took a distinguished part, at the head of his men, in all the
* Printed in the Appendix to the Clanranald Family History.